• Title, Summary, Keyword: anti-tumor

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Induction of Apoptosis and G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest by Cordycepin in Human Prostate Carcinoma LNCap Cells (Cordycepin에 의한 LNCap 인체 전립선 암세포의 apoptosis 및 G2/M arrest 유발)

  • Lee, Hye Hyeon;Hwang, Won Deok;Jeong, Jin-Woo;Park, Cheol;Han, Min Ho;Hong, Su Hyun;Jeong, Yong Kee;Choi, Yung Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.92-97
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    • 2014
  • Cordycepin, an active component originally isolated from the traditional medicine Cordyceps militaris, is a derivative of the nucleoside adenosine, which has been shown to possess a number of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, immunological stimulation, and antitumor effects. This study was conducted on cultured human prostate carcinoma LNCap cells to elucidate the possible mechanisms by which cordycepin exerts its anticancer activity, which, until now, has remained poorly understood. Cordycepin treatment of LNCap cells resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth and the induction of apoptotic cell death as detected by an MTT assay, cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase, and annexin V-FITC staining. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that cordycepin resulted in G2/M arrest in cell cycle progression and downregulation of cyclin B1 and cyclin A expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the incubation of cells with cordycepin caused a striking induction in the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21Waf1/Cip1 without affecting the expression of the tumor suppressor p53. It also resulted in a significant increase in the binding of CDK2 and CDC2 to p21. These findings suggest that cordycepin-induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis in human prostate carcinoma cells is mediated through p53-independent upregulation of the CDK inhibitor p21.

Beneficial Effects of Acanthopanax senticosus Extract in Type II Diabetes Animal Model via Down-Regulation of Advanced Glycated Hemoglobin and Glycosylation End Products (제2형 당뇨 동물모델에서 가시오가피 추출물의 당화혈색소 및 최종당화산물 억제를 통한 혈당조절 효과)

  • Kwon, Han Ol;Lee, Minhee;Kim, Yong Jae;Kim, Eun;Kim, Ok-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.7
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    • pp.929-937
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Acanthopanax senticosus extract (ASE) (ethanol : DW=1:1, v/v) on inhibition of type 2 diabetes using an OLETF rat model via regulation of HbA1c and AGEs levels. Supplementation with ASE 0.1% and 0.5% effectively lowered levels of glucose, insulin, oral glucose tolerance test, and Homa-insulin resistance, suggesting reduced insulin resistance. Blood levels of HbA1c and AGEs were significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner. As oxidative stress plays a key role in accelerating production of HbA1c and AGEs, which worsen symptoms of type 2 diabetes, levels of malonaldehyde and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured. Lipid peroxidation in both blood and liver tissues was significantly reduced, and induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-${\beta}$ and tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$, which elevate production of HbA1c and AGEs, was inhibited (P<0.05). To evaluate the possible cellular events after AGEs receptor activation, genetic expression of protein kinase C (PKC)-${\delta}$ and transforming growth factor (TGF)-${\beta}$ was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Supplementation with both ASE 0.1% and 0.5% significantly inhibited mRNA expression of PKC-${\delta}$ and TGF-${\beta}$, indicating that ASE may have beneficial effects on preventing insulin-resistant cells or tissues from progressing to diabetic complications. Taken together, ASE has potential to improve type 2 diabetes by inhibiting insulin resistance and protein glycosylation, including production of HbA1c and AGEs. Anti-oxidative activities of ASE are a main requisite for reducing production of HbA1c and AGEs and are also related to regulation of the PKC signaling pathway, resulting in suppression of TGF-${\beta}$, which increases synthesis of collagen, prostaglandin, and disease-related proteins.

Chemical Properties and Immuno-Stimulating Activities of Crude Polysaccharides from Enzyme Digests of Tea Leaves (녹차 효소 처리 다당의 화학적 특성 및 면역증진 활성)

  • Park, Hye-Ryung;Suh, Hyung Joo;Yu, Kwang-Won;Kim, Tae Young;Shin, Kwang-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.664-672
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    • 2015
  • In order to develop new immuno-stimulating ingredients from mature leaves of green tea, crude polysaccharides were isolated from pectinase digests of tea leaves (green tea enzyme digestion, GTE-0), after which their immuno-stimulating activities and chemical properties were examined. GTE-0 mainly contained neutral sugars (54.9%) such as glucose (14.2%), arabinose (12.2%), rhamnose (11.1%), and galacturonic acid (45.1%), which are characteristic of pectic polysaccharides. The anti-complementary activity of GTE-0 was similar to that of polysaccharide K (used as positive control). Number of morphologically activated macrophages was significantly increased in the GTE-0-treated group. GTE-0 significantly augmented $H_2O_2$ and reactive oxygen species production by murine peritoneal macrophage cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas production of nitric oxide showed the highest activity at a dose of $100{\mu}g/mL$ among all tested concentrations. Murine peritoneal macrophages stimulated with GTE-0 showed enhanced production of various cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factors-${\alpha}$ in a dose-dependent manner. Further, GTE-0 induced higher phagocytic activity in a dose-dependent manner. In ex vivo assay for cytolytic activity of murine peritoneal macrophages, GTE-0-treated group showed significantly higher activity compared to the untreated group at an effector-to-target cell ratio of 20. The above results lead us to conclude that polysaccharides from leaves of green tea have a potent immuno-stimulating effect on murine peritoneal macrophage cells.

Phellinus linteus Extract Regulates Macrophage Polarization in Human THP-1 Cells (상황버섯 추출물의 인간 유래 THP-1 단핵구 세포주의 분극화 조절)

  • Lee, Sang-Yull;Park, Sul-Gi;Yu, Sun-Nyoung;Kim, Ji-Won;Hwang, You-Lim;Kim, Dong-Seob;Ahn, Soon-Cheol
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.113-121
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    • 2020
  • Macrophages are initiators for regulating a host's defenses to eliminate pathogens and trigger tissue repair. Macrophages are classified into two types: classically (M1) activated macrophages and alternatively (M2) activated macrophages. M1-phenotype macrophages directly or indirectly kill infectious organisms and tumor cells via pro-inflammatory responses, whereas M2-phenotype macrophages remodel wounded tissue through anti-inflammatory responses. In this paper, we investigated how Phellinus linteus hot water extract passed from Diaion HP-20 resin (PLEP) regulates polarization of M1-like or M2-like macrophages in human THP-1 cells. PLEP did not have cytotoxicity at a high concentration of 300 ㎍/ml. We observed morphological alteration of the THP-1 cells, which are stimulated by PLEP, LPS/INF-γ (M1 stimulators) or IL-4/IL13 (M2 stimulators). PLEP exposure induced morphology contiguous with LPS/INF-γ. qPCR was also performed to determine whether PLEP influences M1 or M2 polarization-related genes. M1-phenotype macrophage-specific genes, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, CXCL10 and CCR7, were enhanced by PLEP in a dose-dependent manner similar to LPS/INF-γ. Conversely, M2-phenotype-specific genes, such as MRC-1, DC-SIGN, CCL17 and CCL22, were suppressed by PLEP. PLEP also significantly up-regulated secretory inflammation cytokines related to M1 polarization of macrophages, including TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6, which was similar to the gene expression. Further, MAPK and NF-κB signaling were increased by treatment with PLEP, resulting in enhancement of cytokine secretion. PLEP might therefore be used as a promising booster of pro-inflammatory responses through M1 polarization of human THP-1 cells.

Anti-inflammatory Effects of Pentoxifylline and Neutrophil Elastase Inhibitor on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury In Vitro (In Vitro 내독소 유도성 급성 폐손상에서 Pentoxifylline과 Neutrophil Elastase Inhibitor의 항염효과)

  • Kim, Young-Kyoon;Kim, Seung-Joon;Park, Yong-Keun;Kim, Seok-Chan;Kim, Kwan-Hyoung;Moon, Hwa-Sik;Song, Jeong-Sup;Park, Sung-Hak;Kim, Sang-Ho
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.691-702
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    • 2000
  • Background : Acute lung injury (ALI) is a commonly encountered respiratory disease and its prognosis is poor when the treatment is not provided promptly and properly. However no specific pharmacologic treatment is currently available for ALI, although recently several supportive drugs have been under scrutiny. We studied anti-inflammatory effects of pentoxifylline (PF), a methylated xanthine, and ONO-5046, a synthetic neutrophil elastase inhibitor on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI in vitro. Methods : To establish an in vitro model of LPS-induced ALI, primary rat alveolar macrophages and peripheral neutrophils in various ratios (1:0, 5:1, 1:1, 1:5, 0:1) were co-cultured with transformed rat alveolar epithelial cells (L2 cell line) or vascular endothelial cells (IP2-E4 cell line) under LPS stimulation. Each experiment was divided into five groups-control, LPS, LPS+PF, LPS+ONO, and LPS+PF+ONO. We compared LPS-induced superoxide anion productions from primary rat alveolar macrophages and peripheral neutrophils in various ratios, and the resultant cytotoxicity on L2 cells or IP2-E4 cells between groups. In addition we also compared the productions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-$\alpha$ interleukin (IL)-$1{\beta}$, monocyte chemotactic protein(MCP)-1, IL-6, and IL-10 as well as mRNA expressions of TNF-$\alpha$ inducible nitric oxide synthetase(iNOS), and MCP-1 from LPS-stimulated primary rat alveolar macrophages between groups. Results : (1) PF and ONO-5046 in each or both showed a trend to suppress LPS-induced superoxide anion productions from primary rat alveolar macrophages and peripheral neutrophils regardless of their ratio, except for the LPS+PF+ONO group with the 1:5 ratio, although statistical significance was limited to a few selected experimental conditions. (2) PF and ONO-5046 in each or both showed a trend to prevent IP2-E4 cells from LPS-induced cytotoxicity by primary rat alveolar macrophages and peripheral neutrophils regardless their ratio, although statistical significance was limited to a few selected experimental conditions. the effects of PF and/or ONO-5046 on LPS-induced L2 cell cytotoxicity varied according to experimental conditions. (3) PF showed a trend to inhibit LPS-induced productions of INF-$\alpha$ MCP-1, and IL-10 from primary rat alveolar macrophages. ONO-5046 alone didnot affect the LPS-induced productions of proinflammatory cytokines from primary rat alveolar macrophages but the combination of PF and ONO-5046 showed a trend to suppress LPS-induced productions of INF-$\alpha$ and IL-10 PF and ONO-5046 in each or both showed a trend to increase LPS-induced IL-$\beta$ and IL-6 productions from primary rat alveolar macrophages. (4) PF and ONO-5046 in each or both showed a trend to attenuate LPS-induced mRNA expressions of TNF-$\alpha$ and MCP-1 from primary rat alveolar macrophages but at the same time showed a trend increase iNOS mRNA expression. Conclusion : These results suggest that PF and ONO-5046 may play a role in attenuating inflammation in LPS-induced ALI and that further study is needed to use these drugs as a new supportive therapeutic strategy for ALI.

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Comparison of the Uptakes of Tc-99m MIBI and Tc-99m Tetrofosmin in A549, an MRP-expressing Cancer Cell, In Vitro and In Vivo (MRP발현 인체 비소세포 폐암 A549에서 Tc-99m MIBI와 Tc-99m Tetrofosmin섭취의 비교)

  • Yoo, Jeong-Ah;Jeong, Shin-Young;Seo, Myung-Rang;Bae, Jin-Ho;Ahn, Byeong-Cheol;Lee, Kyu-Bo;Choi, Sang-Woon;Lee, Byung-Ho;Lee, Jae-Tae
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.382-392
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    • 2003
  • Purpose: Uptakes of Tc-99m MIBI (MIBI) and Tc-99m tetrofosmin (tetrofosmin) in human non-small cell lung cancer A549, multidrug-resistance associated protein (MRP) expressing cell, were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Materials and Methods: Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were used for detection of MRP in A549 cells with anti-MRPr1 antibody. Cellular uptakes of two tracers were evaluated at $100{\mu}M$ of verapamil (Vrp), $50{\mu}M$ of cyclosporin A (CsA) and $25{\mu}M$ of butoxysulfoximide (BSO) after incubation with MIBI and tetrofosmin for 30 and 50 min at $37^{\circ}C$, using single cell suspensions at $1{\times}10^6cells/ml$. Radioactivities in supernatants and pellets were measured with gamma well counter. A549 cells were inoculated in each flanks of 24 nude mice. Group 1 (Gr1) and Gr3 mice were treated with only MIBI or tetrofosmin, and Gr2 and Gr4 mice were treated with 70mg/kg of CsA i.p. for 1 hour before injection of 370KBq of MIBI or tetrofosmin. Mice were sacrificed at 10, 60 and 240 min. Radioactivities of organs and tumors were expressed as percentage injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/gm). Results: Western blot analysis of the A549 cells detected expression of MRPr1 (190 kDa) and immunohistochemical staining of tumor tissue for MRPr1 revealed brownish staining in cell membrane but not P-gp. Upon incubating A549 cells for 60 min with MIBI and tetrofosmin, cellular uptake of MIBI was higher than that of tetrofosmin. Coincubation with modulators resulted in an increase in cellular uptakes of MIBI and tetrofosmin. Percentage increase of MIBI was higher than that of tetrofosmin with Vrp by 623% and 427%, CsA by 753% and 629% and BSO by 219% and 140%, respectively. There was no significant difference in tumoral uptakes of MIBI and tetrofosmin between Gr1 and Gr3. Percentage increases in MIBI (114% at 10 min, 257% at 60 min, 396% at 240 min) and tetrofosmin uptake (110% at 10 min, 205% at 60 min, 410% at 240 min) were progressively higher by the time up to 240 min with CsA. Conclusion: These results indicate that MIBI and tetrofosmin are suitable tracers for imaging MRP-mediated drug resistance in A549 tumors. MIBI may be a better tracer than tetrofosmin for evaluating MRP reversal effect of modulators.

Activation of NF-${\kappa}B$ in Lung Cancer Cell Lines in Basal and TNF-${\alpha}$ Stimulated States (폐암 세포에서 기저 상태와 TNF-${\alpha}$ 자극 시 NF-${\kappa}B$의 활성화)

  • HwangBo, Bin;Lee, Seung-Hee;Lee, Choon-Taek;Yoo, Chul-Gyu;Han, Sung-Koo;Shim, Young-Soo;Kim, Young-Whan
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.52 no.5
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    • pp.485-496
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    • 2002
  • Background : The NF-${\kappa}B$ transcription factors control various biological processes including the immune response, acute phase reaction and cell cycle regulation. NF-${\kappa}B$ complexes are retained in the cytoplasm in the basal state and various stimuli cause a translocation of the NF-${\kappa}B$ complexes into the nucleus where they bind to the ${\kappa}B$ elements and regulate the transcription of the target genes. Recent reports also suggest that NF-${\kappa}B$ proteins are involved in oncogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis. High expression of NF-${\kappa}B$ expression was reported in many cancer cell lines and tissues. The constitutive activation of NF-${\kappa}B$ was also reported in several cancer cell lines supporting its role in cancer development and survival. The anti-apoptotic action of NF-${\kappa}B$ is important for cancer survival. NF-${\kappa}B$ also controls the expression of several proteins that are important for cellular adhesion (ICAM-1, VCAM-1) suggesting a role in cancer metastasis. In lung cancer, high expression levels of the NF-${\kappa}B$ subunit p50 and c-Rel were reported. In fact, high expression does not mean a high activity, and the activation pattern of NF-${\kappa}B$ in lung cancer has not been reported. Materials and Methods : In this study, the NF-${\kappa}B$ nuclear binding activity in the basal and TNF-${\alpha}$ stimulated states were exmined in various lung cancer cell lines and compared with the normal bronchial epithelial cell line. Twelve lung cancer cell lines including the non-small cell and small cell lung cancer cell lines (A549, NCI-H358, NCI-H441, NCI-H552, NCI-H2009, NCI-H460, NCI-H1229, NCI-H1703, NCI-H157, NCI-H187, NCI-H417, NCI-H526) and BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cell line were used. To evaluate the NF-${\kappa}B$ expression and DNA binding activity, western blot analysis and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay with the nuclear protein extracts. Results : The basal expressions of the p65 and p50 subunits were observed in the BEAS-2B cell line and all lung cancer cell lines except for NCI-H358 and NCI-H460. The expression levels of p65 and p50 were increased 30 minutes after stimulation with TNF-${\alpha}$ in BEAS-2B and in 10 lung cancer cell lines. In the NCI-H358 and NCI-H460 cell lines, p65 expression was not observed in the basal and stimulated states and the two p50 related protein levels were higher after stimulation with TNF-${\alpha}$ These new proteins were smaller than p50 and are thought to be variants of p50. In the basal state, NF-${\kappa}B$ was nearly activated in the BEAS-2B and all lung cancer cell lines. The DNA binding activity of the NF-${\kappa}B$ complexes was markedly higher after stimulation with TNF-${\alpha}$ In the BEAS-2B and all lung cancer cell line except for NCI-H358 and NCI-H460, the activated NF-${\kappa}B$ complex was a p65/p50 heterodimer. In the NCI-H358 and NCI-H460 lung cancer cell lines, the NF-${\kappa}B$ complex was variant of a p50/p50 homodimer. Conclusion : The NF-${\kappa}B$ activation pattern in the lung cancer cell lines and the normal bronchial epithelial cell lines was similar except for the activation of a variant of the p50/p50 homodimer in some lung cancer cell linse.