• Title, Summary, Keyword: anthocyanins

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Antioxidative Effect of Crude Anthocyanins in Water-in-Oil Microemulsion System

  • Oh, Ju-Kyoung;Kim, Seok-Joong;Imm, Jee-Young
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.283-288
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    • 2006
  • Antioxidative ability of anthocyanins in water-in-oil microemulsion was examined. Microemulsion was prepared by solubilizing crude anthocyanins extracted from grape skin (Cambell early) in organic solvent (hexane) containing anionic surfactant [bis (2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate, AOT] and linolenic acid (10%, w/v). Lipid oxidation significantly decreased with increasing concentration of anthocyanins ($5-20\;{\mu}M$) at micellar phase, and increasing micelle size ($Wo=5-20\;{\mu}M$). At given micelle size (Wo=10), lipid oxidation decreased as number of micelles decreased. These results indicate antioxidative ability of anthocyanins is critically affected by water core and micelle structure formed by surfactant. Interactions between AOT and anthocyanins decreased antioxidative ability of anthocyanins. Antioxidative ability of anthocyanins significantly increased when ${\alpha}$-tocopherol was added into organic phase. This indicates of synergism between the two antioxidants.

Anthocyanins in 'Cabernet Gernischet' (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) Aged Red Wine and Their Color in Aqueous Solution Analyzed by Partial Least Square Regression

  • Han, Fu-Liang;Jiang, Shou-Mei;He, Jian-Jun;Pan, Qiu-Hong;Duan, Chang-Qing;Zhang, Ming-Xia
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.724-731
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    • 2009
  • Anthocyanins are considered one of the main color determinants in aged red wine. The anthocyanins in aged red wine made from 'Cabernet Gernischet' (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) grape were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography- electronic spray ionization- mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) and their color presented in aqueous solution were evaluated using partial least square regression (PLS). The results showed that there were 37 anthocyanins identified in this wine, including 22 pyranoanthocyanins. The analysis of PLS indicated that different anthocyanins showed distinct color values: malvidin 3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside-4-vinylguaiacol (Mv3-acet-glu-vg) presented the highest color values, while malvidin 3-O-glucoside (Mv3-glu) showed least. Among the free non-acylated anthocyanins, peonidin 3-O-oglucoside (Pn3-glu) showed the highest color values; the coumarylated anthocyanins presented higher color values than their corresponding acetylated anthocyanins and parent anthocyanins; pyranoanthocyanins presented also higher color values than their original anthocyanins; the color of anthocyanins depended on their structure. This work will be helpful to reveal evolution in aged red wine.

Anthocyanins: Targeting of Signaling Networks in Cancer Cells

  • Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal;Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad;Qureshi, Muhammad Zahid;Butt, Ghazala;Aras, Aliye
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.2379-2381
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    • 2014
  • It is becoming progressively more understandable that phytochemicals derived from edible plants have shown potential in modelling their interactions with their target proteins. Rapidly accumulating in-vitro and in- vivo evidence indicates that anthocyanins have anticancer activity in rodent models of cancer. More intriguingly, evaluation of bilberry anthocyanins as chemopreventive agents in twenty-five colorectal cancer patients has opened new window of opportunity in translating the findings from laboratory to clinic. Confluence of information suggests that anthocyanins treated cancer cells reveal up-regulation of tumor suppressor genes. There is a successive increase in the research-work in nutrigenomics and evidence has started to shed light on intracellular-signaling cascades as common molecular targets for anthocyanins. In this review we bring to l imelight how anthocyanins induced apoptosis in cancer cells via activation of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways.

Inhibition of Adipocyte Differentiation by Anthocyanins Isolated from the Fruit of Vitis coignetiae Pulliat is Associated with the Activation of AMPK Signaling Pathway

  • Han, Min Ho;Kim, Hong Jae;Jeong, Jin-Woo;Park, Cheol;Kim, Byung Woo;Choi, Yung Hyun
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.13-21
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    • 2018
  • Anthocyanins are naturally occurring water-soluble polyphenolic pigments in plants that have been shown to protect against cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers, as well as other chronic human disorders. However, the anti-obesity effects of anthocyanins are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of anthocyanins isolated from the fruit of Vitis coignetiae Pulliat on the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Our data indicated that anthocyanins attenuated the terminal differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, as confirmed by a decrease in the number of lipid droplets, lipid content, and triglyceride production. During this process, anthocyanins effectively enhanced the activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK); however, this phenomenon was inhibited by the co-treatment of compound C, an inhibitor of AMPK. Anthocyanins also inhibited the expression of adipogenic transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-${\gamma}$, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein a and b, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c. In addition, anthocyanins were found to potently inhibit the expression of adipocyte-specific genes, including adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, leptin, and fatty acid synthase. These results indicate that anthocyanins have potent anti-obesity effects due to the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis, and thus may have applications as a potential source for an anti-obesity functional food agent.

Effect of Amino Acids Addition on Stability and Antioxidative Property of Anthocyanins (아미노산의 첨가가 anthocyanins 색소의 안정성과 항산화능력에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Ju-Kyoung;Imm, Jee-Young
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.562-566
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    • 2005
  • Effects of amino acids (Arg, Lys, Gly, Ile, Glu, Asp, and Met) on the color intensity, stability and antioxidative properties of anthocyanins extracted from grape skins were investigated. Intensity of anthocyanins was significantly increased by the addition of Asp. Except for basic amino acids such as Arg and Lys, stabilities of anthocyanins were significantly improved by the addition of other amino acids including neutral, acidic and sulfur containing amino acids during the storage at $30^{\circ}C$ at pH 3.5. In case of control anthocyanins was remained unchanged the intensity of red color decreased significantly during the storage whereas their antioxidative activity were unchanged. Although effects of amino acids addition on electron donating abilities of anthocyanins were not differentiated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method, the addition of Asp or Met resulted in increased ferric reducing ability which measured by FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma) assay.

Black soybean anthocyanins attenuate inflammatory responses by suppressing reactive oxygen species production and mitogen activated protein kinases signaling in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages

  • Kim, Jin Nam;Han, Sung Nim;Ha, Tae Joung;Kim, Hye-Kyeong
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.357-364
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    • 2017
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Oxidative stress is closely related with inflammation and development of many diseases. Black soybean seed coat contains high amount of anthocyanins, which are well-known for free radical scavenging activities. This study investigated inflammatory response and action mechanism of black soybean anthocyanins with regard to antioxidant activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. MATERIALS/METHODS: RAW 264.7 cells were treated with anthocyanins extracted from black soybean seed coats in a concentration range of 12.5 to $100{\mu}g/mL$. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines, and the signaling in the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway were examined. RESULTS: Black soybean anthocyanins significantly decreased LPS-stimulated production of ROS, inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin $E_2$, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor ${\alpha}$ and interleukin-6, in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity (P < 0.001). Black soybean anthocyanins downregulated the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells (P < 0.001). Moreover, black soybean anthocyanins inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of MAPKs, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that black soybean anthocyanins exert anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting ROS generation and subsequent MAPKs signaling, thereby inhibiting inflammatory responses.

Isolation and Stability of Anthocyanin Pigments in Grape Peels (포도파괴 Anthocyanin 색소의 분리 및 안전성)

  • Shim, Ki-Hwan;Kang, Kap-Suk;Choi, Jine-Shang;Seo, Kwon-Il;Moon, Ju-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.279-286
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    • 1994
  • Anthocyanins were isolated and identified from grape peels which were wasted much in Korea, and their characteristics were as follows .Isolated pigments from grape peels were 11 varieties such as 5 varieties of 3, 5-diglucoside (DG), 6 varieties of 3-monoglucoside (MG), and acylated pigment was 2 varieties of them. Malvidin was 4 varieties , petunidin , peonidin and delphinidin 2 varieties in each, and cyanidin 1 variety of 11 vareities. Malvidin -3, 5-diglucoside and peonidin -3, 5-diglucoside of anthocyanins were above 48% in total anthocyanins content of 114.99mg/g in dried skins. Breakdown of anthocyanins was higher become intimate neutral pH, but stable to stroage period for 7-days. Hyperchromic effects were showed when sugars were added in pigment extract of grape peels, the highest value was glucose and the next ordor was fructose and sucrose. Breakdown velosity of anthocyanins was higher when ascorbic acid was added, but its velocity was reduced in anaerobic state . Absorption degree by organic acid treatment was higher than control, and anthocyanins were stable to storage period for 7 days.

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Effects of Heavy Metals on Plant Growths and Pigment Contents in Arabidopsis thaliana

  • Baek, Seung-A;Han, Taejun;Ahn, Soon-Kil;Kang, Hara;Cho, Myung Rae;Lee, Suk-Chan;Im, Kyung-Hoan
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.446-452
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    • 2012
  • The effect of heavy metals on seedling growth and pigment levels was studied in Arabidopsis using essential (Cu, Mn, and Zn) and non-essential metals (Pb and Hg). Generally increasing the concentrations of the metals resulted in a gradual decrease in root and shoot lengths, a decrease in chlorophylls, an increase in anthocyanins and a fluctuation in carotenoid content depending on the metal types. The toxicity of the metals decreased in the following order: Cu > Hg > Pb > Zn > Mn. Among the five metals, Cu was exceptionally toxic and the most potent inducer of anthocyanins. Pb induced the smallest quantity of anthocyanins but it was the strongest inducer of carotenoids. It suggests that the Cu-stressed Arabidopsis may use anthocyanins as its main antioxidants while the Pb-stressed Arabidopsis use carotenoids as its main protectants. All of the five metals induced an accumulation of anthocyanins. The consistent increase in anthocyanin content in the metal-stressed Arabidpsis indicates that anthocyanins play a major role in the protection against metal stresses.

Photoprotective Potential of Anthocyanins Isolated from Acanthopanax divaricatus Var. albeofructus Fruits against UV Irradiation in Human Dermal Fibroblast Cells

  • Lyu, Su-Yun;Park, Won-Bong
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.201-206
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    • 2012
  • Ultraviolet (UV) A penetrates deeply into the skin and induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing damage to fibroblasts, which leads to aging of the skin. However, the body has developed an antioxidant defence system against the harmful effects of ROS. Enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) play critical roles on the removal of excess ROS in living organisms. In this study, the antioxidant activities of anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-galactoside and cyanidin 3-lathyroside) from Acanthopanax divaricatus var. albeofructus (ADA) fruits were investigated by xylenol orange, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and antioxidant enzyme assay. As a result, generation of $H_2O_2$ and lipid peroxide induced by UVA-irradiation in human dermal fibroblast (HDF-N) cells was reduced by treatment of anthocyanins. Also, augmented enzyme (SOD and CAT) activities were observed in UVA-irradiated cells when treated with anthocyanin. In conclusion, the results obtained show that anthocyanins from ADA fruits are potential candidates for the protection of fibroblast against the damaging effects of UVA irradiation. Furthermore, anthocyanin may be a good candidate for antioxidant agent development.

Identification of Anthocyanin from The Extract of Soybean Seedcoat

  • Park, Sun-Mi;Kim, Ji-Na;Dung, Tran-Huu;Do, Le Thanh;Thu, Do Thi Anh;Sung, Mi-Kyung;Kim, Jong-Sang;Yoo, Hoon
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.59-64
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    • 2011
  • Anthocyanins are naturally occuring phytochemicals and the main components of the coloring of plants, flowers and fruits. They are known to elicit antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and cancer preventive activity. In this study, we investigated anthocyanins in black / yellow soybean seedcoats using different methods of detection - thin layer chromatography (TLC), capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and HPLC analysis. The anthocyanins in soybean seedcoats were extracted by five independent methods of extraction and the aglycons (anthocyanidins) of the corresponding anthocyanins were prepared by acid mediated hydrolysis. The anthocyanin / anthocyanidin in black soybean seedcoat showed characteristic TLC mobility, CZE electrophoretic retention and HPLC migration time while little of anthocyanins were detected from yellow soybean seedcoat. The extracted anthocyanins showed pH dependent retention time in CZE and spectral change in UV-Vis spectrum. HPLC analysis of the hydrolyzed extract of black soybean seedcoat identified the presence of four anthocyanidins. The major anthocyanin in black soybean seedcoat was cyanin (cyanidin-3-O-glucoside), with the relative order of anthocyanidin in cyanidin > delphinidin > petunidin > pelargonidin.