• Title, Summary, Keyword: anti-inflammatory phytochemicals

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The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Phytochemicals by the Modulation of Innate Immunity

  • Youn, Hyung-Sun
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.181-192
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    • 2012
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) induce innate immune responses that are essential for host defense against invading microbial pathogens. In general, TLRs have two major downstream signaling pathways; myeloid differential factor 88 (MyD88) and Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-${\beta}$ (TRIF) leading to the activation of NF-${\kappa}B$ and IRF3. Numerous studies demonstrated that certain phytochemicals possessing anti-inflammatory effects inhibit NF-${\kappa}B$ activation induced by pro-inflammatory stimuli including lipopolysaccharide and tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ ($TNF{\alpha}$). However, the direct molecular targets for such anti-inflammatory phytochemicals are not fully identified. In this paper, we will discuss about the molecular targets of phytochemicals in TLRs signaling pathways. These results present a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism of phytochemicals in TLRs signaling.

Immunomodulatory effects of phytogenics in chickens and pigs - A review

  • Huang, C.M.;Lee, T.T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.617-627
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    • 2018
  • Environmental stressors like pathogens and toxins may depress the animal immune system through invasion of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) tract, where they may impair performance and production, as well as lead to increased mortality rates. Therefore, protection of the GIT tract and improving animal health are top priorities in animal production. Being natural-sourced materials, phytochemicals are potential feed additives possessing multiple functions, including: anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, anti-viral and antioxidative properties. This paper focuses on immunity-related physiological parameters regulated by phytochemicals, such as carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, curcumin, and thymol; many studies have proven that these phytochemicals can improve animal performance and production. On the molecular level, the impact of inflammatory gene expression on underlying mechanisms was also examined, as were the effects of environmental stimuli and phytochemicals in initiating nuclear factor kappa B and mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathways and improving health conditions.

Anti-inflammatory Effects of Resveratrol, (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and Curcumin by the Modulation of Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathways (Toll-like receptors 신호전달체계 조절을 통한 resveratrol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, curcumin의 항염증 효과)

  • Youn, Hyung-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.481-487
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    • 2007
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) induce innate immune responses that are essential for host defenses against invading microbial pathogens, thus leading to the activation of adaptive immune responses. In general, TLRs have two major downstream signaling pathways: the MyD88- and TRIF-dependent pathways, which lead to the activation of $NF-{\kappa}B$ and IRF3. Numerous studies have demonstrated that certain phytochemicals possessing anti-inflammatory effects inhibit $NF-{\kappa}B$ activation induced by pro-inflammatory stimuli, including lipopolysaccharides and $TNF{\alpha}$. However, the direct molecular targets for such anti-inflammatory phytochemicals have not been fully identified. Identifying the direct targets of phytochemicals within the TLR pathways is important because the activation of TLRs by pro-inflammatory stimuli can induce inflammatory responses that are the key etiological conditions in the development of many chronic inflammatory diseases. In this paper we discuss the molecular targets of resveratrol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and curcumin in the TLR signaling pathways. Resveratrol specifically inhibited the TRIF pathway in TLR3 and TLR4 signaling, by targetting TBK1 and RIP1 in the TRIF complex. Furthermore, EGCG suppressed the activation of IRF3 by targetting TBK1 in the TRIF-dependent signaling pathways. In contrast, the molecular target of curcumin within the TLR signaling pathways is the receptor itself, in addition to $IKK{\beta}$. Together, certain dietary phytochemicals can modulate TLR-derived signaling and inflammatory target gene expression, and in turn, alter susceptibility to microbial infection and chronic inflammatory diseases.

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) Phytochemicals with Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Potential

  • Rokayya, Sami;Li, Chun-Juan;Zhao, Yan;Li, Ying;Sun, Chang-Hao
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.6657-6662
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    • 2013
  • Background: The objective of this study was to investigate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of cabbage phytochemicals. Materials and Methods: Color coordinates were evaluated by colorimetry, and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were analyzed by spectrophotometer for some common cabbage varieties. Results: Red heads had the highest total antioxidant contents followed by Savoy, Chinese and green heads. The Chinese variety had the highest ABTS (2,2-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid) antioxidant activity, was 5.72 ${\mu}mol$ TE/g fw (Trolox equivalent). The green variety had the highest DPPH (free radical scavenging activity) antioxidant activity, which was 91.2 ${\mu}mol$ TE/g fw. The red variety had the highest FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) antioxidant activity, which was 80.8 ${\mu}mol$ TE/g fw. The total phenol amounts were 17.2-32.6 mM trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and the total flavonoid amounts were 40.0-74.2 mg quercetin per gram. Methanolic extracts of different cabbage heads showed different anti-inflammatory activity values. Chinese, Savoy and green heads had the highest anti-inflammatory activity, while red heads had the lowest. Conclusions: The results suggest that these varieties of cabbage heads could contribute as sources of important antioxidant and anti-inflammatory related to the prevention of chronic diseases associated to oxidative stress, such as in cancer and coronary artery disease.

Cell Signaling Cascades as Prime Targets for Chemoprevention with Dietary Phytochemicals

  • Surh, Young-Joon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Toxicology Conference
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    • pp.92-93
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    • 2003
  • Chemoprevention refers to the use of agents to inhibit, reverse, or retard tumorigenesis. Numerous phytochemicals present in edible plants have been reported to interfere with a specific stage of the carcinogenic process. Some antioxidative and anti-inflammatory substances derived from dietary or medicinal plants exert chemopreventive properties by targeting intracellular signaling molecules or events.(omitted)

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The Promise of Dried Fruits in Cancer Chemoprevention

  • Kundu, Joydeb Kumar;Chun, Kyung-Soo
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.3343-3352
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    • 2014
  • Chemoprevention is an attempt to use nontoxic natural and synthetic substances or their mixtures to intervene the relatively early stages of carcinogenesis, before invasive characteristics are manifested. The consumption of fruits is well known to reduce the risk of human cancers. Although most fruits are available only on a seasonal basis, recent advances in food processing technologies have made it possible to extend the shelf life of fruits and fruit-products. Fruits can be preserved by applying different drying processes to reduce the moisture content. Different varieties of dried fruits are now sold in supermarkets, thereby making them readily accessible to consumers. Since oxidative stress and chronic inflammation play important roles in cancer development, dried fruits with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties hold promise for cancer chemoprevention. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive activities of dried fruits are largely attributed to their polyphenols and vitamins. Dried fruits contain adequate amounts of bioactive principles, such as anthocyanins, acetogenins, catechins, coumarins, phenolic acids, terpenes, xanthones, and others. Since numerous health beneficial phytochemicals in fruits are conserved even after processing, regular intake of dried fruits can help prevent cancer. This review addresses the chemopreventive potential of representative dried fruits and their active constituents.

SUPPRESSION OF PHORBOL ESTER-INDUCED EXPRESSION OF CYCLLOOXYGENASE-2 AND INDUCIBLE NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE BY SELCTED CHEMOPREVENTIVE PHYTOCHEMICALS VIA DOWN-REGULATION OF NF-$\textsc{k}$B

  • Surh, Young-Joon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Toxicology Conference
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    • pp.88.2-98
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    • 2002
  • A wide arry of naturally occurring substances particularly those present in dietary and medicinal plants, have been reported to possess substantial cancer chemopreventive properties. Certain phytochemicals retain strong antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties which appear to contribute to their chemopreventive or chemoprotective activities. Inducible cyclooxygenase(COX-2) and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are important enzymes that mediate inflammatory processes. There is some evidence that expression of both COX-2 and iNOS is co-regulated by the eukaryotic transcription factor NF-$textsc{k}$B. Increased expression of COX-2 and/or iNOS has been associated with pathophysiology of certain types of human cancers as well as inflammatory diseases. Since inflammation is closely linked to tumor promotion, substances with potent anti-inflammatory activies are anticipated to exert chemopreventive effects on carcinogenesis, particularly in the promotion stage. An example is curcumin, a yellow pigment of turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae), that strongly occurring diaryl heptanoids structurally related to curcumin have substantial anti-tumor promotional activities in two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis. Thus, yakuchinone A [1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-7-phenyl-3heptanone] and yakuchinone B [1-(4'-hydroxy-3'methoxyphenyl)-7-phenylhept-1-en-3-one] present in Alpinia oxyphylla Miquel (Zingiberacease) attenuate phorbol ester-induced inflammation and papilloma formation in female ICR mice. These diarylheptanoids also suppressed phorbol ester-induced activation of epdermal ornithine decarboxylase and its mRNA expression when applied onto shaven backs of mice. Yakuchinone A and B as well as curcumin inhibited phorbol ester-induced expression of COX-2 and iNOS and their mRNA in mouse skin via inactivation of NF-$textsc{k}$B. Capsaicin, a major pungent ingredient of red pepper also attenuated phorbol ester-induced NF-$textsc{k}$B activation. Similar suppression of COX-2 and iNOS and down-regulation of NF-$textsc{k}$B activation for its DNA binding were observed with the ginsenosied Rg3 and the ethanol extract of Artemisia asiatica. We have also found that certain anti-inflammatory phytochemicals exert inhibitory effects on phorbol ester-induced COX-2 expression and NF-$textsc{k}$B activation in immortalized human breast epithelial (MCF-10A) cells in culture. One of the plausible mechanisms undelying inhibition by aforementioned phytochemicals of phorbol ester-induced NF-$textsc{k}$B activation involves interference with degragation of the inhibitory unit, I$textsc{k}$Ba, which blocks subsequent nuclear translocation of the functionally active p65 subunit of NF-$textsc{k}$B. the activation of epidermal NF-$textsc{k}$B by phorbol ester and subsequent induction of COX-2 hence appear to play an important role in intracellular signaling pathwasy leading to tumor promotion and targeted inhibition of NF-$textsc{k}$B may provide a new promising cancer chemopreventive strategy.

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Anti-inflammatory Effects of Phytochemicals Having Michael Addition Acceptors by the Modulation of Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathways (Michael addition acceptor 그룹을 가지고 있는 phytochemicals의 toll-like receptor 신호전달체계 조절을 통한 항염증 효과)

  • Youn, Hyung-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.477-482
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    • 2009
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a critical role in the induction of innate immune responses that are essential for host defense against invading microbial pathogens. In general, TLRs have two major downstream signaling pathways, namely MyD88- and TRIF-dependent pathways, leading to the activation of nuclear factor-${\kappa}B$ (NF-${\kappa}B$) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and the expression of inflammatory mediators. TLR4 dimerization is required for the activation of downstream signaling pathways and may be one of the first lines of regulation in activating TLR-mediated signaling pathways. In this paper, the molecular targets of curcumin, 6-shogaol, and cinnamaldehyde in TLR signaling pathways will be discussed. Curcumin, 6-shogaol, and cinnamaldehyde with ${\alpha},{\beta}$-unsaturated carbonyl groups inhibit the dimerization of TLR4 induced by lipopolysaccharide, resulting in the downregulation of NF-${\kappa}B$ and IRF3. These results suggest that phytochemicals with the structural motif conferring Michael addition inhibit TLR4 dimerization, suggesting a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of phytochemicals.