• Title, Summary, Keyword: anti-inflammatory

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Sesquiterpene Derivatives Isolated from Cyperus rotundus L. Inhibit Inflammatory Signaling Mediated by NF-${\kappa}B$

  • Khan, Salman;Choi, Ran-Joo;Lee, Dong-Ung;Kim, Yeong-Shik
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.250-255
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    • 2011
  • The immune system is finely balanced by the activities of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators or cytokines. Unregulated activities of these mediators can lead to the development of various inflammatory diseases. A variety of safe and effective anti-inflammatory agents are available with many more drugs under development. Of the natural compounds, the sesquiterpenes (nootkatone, ${\alpha}$-cyperone, valencene and ${\alpha}$-selinene) isolated from C. rotundus L. have received much attention because of their potential antiinflammatory effects. However, limited studies have been reported regarding the influence of sesquiterpene structure on anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory potential of four structurally divergent sesquiterpenes was evaluated in lipopolysaccaride (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, murine macrophages. Among the four sesquiterpenes, ${\alpha}$-cyperone and nootkatone, showed stronger anti-inflammatory and a potent NF-${\kappa}B$ inhibitory effect on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Molecular analysis revealed that various inflammatory enzymes (iNOS and COX-2) were reduced significantly and this correlated with downregulation of the NF-${\kappa}B$ signaling pathway. Additionally, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) elucidated that nootkatone and ${\alpha}$-cyperone dramatically suppressed LPS-induced NF-${\kappa}B$-DNA binding activity using 32Plabeled NF-${\kappa}B$ probe. Hence, our data suggest that ${\alpha}$-cyperone and nootkatone are potential therapeutic agents for inflammatory diseases.

Antioxidant Activity and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Raw and Processed Fruits and Vegetables

  • Kim, Hyun-Kyoung
    • International journal of advanced smart convergence
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.146-154
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    • 2018
  • In this study we investigated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Malus Domestica (apple), Pyrus Communis L. (pear), Daucus carota L. (carrot), Brassica oleracea var. (broccoli), Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage) and Raphanus sativus L. (radish), that were obtained from local market. As these are common fruits and vegetables that are widely consumed, we aimed to investigate their beneficial properties especially the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. The samples were processed by an indirect heating method and their properties were compared to their raw forms. Based on DPPH and ABTS assay, processed samples showed better antioxidant activity compared to raw samples, and processed pear sample had the best antioxidant activity. The anti-inflammatory activities of the samples were also investigated in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells. The mRNA expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines (iNOS, COX-2, $TNF-{\alpha}$, $IL-1{\beta}$ and IL-6) were assessed by RT-PCR. Processed samples exhibited better inhibition of iNOS, compared to the raw forms. Processed broccoli and cabbage samples exhibited outstanding anti-inflammatory effects. The samples did not exhibit cytotoxicity against RAW 264.7 cells up to 1mg/ mL as shown in the cell viability assay. Taken together, processed broccoli and cabbage samples exhibited the strongest anti-inflammatory properties.

Developmental toxicity and anti-inflammatory effect of the soft coral Dendronephthya gigantea collected from Jeju Island in zebrafish model

  • Lee, Seung-Hong
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.20 no.12
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    • pp.32.1-32.7
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    • 2017
  • Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that extract of soft coral Dendronephthya gigantea (SCDE) had strong anti-inflammatory activities. However, the direct effects of SCDE on anti-inflammatory activities in vivo model remained to be determined. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of SCDE using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated zebrafish model. We also investigated whether SCDE has toxic effects in zebrafish model. The survival, heart beat rate, and developmental abnormalities were no significant change in the zebrafish embryos exposed to at a concentration below $100{\mu}g/ml$ of SCDE. However, lethal toxicity was caused after exposure to 200 and $400{\mu}g/ml$ of SCDE. Treating zebrafish model with LPS treatment significantly increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) generation. However, SCDE inhibited this LPS-stimulated ROS and NO generation in a dose-dependent manner. These results show that SCDE alleviated inflammation by inhibiting the ROS and NO generation induced by LPS treatment. In addition, SCDE has a protective effect against the cell damage induced by LPS exposure in zebrafish embryos. This outcome could explain the profound anti-inflammatory effect of SCDE both in vitro as well as in vivo, suggesting that the SCDE might be a strong anti-inflammatory agent.

Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of traditional medicinal plants, Gynura segetum

  • Seow, Lay-Jing;Beh, Hooi-Kheng;Sadikun, Amirin;Asmawi, Mohd Zaini
    • CELLMED
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.4.1-4.4
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    • 2014
  • Gynura segetum, family Asteraceae is a cultivated species and can be found growing in the tropical regions of Indonesia and Malaysia. The plant is known for its use for the treatment of cancer, inflammation, diabetes, hypertension and skin afflictions. In the current study, anti-inflammatory effect of Gynura segetum leaf has been investigated. The present study investigated the in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of Gynura segetum leaf by using hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) assay. Different solvent extract of Gynura segetum leaf were tested, the most active methanol extract was further fractionated and tested. Among the extracts tested, the methanol extract showed a significant good anti-inflammatory effect (76.8% inhibition at 50 ${\mu}g/disc$) on the HET-CAM assay as compared with the anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin (82.1% inhibition). However, the fractionated sample exhibited a significantly lower activity in comparison to crude methanol extract. The results demonstrated that Gynura segetum leaf displayed remarkable anti-inflammatory effects, which support the folkloric uses of this plant for treatment of inflammation.

Chemical Constituents Identified from Fruit Body of Cordyceps bassiana and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

  • Suh, Wonse;Nam, Gyeongsug;Yang, Woo Seok;Sung, Gi-Ho;Shim, Sang Hee;Cho, Jae Youl
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.165-170
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    • 2017
  • Cordyceps bassiana is one of Cordyceps species with anti-oxidative, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-angiogenic, and anti-nociceptive activities. This mushroom has recently demonstrated to have an ability to reduce 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis symptoms in NC/Nga mice. In this study, we further examined phytochemical properties of this mushroom by column chromatography and HPLC analysis. By chromatographic separation and spectroscopic analysis, 8 compounds, such as 1,9-dimethylguanine (1), adenosine (2), uridine (3), nicotinamide (4), 3-methyluracil (5), 1,7-dimethylxanthine (6), nudifloric acid (7), and mannitol (8) were identified from 6 different fractions and 4 more subfractions. Through evaluation of their anti-inflammatory activities using reporter gene assay and mRNA analysis, compound 1 was found to block luciferase activity induced by $NF-{\kappa}B$ and AP-1, suppress the mRNA levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and tumor necrosis factor $(TNF)-{\alpha}$. Therefore, our data strongly suggests that compound 1 acts as one of major principles in Cordyceps bassiana with anti-inflammatory and anti-atopic dermatitis activities.

The Anti-inflammatory Mechanism of the Peel of Zanthoxylum piperitum D.C. is by Suppressing NF-κB/Caspase-1 Activation in LPS-Induced RAW264.7 Cells

  • Choi, Yun-Hee;Myung, Noh-Yil
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.669-676
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    • 2019
  • Zanthoxylum piperitum D.C. (ZP) peels has been used as a natural spice and herb medicine for hypertension reduction, for strokes, and for its anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant activity. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanisms employed by ZP have yet to be completely understood. In this study, we elucidate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of ZP in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells. We evaluated the effects of ZP in LPS-induced levels of inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and caspase-1 using ELISA. The expression levels of inflammatory-related genes, including cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), were assayed by Western blot analysis. We elucidated the effect of ZP on nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation by means of a luciferase activity assay. The findings of this study demonstrated that ZP inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokine and PGE2 and inhibited the increased levels of COX-2 and iNOS caused by LPS. Additionally, we showed that the anti-inflammatory effect of ZP arises by suppressing the activation of NF-κB and caspase-1 in LPS- induced RAW264.7 cells. These results provide novel insights into the pharmacological actions of ZP as a potential candidate for development of new drugs to treat inflammatory diseases.

Flavonoid and Skin Inflammation

  • Kim, Hyun-Pyo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.67-73
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    • 2007
  • There have been various inflammatory skin disorders in humans including atopic dermatitis, eczema and psoriasis. Although some drugs have been used for these disorders, there is an urgent need for safer and more effective topical anti-inflammatory agents. Plant flavonoids possess anti-inflammatory activity and some of them have multiple pharmacological mechanisms, inhibition of eicosanoid metabolizing enzymes, histamine release and/or down-regulation of pro inflammatory gene expression. These properties of flavonoids may be suitable for treating chronic skin inflammatory disorders. Especially, wogonin, some prenylated flavonoids and biflavonoids have a strong potential as new anti-inflammatory agents by topical application.

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Anti-oxidant and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Rutin and Its Metabolites

  • Kim, Ji Hye;Park, Sang Hee;Beak, Eun Ji;Han, Chang Hee;Kang, Nam Joo
    • Current Research on Agriculture and Life Sciences
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.165-169
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    • 2013
  • Rutin is one of the major flavonoids found in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). While rutin is already known to exhibit anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic activities. However, the health beneficial function of rutin metabolites is not well understood. In DPPH radical scavenging assays, the present study found that 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid had the highest total anti-oxidant activity, followed by 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, rutin, homovanillic acid, and 3-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid. Further, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid strongly reduced LPS-induced IL-6 production in RAW 264.7 cells, compared with other metabolites. Therefore, these results suggest that rutin metabolites have potential to be utilized as food ingredients with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

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Enhanced anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin, a naturally occurring pigment in turmeric via cyclodextrin complexation

  • Kohli, K;Ali, J;Najmi, AK;Anwer, MT;Ansari, MJ
    • Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.121-127
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    • 2007
  • Curcumin, a dietary pigment responsible for the yellow color of curry, has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and exhibits a variety of pharmacological effects such as anti- inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, and anti-viral activity. In order to examine the potency of the curcumin in inflammation we used carrageenan induced rat hind paw odema model. As curcumin is practically water insoluble, it is hypothesized that pharmacological activity of curcumin could be improved by enhancing its water solubility. Water soluble complexes of curcumin with cyclodextrins were prepared and screened for greater solubility. Pure curcumin 100 mg/kg body weight along with curcumin complexes equivalent to 100 mg/kg body weight of pure curcumin were tested for the anti-inflammatory activity in Wister rats male rats using carrageenan induced hind paw edema model and compared with that of the reference compound diclofenac sodium at a dose level of 10 mg/kg body weight. Results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA. All the treatment groups showed statistically significant anti-inflammatory activity compared with that of vehicle control and positive control.

Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Superbacterial Properties of Sulforaphane from Shepherd's Purse

  • Choi, Woo Jin;Kim, Seong Keun;Park, Hee Kuk;Sohn, Uy-Dong;Kim, Wonyong
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.33-39
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    • 2014
  • Shepherd's purse, Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., has been considered a health food for centuries in Asia and is known to contain the isothiocyanate compound sulforaphane. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties of a sulforaphane-containing solution (SCS) isolated from shepherd's purse. SCS had significant anti-inflammatory activity indicated by the decreased levels of nitric oxide (NO), cytokines (interleukin $1{\beta}$ [IL-$1{\beta}$], IL-6, and IL-10), and prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. In addition, SCS decreased the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) levels, which confirmed the anti- inflammatory activity of SCS. Further, SCS inhibited vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and Bacillus anthracis. The minimal inhibitory concentration was $250{\mu}g/ml$ for VRE and $1,000{\mu}g/ml$ for B. anthracis. Taken together, these data indicate that SCS has potential anti-inflammatory and anti-superbacterial properties, and thus it can be used as a functional food or pharmaceutical.