• Title, Summary, Keyword: anti-cancer

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miR-335 Targets SIAH2 and Confers Sensitivity to Anti-Cancer Drugs by Increasing the Expression of HDAC3

  • Kim, Youngmi;Kim, Hyuna;Park, Deokbum;Jeoung, Dooil
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.562-572
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    • 2015
  • We previously reported the role of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in response to anti-cancer drugs. The decreased expression of HDAC3 in anti-cancer drug-resistant cancer cell line is responsible for the resistance to anti-cancer drugs. In this study, we investigated molecular mechanisms associated with regulation of HDAC3 expression. MG132, an inhibitor of proteasomal degradation, induced the expression of HDAC3 in various anti-cancer drug-resistant cancer cell lines. Ubiquitination of HDAC3 was observed in various anti-cancer drug-resistant cancer cell lines. HDAC3 showed an interaction with SIAH2, an ubiquitin E3 ligase, that has increased expression in various anti-cancer drug-resistant cancer cell lines. miRNA array analysis showed the decreased expression of miR-335 in these cells. Targetscan analysis predicted the binding of miR-335 to the 3'-UTR of SIAH2. miR-335-mediated increased sensitivity to anti-cancer drugs was associated with its effect on HDAC3 and SIAH2 expression. miR-335 exerted apoptotic effects and inhibited ubiquitination of HDAC3 in anti-cancer drug-resistant cancer cell lines. miR-335 negatively regulated the invasion, migration, and growth rate of cancer cells. The mouse xenograft model showed that miR-335 negatively regulated the tumorigenic potential of cancer cells. The down-regulation of SIAH2 conferred sensitivity to anti-cancer drugs. The results of the study indicated that the miR-335/SIAH2/HDAC3 axis regulates the response to anti-cancer drugs.

Anti-inflammatory and Anti-cancer Effect of Stachys affinis Tubers

  • Guo, Hui-Fang;Wang, Myeong-Hyeon
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.679-685
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    • 2017
  • Stachys affinis tubers are known for its high content of stachyose and eaten as an edible vegetable. In this work, we assessed on the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferation activity of a various type of extracts derived from S. affinis tubers. The n-hexane and dichloromethane fractions were showed the high cytotoxicity on the cell lines including RAW264.7 macrophages, HEK293 human kidney cell, A549 human lung cancer cell, KB human oral cancer cell, and a PC-3 human prostate cancer cell. N-butanol and water fractions were not exhibited cytotoxicity on the tested cancer cells, limited in anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. Nevertheless, the ethyl acetate fraction showed little harm to RAW264.7 cells but inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) significantly. In addition, it arrests the cell growth in A549, KB, and PC-3 cell while little cytotoxicity on HEK293 cells. Consequently, these results supported that the ethyl acetate fraction of S. affinis tubers could be a potential anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer ingredient.

Studies on the Anti-cancer Activity of Chaga Mushroom Extract (차가버섯 추출물의 항암활성에 관한 연구)

  • Moon, Byung-Hyuk;Lee, Won-Chul
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2009
  • Objectives: This study was to investigate the anti-oxidation and anti-cancer activity of Chaga mushroom extract. Extraction condition optimization and beta-glucan analysis and anti-cancer activity tests were also done. Methods: Optimum extraction conditions for Chaga mushroom extract were at a temperature of $90^{\circ}C$ and 2hrs with 10 times of water. Extraction yield and economics were best under these conditions. Results: Anti-oxidation activity was the highest with the fraction of 100,000 MWCO and $IC_{50}$ value was $13{\mu}g/ml$ and this value was comparable to that of vitamin E, alpha-tocopherol. Among the fractions from various organic solvents, ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest anti-oxidation activity with $IC_{50}$ value of $7{\mu}g/ml$. For anti-cancer activity, chloroform fraction showed little anti-cancer activity and ethyl acetate fraction showed the best anti-cancer activity with $IC_{50}$ $1.5{\mu}g/ml$ for stomach cancer cells. Anti-cancer activities for different molecular weight fractions were the best in the fraction of molecular weight less than 100,000Da, and $IC_{50}$ values for stomach cancer cells and liver cancer cells were 1.7 and $1.4{\mu}g/ml$, respectively. Conclusions: From these results, we can conclude that the extract of Chaga mushroom could be a good source for functional food and natural anti-cancer medicine.

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Biotransformation, a Promising Technology for Anti-cancer Drug Development

  • Gao, Fei;Zhang, Jin-Ming;Wang, Zhan-Guo;Peng, Wei;Hu, Hui-Ling;Fu, Chao-Mei
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.5599-5608
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    • 2013
  • With the high morbidity and mortality caused by cancer, finding new and more effective anti-cancer drugs is very urgent. In current research, biotransformation plays a vital role in the research and development of cancer drugs and has obtained some achievements. In this review, we have summarized four applications as follows: to exploit novel anti-cancer drugs, to improve existing anti-cancer drugs, to broaden limited anti-cancer drug resources and to investigate correlative mechanisms. Three different groups of important anti-cancer compounds were assessed to clarify the current practical applications of biotransformation in the development of anti-cancer drugs.

Anticancer Effects of Ganjang with Different Aging Periods (숙성 기간에 따른 간장의 항암 효과)

  • Hur, Jinyoung;Kim, Min Jung;Hong, Sang Pil;Yang, Hye Jeong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.215-223
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    • 2020
  • Ganjang and doenjang are known as major fermented soy-based foods in Koreans. Current investigations have proved that fermented soybean foods impart anti-cancer, anti-obesity, and anti-diabetic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-cancer activities of commercialized soy food, Ganjang, as a function of aging period. The test groups were classified into four time periods-short (under 5 years, S group), mid (under 10 years, M group), long (under 15 years, L group), and eternal (over 15 years, E group). The anti-cancer effects of Ganjang were determined by cell cytotoxicity assay of three types of cancer cell lines and splenocyte proliferation assay. Besides these assays, we also analyzed NK cell activity for cancer immunotherapy. The results show that the anti-cancer effect increased in the S and M period aging groups for all three cancer cell lines. Interestingly, similar to the anti-cancer result, splenocyte proliferation and NK activity showed the highest effect in the S and M groups. In contrast, Japanese ganjang-treated (JG1, JG2) groups and E group showed significantly reduced splenocyte proliferation. Collectively, these results suggest that the short and middle periods of traditional fermented Ganjang might have potential anti-cancer activities.

Review on the Potential Therapeutic Roles of Nigella sativa in the Treatment of Patients with Cancer: Involvement of Apoptosis - Black cumin and cancer -

  • Mollazadeh, Hamid;Afshari, Amir R.;Hosseinzadeh, Hossein
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.158-172
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    • 2017
  • Nigella sativa (N. sativa, family Ranunculaceae) is a medicinal plant that has been widely used for centuries throughout the world as a natural remedy. A wide range of chemical compounds found in N. sativa expresses its vast therapeutic effects. Thymoquinone (TQ) is the main component (up to 50%) in the essential oil of N. sativa. Also, pinene (up to 15%), p-cymene (40%), thymohydroquinone (THQ), thymol (THY), and dithymoquinone (DTQ) are other pharmacologically active compounds of its oil. Other terpenoid compounds, such as carvacrol, carvone, 4-terpineol, limonenes, and citronellol, are also found in small quantities in its oil. The main pharmacological characteristics of this plant are immune system stimulatory, anti-inflammatory, hypotensive, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anti-cancer, hypoglycemic, anti-tussive, milk production, uricosuric, choleretic, anti-fertility, and spasmolytic properties. In this regard, we have searched the scientific databases PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar with keywords of N. sativa, anti-cancer, apoptotic effect, antitumor, antioxidant, and malignancy over the period from 2000 to 2017. The effectiveness of N. sativa against cancer in the blood system, kidneys, lungs, prostate, liver, and breast and on many malignant cell lines has been shown in many studies, but the molecular mechanisms behind that anti-cancer role are still not clearly understood. From among the many effects of N. sativa, including its anti-proliferative effect, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction, ROS generation, anti-metastasis/anti-angiogenesis effects, Akt pathway control, modulation of multiple molecular targets, including p53, p73, STAT-3, PTEN, and $PPAR-{\gamma}$, and activation of caspases, the main suggestive anti-cancer mechanisms of N. sativa are its free radical scavenger activity and the preservation of various anti-oxidant enzyme activities, such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase. In this review, we highlight the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis and the anti-cancer effects of N. sativa, with a focus on its molecular targets in apoptosis pathways.

A non-replicating oncolytic vector as a novel therapeutic tool against cancer

  • Kaneda, Yasufumi
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.43 no.12
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    • pp.773-780
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    • 2010
  • Cancers are still difficult targets despite recent advances in cancer therapy. Due to the heterogeneity of cancer, a single-treatment modality is insufficient for the complete elimination of cancer cells. Therapeutic strategies from various aspects are needed. Gene therapy has been expected to bring a breakthrough to cancer therapy, but it has not yet been successful. Gene therapy also should be combined with other treatments to enhance multiple therapeutic pathways. In this view, gene delivery vector itself should be equipped with intrinsic anti-cancer activities. HVJ (hemagglutinating virus of Japan; Sendai virus) envelope vector (HVJ-E) was developed to deliver therapeutic molecules. HVJ-E itself possessed anti-tumor activities such as the generation of anti-tumor immunities and the induction of cancer-selective apoptosis. In addition to the intrinsic anti-tumor activities, therapeutic molecules incorporated into HVJ-E enabled to achieve multi-modal therapeutic strategies in cancer treatment. Tumor-targeting HVJ-E was also developed. Thus, HVJ-E will be a novel promising tool for cancer treatment.

Anti-tumor Effect of Kaempferol, a Component of Polygonati Rhizoma, in Lung Cancer Cells (폐암세포주에서 황정(黃精)의 주요 성분인 Kaempferol의 항암 효능)

  • Jeong, Young-Seok;Jeong, Ji-Cheon
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.816-822
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    • 2011
  • Kaempferol, a component of Polygonati rhizoma, is one of the herbal flavonoids, which is used in therapeutic agent for anti-hypercholesterol, anti-hypertension and anti-diabetes. And it is also known to be effective in anti-cancer therapy for breast, prostate and other type of cancers. However, the anti-cancer therapeutic mechanisms are pooly understood. To address molecular mechanism underlying kaempferol-induced anti-cancer effects, we determined the effect of kaempferol on cell growth of the lung cancer cell lines, A549, H1299 and H460. From the FACS analysis, measurement of caspase activity, DAPI and tryptophan blue staining, and DNA fragmentation assay, we found that kaempferol induces apoptosis and H460 cells are most sensitive among the tested cell lines. In addition, we performed microarray to identify the genome-wide expression profiling regulated by kaempferol. Lots of cell cycle-related genes were under-expressed, whereas the genes related to TGF-beta/SMAD pathway were over-expressed in kaempferol-treated H460 cells. Additionally, kaempferol also increased expression levels of apoptosis related genes such as death receptors, FAS, TRAIL-R and TNF-R, and casepase-8 and caspase-10. Overall, our results suggest that kaempferol promotes anti-lung cancer therapeutic effects by inducing G1 arrest and apoptosis through TGF-beta/SMAD pathway and death receptors/caspase pathway, respectively.

A Basic Study on Development of Anti-cancer Medical Wild Plants Growing in Korea (한국에 자생하는 항암식물 개발에 관한 기초학적 연구)

  • 이상래
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.1-214
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    • 1989
  • There shoul be high possibility of preventive and immune eficacy aqainst cancer when the anti-cancer plants are properly utilized in human dietary life as it is evident that considerable part of wild plantd or both medicinal use and ood are growing naturally in the mountainous area in korea, some of which have ben proved to be anti-cancer plants. this study, at this initial stage, has been done to acquire the fundamentals of 235 kinds of ante-cancer plants growing naturally in korea. from the results o thisresearch, the anti-cancer plants have been sorted out by amily and its number. and also the status of regional distribution of those plants and the kinds of anti-cancer plants used for both medicine and food were studied and experimented to see the medical efficacy against anti-tumor. this experiments were conduced in accodance with the total packed cell volume method and cyto toxicity method.

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Anti-cancer Activities of Extract from the Bark of Melia azedarach L. var. japonica Makino (고련피 추출물의 항암활성)

  • Kim, Hyun-Woo;Kang, Se-Chan
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.312-316
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    • 2009
  • In the present study, the anti-cancer activity of 80% ethanol extracts from 120 kinds of medicinal herbs and native plants were investigated. Among them, the barks of Melia azedarach L. var. japonica Makino showed the highest cytotoxicity in HCT-15 human colon cancer cell. With this result, we carried out hollow fiber (HF) assay and anti-metastasis study to confirm the anti-cancer effects of M. azedarach var. japonica. In MTT assay, M. azedarach var. japonica.inhibited the proliferation of HCT-15 cells in dose-dependent manner. HF assay was carried out using A549 human adenocarcinoma cell, HCT-15 and SK-Hep1 human liver cancer cell via intraperitoneal (IP) and subcutaneous (SC) site. As a results, SK-Hep1 implanted in IP site showed the highest cytotoxicity. The result from metastatic model using B16/BL6 mouse corresponded to that of HF assay. These results suggest that the ethanol extract from M. azedarach var. japonica. might have a potent anti-cancer activity and advanced study is needed for the development of novel natural anti-cancer drug.