• Title, Summary, Keyword: angiotensin-converting enzyme

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Blood Pressure in Relation to α-Adducin, Angiotensinogen, ACE Gene Polymorphisms and Sodium Intake in Korean Female Elderly Subjects (한국 여성 노인에서 α -Adducin, Angiotensinogen, ACE 유전자다형성 및 나트륨 섭취수준에 따른 혈압의 비교)

  • Chae, Sun-Ju;Chung, Ja-Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.10
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    • pp.1371-1377
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    • 2006
  • Gene polymorphisms that are associated with sodium homeostasis in the body, such as $\alpha-adducin$ (ADDI, Gly460Trp), angiotensinogen (AGT, Met235Thr), and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, Ins/Del) may increase the risk for the development of hypertension. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between the singular and combined effects of ADD1, AGT, ACE genotypes, and blood pressure in elderly population. Moreover, we examined the interaction of sodium intake and polymorphisms of aforementioned genes and their effects on blood pressure. Among one hundred and nine female subjects, aged 60 and over (mean 75.9 yr), the major alleles for ADD1, AGT, and ACE polymorphisms in the studied population were Gly (66.1%), Thr (64.2%), Ins (83.5%), respectively. Analysis on the combined effects of genetic variation showed that subjects who were both ADD1 Trp/Trp and ACE Del/Del homozygotes had significantly higher systolic blood pressure (p=0.01). Similarly, ACE Del/Del homozygotes who had AGT Met allele had significantly higher diastolic blood pressure (p<0.001). However, in single-gene analyses, no association was found between any specific genotype and blood pressure. In subjects with low sodium intake, ADD1 Trp/Trp homozygotes had significantly higher systolic blood pressure than subjects who had ADD1 Gly allele (138 mmHg vs. 127 mmHg, p=0.03). There was no difference in blood pressure between ADD1 Trp/Trp and ADD1 Gly/Gly or Gly/Trp, in subjects with high sodium intake. In summary, this study shows that interactions between the ADD1, AGT and ACE genes influence systolic and diastolic blood pressure in elderly subjects, and dietary sodium intake can modulate the effects of ADD1 Gly460Trp polymorphisms on systolic blood pres sure.

The Characteristics of Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis I Detected from School Urine Screening (학교 집단 소변 검사로 발견 된 막증식성 사구체신염 I형의 특성)

  • Choi, Jung-Youn;Park, Mi-Young;Lee, Yong-Jik;Ha, Il-Soo;Cheong, Hae-Il;Choi, Yong;Park, Young-Seo;Han, Hye-Won;Jin, Dong-Kyu;Chung, Woo-Yeong;Kim, Kee-Hyuck;Yoo, Kee-Hwan;Park, Yong-Hoon
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.152-161
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    • 2006
  • Purpose : In Korea, the school urine screening program is a useful tool for screening urine abnormalities. It is particularly useful in early detection of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis(MPGN) I, which frequently progresses to chronic renal failure. In this study, we studied the medical history, laboratory findings, and histologic findings of MPGN to gain helpful information on early detection and treatment. Methods : The subjects were 19 children, who were diagnosed with MPGN from kidney biopsies that were performed in ten nationwide university hospitals because of abnormal urine findings from school urine screening programs conducted from July 1999 to April 2004. We divided the patients into 2 groups, a nephrotic range proteinuria group(n=8) and a non-nephrotic proteinuria group(n=11), and retrospectively analyzed the clinical features, laboratory findings, histologic findings, treatment, and clinical course. Results : The mean age at the first abnormal urinalysis was $10.6{\pm}2.2$ years in the nephrotic proteinuria group and $9.6{\pm}3.2$ years in the non-nephrotic proteinuria group. The mean age at the time of kidney biopsy was $11.3{\pm}2.3$ years in the nephrotic range proteinuria group and $10.4{\pm}3.2$ years in the non-nephrotic proteinuria group respectively. There was no significant difference in the mean age and sex between the two groups. In the nephrotic proteinuria group, 6 children had a low plasma C3 level and in the non-nephrotic proteinuria group, 8 children had a low plasma C3 level, but there was no significant difference between the 2 groups. There was no significant difference in the laboratory test results(including WBC count, RBC count, platelet count and other serologic tests) between the 2 groups except for 24 hour urine protein secretion. There was no difference between the 2 groups with regard to the acute and chronic changes in the glomerulus on light microscopic findings, IgG, IgA, Ig M, C1q, C3, C4, fibrogen deposition on immunofluoroscence findings, and mesangial deposits, subendothelial deposits, and subepithelial deposits on electron microscopic findings. The children were treated with corticosteroids, ACE(angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors, dipyridamole and other immunosuppressive agents. During the course of treatment, there were no children whose clinical condition worsened. Among 19 children, 3 children went into remission(2 in the nephrotic proteinuria group, 1 in the non-nephrotic proteinuria group) and 9 children went into a partial remission(4 in the nephrotic proteinuria group, 5 in the non-nephrotic proteinuria group) on urinalysis. There was no significant difference in the treatment results between the two groups. Conclusion : The 73.7% of children who were incidentally diagnosed with MPGN by the school urine screening program had reduced C3. 42.1% of the children had nephrotic range proteinuria. There were no significant differences in clinical features, laboratory test results, light microscopic, immunofluorescence microscopic, and electron microscopic findings between the nephrotic proteinuria group and the non-nephrotic proteinuria group except for the 24 hour urine protein secretion. Therefore, for early detection of MPGN during the school urine screening program, we strongly recommend a kidney biopsy if children have abnormal urine findings such as persistent proteinuria and persistent hematuria, or if the serum C3 is reduced.

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Quality Characteristic of Glasswort (Salicornia herbacea L.) Fermented by Bacillus subtilis (Bacillus subtilis를 이용하여 발효시킨 퉁퉁마디(Salicornia herbacea L.)의 품질 특성)

  • Park, In-Bae;Park, Jeong-Wook;Lee, Young-Jae;Shin, Gung-Won;Kim, Hae-Seop;Jo, Yeong-Cheol
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.7
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    • pp.902-908
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    • 2009
  • In this study, we investigated the quality of glasswort (Salicornia herbacea L.) fermented by Bacillus subtilis at $37^{\circ}C$ for 48 hours. We determined the changes in temperature, the contents of moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, carbohydrate, solid content, pH, Brix, salinity, free amino acid, Hunter's color value, electron donating ability (EDA) activities and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. The contents of crude protein, crude fat, crude ash and carbohydrate after fermentation to mixing ratio of glasswort were $10.45{\sim}30.18%$, $11.69{\sim}19.26%$, $17.65{\sim}25.56%$ and $21.01{\sim}59.10%$ (dry basis), respectively. The solid content, pH, sugar and salinity of fermented glasswort were $39.56{\sim}52.25%$, $6.01{\sim}6.71$, $1.2{\sim}1.7$ Brix and $0.3{\sim}0.6%$, respectively. Total amino acid level of the fermented glasswort was $447.57{\sim}668.89\;mg$/100 g, and was the highest in glasswort mixed with rice bran at a ratio of 1 (w) : 1 (w). Moreover, aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid, alanine, valine, $\beta$-aminoisobutyric acid, lysine and arginine were the main free amino acids. EDA activities and ACE inhibition after fermentation were $46.66{\pm}1.21{\sim}50.87{\pm}1.84%$ and $96.77{\pm}1.23{\sim}97.56{\pm}1.23%$, respectively.

Quality Characteristics and Physiological Functionality of Traditional Rice Wines in Chungnam Province of Korea (충남지역 주요 전통주의 품질특성 및 생리기능성)

  • Lee, Mi-Young;Sung, Si-Youl;Kang, Heun-Kag;Byun, Hong-Seob;Jung, Sang-Mi;Song, Jung-Hwa;Lee, Jong-Soo
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.177-182
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    • 2010
  • The goal of this study was to characterize the quality and physiological functionality of some traditional rice wines in Chungnam province, Korea. Non-sterilized and commercial sterilized traditional rice wines from five traditional rice wine factories of Chungnam province were collected and investigated for nutritional components, noxious compounds and physiological functionality. Ethanol content ranged from 16.1~18.3% and pH ranged from 3.27~4.76, and they also contained 0.15% to 0.55% of total acid. All traditional rice wines contained 10.15~139.9 mg% of amino nitrogen and 2.5~25.7% of total sugar. Among organic acids, lactic acid was contained 7.4~29.6 mg%, and succinic acid and propionic acid was also contained 0.2~2.7 mg% and 0.7~8.3 mg%, respectively. Antihypertensive angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity were showed 37.0~86.0% in all rice wines, however, fibrinolytic activity, antioxidant activity, SOD-like activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity were low or not detected.

Biological and Antimicrobial Activity of Vaccinium oldhami Fruit (정금나무(Vaccinium oldhami) 열매의 생리활성 및 항균활성)

  • Chae, Jung-Woo;Jo, Bun-Sung;Joo, Sung-Hyun;Ahn, Dong-Hyun;Chun, Sung-Sook;Cho, Young-Je
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to investigate the biological activity and antimicrobial activity of Vaccinium oldhami fruit extracts. ABTS radical cation decolorization and the antioxidant protection factor (PF) of extracts as $92.7{\pm}4.1%$ and $3.6{\pm}1.6$ PF were higher than a BHT of $200{\mu}g/mL$ as $52.4{\pm}1.9%$ and $2.0{\pm}0.8$ PF, and the TBARS of extracts was $74.4{\pm}2.9%$ with $200{\mu}g/mL$. The hypertension inhibitory activity of extracts from Vaccinium oldhami fruit indicated the activities of $28.6{\pm}0.6%$ with $200{\mu}g/mL$, and anti-gout activity was $43.3{\pm}0.8%$ with $200{\mu}g/mL$. Antimicrobial activity was found in Vaccinium oldhami fruit extracts on Helicobacter pylori, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Eschericia coli and Propionebacterium acne. This activity was illustrated as 24 mm, 28 mm, 13 mm, 26 mm and 16 mm clear zones with $200{\mu}g/mL$ respectively, and the elastase inhibitory activity which is related to the wrinkle cause was observed in extracts as $52.7{\pm}0.9%$ with $200{\mu}g/mL$.

Antihypertensive Effect of Peptide from Sardine Muscle Hydrolyzate on Mild Hypertensive Subjects (정어리 단백질 유래 펩타이드의 경중 고혈압 환자에 대한 강압효과)

  • Kawasaki, T.;Seki, E.;Osajima, K.;Yoshida, M.;Asada, K.;Matsui, T.;Osajima, Y.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Food Hygiene and Safety Conference
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    • pp.50-58
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    • 2004
  • Valy-Tyrosine (VY) derived from alkaline pretense hydrolyzate of sardine muscles showed the in vitro Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and the in vivo antihypertensive effect in SHR. We investigated the antihypertensive effect of the VY on mild hypertensive subjects including subjects with high-normal blood pressure using a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. (1) Nineteen subjects (Age 48.9${\pm}$4.3, M/F;18/1) took a 100ml drink either containing 125${\mu}$g of VY or placebo twice daily for 4 weeks. The reductions of the systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were observed in mild hypertensive subjects (n=5) with averages of 17.8${\pm}$2.5 mmHg (p<0.01 vs placebo) and 11.0${\pm}$2.0 mmHg(p<0.05 vs placebo), respectively. Neither SBP nor DBP changed in the subjects of both the placebo group and the high-normal blood pressure group. (2) A randomized double-blind cross-over placebo-controlled study was carried out in 10 mild essential hypertensive subjects (Age 50.6${\pm}$4.6, M/F;10/0). They took a 100ml drink either containing 62.5${\mu}$g of VY or placebo twice daily for 4 weeks alternatively with a 6-week interval. The percent changes in SBP and DBP were -6.9 % and -5.8 % (p<0.05) one week after the VY drink administration, respectively. No adverse effects such as coughing or allergic phenomena could be observed in any of the subjects of drinking VY during the experimental period. These results suggest that the drink containing at least 125${\mu}$g/day of VY may have a significant antihypertensive effect on mild hypertensive subjects without any adverse effects.

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Characteristics of Hot-Water Extracts from Salmon Frame as Basic Ingredients for Gomtang-like Products (열수추출 연어 Frame 엑스분의 곰탕 유사 제품 베이스로서의 특성)

  • Han, Byung-Wook;Kim, Hye-Suk;Jee, Seung-Joon;Lee, Jae-Hyoung;Kim, Hyung-Jun;Park, Shin-Ho;Ji, Seong-Gil;Heu, Min-Soo;Kim, Jin-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.10
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    • pp.1326-1333
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    • 2007
  • For preparing the basic ingredients of Gomtang-like products from the extracts of salmon frame, the extraction conditions of salmon frame were examined, and the characteristics of the extracts were compared with commercial Gomtang. Based on the crude protein, Ex-N and sensory attributes, the extractions were optimized by extracting pretreated-salmon frame in 12 times (v/w) of water for 12 hrs, before filtering with cheese cloth to yield 3 times the volume of the raw material. The concentrations of heavy metals in extracts from salmon frame were below the safety limits suggested by KFDA. The mai or amino acids were glutamic acid and aspartic acid as the free amino acids, and glycine, proline, and glutamic acid as the total amino acids. The calcium and phosphorus contents were 18.0 mg/100 mL and 33.1 mg/100 mL, respectively, and they accounted for 20% and 18% of the recommended daily allowance for mineral intake. The angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity was improved by incubation with Flavourzyme for 4 hrs and its $IC_{50}$ was 2 mg/mL. The results above suggested that the enzymatic hydrolysates from extracts of salmon frame could be used as a basic ingredient for preparing Gomtang-like products.

Evaluating and managing hypertension in children: a survey of Korean cardiologists and nephrologists (소아 고혈압의 평가와 관리 방법; 한국 소아심장 전문의와 소아신장 전문의 설문)

  • Lee, Eun Hee;Yim, Hyung Eun;Jang, Gi Young;Yoo, Kee Hwan;Son, Chang Sung;Hong, Young Sook;Lee, Joo Won
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.51 no.9
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    • pp.992-997
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : Hypertension (HTN) is no longer an exclusively adult disease; the prevalence of pediatric HTN is increasing. To understand the evaluation and treatment of childhood HTN in Korea, we investigated, via a questionnaire, how hypertensive children are currently assessed and managed by pediatric cardiologists (CA) and nephrologists (NE). Methods : We surveyed 82 pediatric CA and 77 NE, regarding how they manage hypertensive children in Korea. Results : A total 75 replies were received to our questionnaire request (response rate: 47.15%). Routine blood pressure (BP) checks were more frequently performed by NE (CA: 5.7%, NE: 25%, P=0.03), but most respondents (86%) did not check BP routinely. Mercury sphygmomanometers were the most commonly used devices and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was not frequently used. The goal BP in treated patients was set at the 95th percentile by 61% of respondents. NE used a lower BP goal in hypertensive children with renal disease (CA: 24%, NE: 64%, P=0.004) or DM (CA: 12.5%, NE: 50%, P=0.003). Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors were the most commonly used agents (mean: 59%); following ACE inhibitors, CA preferred diuretics for hypertensive children with renal disease or cardiovascular disease, and NE preferred calcium channel blockers, regardless of underlying disease. Self-monitoring was the most frequent method for BP monitoring at home. Conclusion : In Korea, BP measurement is not yet a routine examination in treating hypertension. There are some differences in management strategies vis-$\grave{a}$-vis hypertension, between pediatric cardiologists and nephrologists. For the appropriate management and prevention of secondary disease in long-term studies, standard guidelines and education are needed for pediatricians.

Food Component Characteristics of Seafood Cooking Drips (수산 자숙액의 식품성분 특성)

  • Oh, Hyeun-Seok;Kang, Kyung-Tae;Kim, Hye-Suk;Lee, Jae-Hyoung;Jee, Seung-Joon;Ha, Jin-Hwan;Kim, Jin-Soo;Heu, Min-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.595-602
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to investigate on food component characteristics of seafood cooking drips (skipjack tuna cooking drip, octopus cooking drip and oyster cooking drip) as a source of functional seasoning. Heavy metal contents of seafood cooking drips were below food safety level. Among seafood cooking drips concentrated to 5 folds, the crude protein content was the highest (18.1%) in skipjack tuna cooking drip (SCD). The free amino acid content and taste value were higher in SCD than in other seafood cooking drips, and the major free amino acids were glutamic acid and aspartic acid. Total amino acid content of SCD was 16.2 g/100 mL and the major amino acids were glutamic acid (11.9%), proline (9.2%), glycine (9.1%) and histidine (11.5%). SCD in comparison with other seafood cooking drips showed the highest angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity at $IC_{50}$ of 14.1 mg/mL. These results suggested that SCD could be used as a source of functional seasoning.

Physiological Activities of Gymnopilus spectabilis Mycelium Extract and Supernatant of its Broth (갈황색 미치광이버섯 균사체 추출물 및 배양액의 생리활성)

  • Son, Jung-A;Seok, Soon-Ja;Lee, Kyoung-Jin;Lee, Kang-Hyo;Park, Jeong-Sik;Park, Ki-Moon
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.85-95
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    • 2007
  • This study was carried out to investigate the physiological activities of the ethanol extract from Gymnopilus spectabilis mycelium (EGM) and of the supernatant obtained from fermentation broth (SGB). The contents of polysaccharides, phenol compounds and total ${\beta}-glucans$ of EGM were found to be 80.14%, 3.5 mg/ml and 5.91%, respectively and those for SGB were 78.68%, 3.32 mg/ml and 3.28%, respectively. Both EGM and SGB exhibited dose-dependent nitrate-scavenging abilities at pH 1.2. In addition, both EGM and SGB on the autoxidation rate of the linoleic acid demonstrated powerful antioxidant activities at 1 mg/ml level. With respect to fibrolytic activity, EGM showed 1,180 unit/g, which was the same activity as streptokinase, while SGB was 1,011 unit/g. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity of EMG determined by both the normal and pretreatment methods were estimated to be 8.2% and 10.2%, respectively. However, SGB showed no corresponding activity. The growth inhibitory effects of EGM on AGS, A549, HeLa and NCTC cells were over 58.88%, respectively. And the growth inhibitory effects of the SGB on HeLa and NCTC cells were 44.92 and 76.76%, respectively. Also, EGM and SGB activated the components of the alternative complement pathway from 51 and 62% at the concentration of 100 mg/ml, The xanthine oxidase inhibition activities of EGM and SGB (1 mg/ml) were 9.53 and 16.92%, respectively.