• Title, Summary, Keyword: anti-cancer agents

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Isothiocyanates in Brassica: Potential Anti Cancer Agents

  • Sharma, Anubhuti;Sharma, Ashok;Yadav, Prashant;Singh, Dhiraj
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.4507-4510
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    • 2016
  • Isothiocyanates are naturally occurring small molecules that are formed from glucosinolate precursors of cruciferous vegetables. Many isothiocyanates, both natural and synthetic, display anti-carcinogenic activity because they reduce activation of carcinogens and increase their detoxification. This minireview summarizes the current knowledge on isothiocyanates and focuses on their role as potential anti-cancer agents.

Purification of Anti PC-3 Prostate Cancer Agents from Gleditsiae Spina (조각자(皂角刺)에서 PC-3 생장 억제 성분 정제)

  • Lim, Se-Hyun;Lee, Byung-Ho;Kim, Young-Gyun;Cho, Su-In;Kim, Yong-Seong;Lim, Chi-Yeon
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.197-208
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    • 2012
  • Objectives : Gleditsiae Spina has the effects of expelling toxins, draining pus, invigorating blood and resolving abscesses. Some clinicians apply the herb for patients suffering from cancer. However, its anti-cancer activities are not well understood. In the present study, anti-tumor agents from Gleditsiae Spina were purified. Methods : The viability of the PC-3 cell line was determined using MTT assay, and the induction of apoptosis by Gleditsiae Spina extract in PC-3 cells was measured by Annexin-V/propidium iodide double staining assay detected by flow cytometry. TLC and HPLC analysis were used to separate and identify the anti-cancer agents. Results : Treatment of the extract resulted in significant decreased cell viability of PC-3 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Dose-dependent apoptotic cell death was also measured by flow cytometry analysis. The anti-cancer agents were successfully separated and identified by using TLC and HPLC analysis and the most potential agent among them was separated from EtOAC fraction. Conclusions : These results might be applied in developing new drugs from natural resources like Korean traditional medicine, and also support the clinical usefulness of herbal medicine.

Angiogenesis Markers in Breast Cancer - Potentially Useful Tools for Priority Setting of Anti-Angiogenic Agents

  • Keyhani, Elahe;Muhammadnejad, Ahad;Behjati, Farkhondeh;Sirati, Fereidoon;Khodadadi, Faranak;Karimlou, Masoud;Moghaddam, Fatemeh A.;Pazhoomand, Reza
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.7651-7656
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    • 2013
  • Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in both developed and developing countries. The burden is increasing in low-income and middle-income countries (LMCs) and threatens the public health of such societies. Introduction of expensive monoclonal antibodies to cancer treatment regimens poses a real challenge in the health systems of LMCs. Despite controversy of cost-effectiveness of bevacizumab in breast cancer, some studies indicate gain of patients from this drug. The present study aimed to propose a priority setting model for administration of anti-angiogenic agents in breast cancer via assessment of tumor angiogenesis by the microvessel density (MVD) method and associations with clinicopathological characteristics (including simultaneous mutations of TP53 and HER-2 genes). Materials and Methods: Age, axillary lymph nodes status, tumor size, stage and grade, estrogen and progesterone receptors status, HER-2/neu status (by immunohistochemistry and FISH test), TP53 mutation, Ki-67 (for proliferation assay) and CD34 (for angiogenesis assay) were assessed in 111 breast cancer patients. The molecular subtype of each tumor was also determined and correlations of simultaneous mutations of HER-2 and p53 genes with angiogenesis and other clinicopathological characteristics were evaluated. Results: There were significant associations between simultaneous mutations of HER-2 and p53 genes and all other parameters except tumor size. The degree of angiogenesis in the ERBB2 subtype was greater than the others. Younger patients showed a higher angiogenesis rate rather those older than 50 years. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that patients with simultaneous mutations of HER-2 and p53 genes, those with ERBB2 molecular subtype and also younger women (often triple negative) seem more eligible for obtaining anti-angiogenic agents. These results suggest a model for priority setting of patients with breast cancer for treatment with anti-angiogenic drugs in LMCs.

Predictive and Prognostic Biomarkers for Patients Treated with Anti-EGFR Agents in Lung Cancer: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis

  • Wang, Ying;Qu, Xiao;Shen, Hong-Chang;Wang, Kai;Liu, Qi;Du, Jia-Jun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.4759-4768
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    • 2015
  • Background: Several studies have investigated predictive and prognostic biomarkers for patients treated with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) agents in lung cancer. However, the conclusion is controversial. Materials and Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the associations of mutant K-ras, PIK3CA and PTEN deficiency with the efficacy of anti-EGFR agents in lung cancer. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR). The secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Results: A total of 61 studies were included in the final meta-analysis. The result showed that K-ras mutation was a good predictor for ORR (RR=0.42, 95%CI, 0.33-0.55, p=0.000) and an effective prognostic marker for OS (HR=1.37, 95%CI, 1.15-1.65, p=0.001) and PFS (HR=1.33, 95%CI, 1.05-1.69, p=0.019). However, PTEN deficiency or PIK3CA mutation did not show any significance predictive value for ORR (PTEN, RR=0.82, 95%CI, 0.56-1.19, p=0.286; PIK3CA, RR=1.08, 95%CI, 0.17-6.66, P=0.938). And PTEN deficiency or expression of PIK3CA did not show significance prognostic value for OS (PTEN, HR=0.88, 95%CI, 0.31-2.46,P=0.805; PIK3CA, HR=0.79, 95%CI: 0.23-2.68, P=0.706). Conclusions: Our meta-analysis showed that K-ras mutation may be an effective predictor in lung cancer patients treated with anti-EGFR agents. Whereas, the predictive and prognostic value of PTEN deficiency and PIK3CA mutation need to be further investigated.

Anti-angiogenic Therapy in Patients with Advanced Gastric and Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer: A Systematic Review

  • Chen, Li-Tzong;Oh, Do-Youn;Ryu, Min-Hee;Yeh, Kun-Huei;Yeo, Winnie;Carlesi, Roberto;Cheng, Rebecca;Kim, Jongseok;Orlando, Mauro;Kang, Yoon-Koo
    • Cancer Research and Treatment
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.851-868
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    • 2017
  • Despite advancements in therapy for advanced gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancers, their prognosis remains dismal. Tumor angiogenesis plays a key role in cancer growth and metastasis, and recent studies indicate that pharmacologic blockade of angiogenesis is a promising approach to therapy. In this systematic review, we summarize current literature on the clinical benefit of anti-angiogenic agents in advanced gastric cancer. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed and conference proceedings including the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the European Society for Medical Oncology, and the European Cancer Congress. Included studies aimed to prospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of anti-angiogenic agents in advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer. Each trial investigated at least one of the following endpoints: overall survival, progression-free survival/time to progression, and/or objective response rate. Our search yielded 139 publications. Forty-two met the predefined inclusion criteria. Included studies reported outcomes with apatinib, axitinib, bevacizumab, orantinib, pazopanib, ramucirumab, regorafenib, sorafenib, sunitinib, telatinib, and vandetanib. Second-line therapy with ramucirumab and third-line therapy with apatinib are the only anti-angiogenic agents so far shown to significantly improve survival of patients with advanced gastric cancer. Overall, agents that specifically target the vascular endothelial growth factor ligand or receptor have better safety profile compared to multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

The effects of C. annuum L. var. angulosum Mill on cancer cell lines and each organ of the mouse

  • Chung, Yong-Za;Lee, Jeong-Hee
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.152.1-152
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    • 2003
  • Under the vigorous search for active novel agents for cancer prevention and treatment, some agents have been found from plants and animals which are easily available. Our review of literature on them revealed that C. annuum L. var. angulosum Mill had high antiproliferating effect on cancer cells. Thus we investigated the efficacy of C. annuum L. var. angulosum Mill on cancer cell lines and to examined its effect on the mouse to detect other side effect and mechnism by which the extrat of C. annuum L. var. angulosum Mill had the anti-cancer efficacy on cancer. (omitted)

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Studies on Anti-cancerous and Anti-malarial Substances from Simaroubaceae Plants

  • Takeya, Koichi
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.64-65
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    • 2000
  • Cancer is a general term subjected to a series of malignant tumor diseases which may affect many different parts of the human body. These cancer diseases are characterized by a rapid and uncontrolled formation of abnormal cells in the body. Cancer chemotherapeutic agents can often provide the prolongation of life and occasionally cures. To date many kinds of compounds have been obtained from plants kingdom as anti-neoplastic and anti-cancerous agents. However, there is no special type of compounds for cancer therapy. In our laboratory, anti-tumor and cytotoxic screenings on higher plants collected in Japan, China, Korea, Southeast Asia and South America have been done by using Sarcoma 180 ascites in mice, P388 lymphocytic leukemia in mice, Chinese hamster lung V-79 cells, P388 cells and nasopharynx carcinoma (KB) cells. The family, Simaroubaceae consists of about 20 genera and 120 species, mainly shrubs and trees, distributed in tropical and subtropical country. Simaroubaceae is classified as RUTALES, together with Rutaceae, Burseraceae, Meliaceae, Malpighiaceae and Polygalaceae. The members differ from the Rutaceae in not containing oil glands. Bitter principles are a characteristic of the family, Simaroubaceae. The genera include Quassia (Simarouba) (40 spp.), Picrasma (Aeschrion) (6 spp.), Brucea (10 spp.), Soulamea (10 spp.), Ailanthus (10 spp.) and Perriera (1 spp.) etc.. Surinam quassia derived from Quassia amara growing in Guianas, north Brazil and Venezuela is used in traditional medicines for stomachic, anti-amoebic, anti-malarial and anti-anaemic properties. Also, various parts of a number of plants of the family Simaroubaceae have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety oi diseases including cancer, amoebic, dysentery and malaria. Then, the research has established that it is the quassinoid content of these plants that is responsible for above activities. In this meeting, I will present on anti-tumor and anti-malarial activities and their active principles of Simaroubaceae plants, Eurycoma longifolia, Ailanthus vilmoriniana, Simaba cedron and Brucea mullis which have been studied in our laboratory.

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Studies on Anti-cancerous and Anti-malarial Substances from Simaroubaceae Plants

  • Takeya, Koichi
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.11-13
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    • 2000
  • Cancer is a general term subjected to a series of malignant tumor diseases which may affect many different parts of the human body. These cancer diseases are characterized by a rapid and uncontrolled formation of abnormal cells in the body. Cancer chemotherapeutic agents can often provide the prolongation of life and occasionally cures. To date many kinds of compounds have been obtained from plants kingdom as anti-neoplastic and anti-cancerous agents. However, there is no special type of compounds for cancer therapy. In our laboratory, anti-tumor and cytotoxic screenings on higher plants collected in Japan, China, Korea, Southeast Asia and South America have been done by using Sarcoma 180 ascites in mice, P388 lymphocytic leukemia in mice, Chinese hamster lung V-79 cells, P388 cells and nasopharynx carcinoma (KB) cells. The family, Simaroubaceae consists of about 20 genera and 120 species, mainly shrubs and trees, distributed in tropical and subtropical country. Simaroubaceae IS classified as RUTALES, together with Rutaceae, Burseraceae, Meliaceae, Malpighiaceae and Polygalaceae. The members differ from the Rutaceae in not containing oil glands. Bitter principles are a characteristic of the family, Simaroubaceae. The genera include Quassia (Simarouba) (40 spp.), Picrasma (Aeschrion) (6 spp.), Brucea (10 spp.), Soulamea (10 spp.), Ailanthus (10 spp.) and Perriera (1 spp.) etc.. Surinam quassia derived from Quassia amara growing in Guianas, north Brazil and Venezuela is used in traditional medicines for stomachic, anti-amoebic, anti-malarial and anti-anaemic properties. Also, various parts of a number of plants of the family Simaroubaceae have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of diseases including cancer, amoebic, dysentery and malaria. Then, the research has established that it is the quassinoid content of these plants that is responsible for above activities. In this meeting, I will present on anti-tumor and anti-malarial activities and their active principles of Simaroubaceae plants, Eurycoma longifolia, Ailanthus vilmoriniana, Simaba cedron and Brucea mollis which have been studied in our laboratory.

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Inhibitory effects of resveratrol analogs on lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 activity in RAW264.7 cells

  • Park, Eun-Jung;Min, Hye-Young;Park, Jae-Eun;Kim, Sang-Hee;Lee, Sang-Kook
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.245.1-245
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    • 2002
  • It has been known that resveratrol, a phytoalexin present in grapes mainly, has antioxidant. anti-inflammatory, and cancer chemopreventive activity. One mechanism of its anti-inflammation and cancer prevention is considered to modulate cyclooxygense-2 (COX-2) activity. Since COX-2 plays an important role in inflammation and carcinogenesis, the potential COX-2 inhibitors have been considered as anti-inflammatory or cancer chemopreventive agents. (omitted)

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Anticancer effects of genistein, green tea catechins, and cordycepin on oral squamous cell carcinoma

  • Park, Sung-Jin;Myoung, Hoon;Kim, Young-Youn;Paeng, Jun-Young;Park, Jun-Woo;Kim, Myung-Jin;Hong, Soon-Min
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2008
  • Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most frequent form of oral cancer and holds the eighth position in the cancer incidence ranking. OSCC patients are treated by classical therapeutic modalities consisting of surgery, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy. But OSCC still shows significant mortality rates. Thus, new therapeutic approaches have been investigated and the most promising one is naturally acquired agents with known anti-cancer effects. Genistein is a compound extracted from soy bean. Its anti-cancer effect on breast cancer is well established now and it is investigated whether it has similar effect on OSCC. It inhibited the growth and invasive-ness of OSCC cells in vitro, but these effects did not work in living animals in vivo. Catechin is a compound from green tea and its anti-cancer effect on OSCC is known better than other agents. Catechin showed its anti-cancer effect in vitro via induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, inhibition of growth, and down-regulation of invasion/metastasis. These effects were confirmed in vivo with mouse model. Cordycepin is one of major pharmacologically important components in Cordyceps Militaris and may exert its anti-cancer effect as an adenosine receptor agonist. In recent study, it inhibited the proliferation of OSCC cells via A3 adenosine receptor. But because there is very scarce evidence on this effect, more researches are needed on this theme.