• Title, Summary, Keyword: angiotensin-converting enzyme

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Clinicopathologic Changes of IgA Nephropathy in Children During Long-term (average 10.8 yrs) Follow-up (소아 IgA 신병증의 장기 추적(평균 10.8년)에 따른 임상 경과 및 병리학적 변화)

  • Moon, Chang-Min;Kim, Pyung-Kil;Lim, Beom-Jin;Song, Ji-Sun;Jeong, Hyeon-Joo
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.154-165
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    • 2010
  • Purpose : We know little about the natural course of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) in association with histologic changes especially in children. We investigated clinicopathologic features with long-term follow-up biopsy to clarify the outcomes and prognostic indicators for childhood IgAN. Methods : From our patients' medical records, we retrieved 20 patients with IgAN, to whom renal biopsies had been performed for the initial diagnosis and follow-up to find out any histologic changes. Initial and follow-up biopsies were classified by Haas classification. The changes of these parameters were compared with the evolution of clinical features. Results : Patients were treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in combination with angiotensin receptor blockers (in subclass II or above) and short-term cyclosporine A(in patients showing nephrotic syndrome). Histologic improvement in 7 cases and deterioration in 3 cases were observed. At the time of last biopsy, 10 cases (50%) showed clinical remission and the others showed improved clinical features. These clinical outcomes did not correlate with initial Haas classifications. Hypertension at onset observed in 5 cases (25%) revealed significant correlation with clinical outcome (P =0.01) and last Haas classification (P =0.007). None of the cases showed progression to CRF or ESRD. Conclusion : During a mean follow-up of $10.8{\pm}3.4$ years, childhood IgAN showed good clinicopathologic outcome. Hypertension at onset was only a strong predictor of clinicopathologic outcomes, but initial Haas classification cannot predict outcomes in children. Histologic change of IgAN in long term follow-up period cannot be completely predicted by clinical data and vice versa. Therefore, a renal biopsy should be considered as a part of follow-up plan.

Optimization for the Process of Ethanol of Persimmon Leaf(Diospyros kaki L. folium) using Response Surface Methodology (반응표면분석법을 이용한 감잎(Diospyros kaki L. folium) 에탄올 추출물의 최적화)

  • Bae, Du-Kyung;Choi, Hee-Jin;Son, Jun-Ho;Park, Mu-Hee;Bae, Jong-Ho;An, Bong-Jeon;Bae, Man-Jong;Choi, Cheong
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.218-224
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    • 2000
  • The efforts were made to optimite ethanol extraction from persimmon leaf with the time of extraction$(1.5{\sim}2.5\;hrs)$, the temperature of extraction$(70{\sim}90^{\circ}C)$, and the concentration of ethanol$(0{\sim}40%)$ as three primary variables together with several functional characteristics of persimmon leaf as reaction variables. The conditions of extraction was best fitted by using response surface methodology through the center synthesis plan, and the optimal conditions of extraction were established. The contents of soluble solid and soluble tannin went up as the concentration of ethanol went up and the temperature of extraction went down, and the turbidity went down as the concentration of ethanol went down. Electron donation ability was hardly affected by the extraction temperature and had the tendency to go up as the concentration of ethanol went up. The inhibitory activity of xanthine oxidase(XOase) had the tendency to go up as both the concentration of ethanol and the temperature of extraction went up. The inhibitory activity of angiotensin converting enzyme(ACE), the significance of which still was not recognized, showed the maximum when the concentration of ethanol was 27%. In result, the optimal conditions of extraction was the extraction time of two hours, the extraction temperature of $75{\sim}81^{\circ}C$, and the ethanol concentration of $33{\sim}35%$.

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The Radioprotective Effect and Mechanism of Captopril on Radiation Induced Lung Damage in Rat (방사선조사에 의한 쥐 폐손상에 방사선보호제로서 Captopril의 역할에 관한 연구)

  • Song Mi Hee;Lee Kyung Ja;Koo Heasoo;Oh Won Young
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.190-198
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : It was reported that Captopril (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) had an effect to reduce the pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis induced by radiation in rat. We peformed this study to investigate the radioprotective effect and mechanism of Captopril. Methods and Materials : The comparison was made between the radiation only group and the combined Captopril and radiation group by examining histopathologic findings and immunohistochemical stains $(TNF\alpha\;and\;TGF\beta1)$ at 2 and 8 weeks after irradiation. Each group has 8 to 10 rats (Sprague-Dawley). 12.5 Gy of X-ray was irradiated to the left hemithorax in a single fraction. Captopril (50 mg/kg/d) mixed with water was given per oral and continuously from 1 week prior to irradiation up to 8th week of the experiment. Result : In the combined Captopril and radiation group, the histopathologic changes which were hemorrhage into alveolar space, changes of alveolar epithelium, bronchial epithelium and blood vessels, and perivascular edema were less severe than in the radisation only group at 2 weeks. At 8 weeks, the alveolar epithelial changes and perivascular edema were less prominant in the combined Captopril and radiation group. At 2 weeks, the $TNF\alpha$ expression of the combined Captopril and radiation group was markedly decreased at the alveolar epithelium (p<0.01), lymphoid tissue (p=0.06) and the macrophage of alveolar space (p<0.01) compared with the radiation only group. Furthermore the $TGF\beta1$ expression was significantly prominant at the alveolar epithelium (p<0.02) and the macrophage in alveolar space (p<0.02). At 8 weeks, the expression of $TNF\alpha\;and\;TGF\beta1$ of most sites, except $TGF\beta1$ of the macrophage of alveolar space (p=0.09), showed no significant difference between 2 groups. Conclusion : This study revealed that early lung damage induced by irradiation was reduced with the addition of Captopril in the latent and early pneumonitis phase. The expression of $TNF\alpha\;and\;TGF\beta1$ at 2 weeks and $TGF\beta1$ at 8 weeks was further decreased in the combined Captopril and radiation group than the radiation only group. From these results, it may be concluded that the proinflammatoy cytokine $(TNF\alpha)$ and fibrogenic cytokine $(TGF\beta1)$ probably play the role of the radioprotective mechanism in Captopril.

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A Study on Pulmonary Toxic Effect of High-Dose Cisplatin Administered by Isolated Lung Perfusion in Dogs (잡견에서 분리폐관류 방법으로 투여된 고농도 cisplatin의 페독성에 관한 연구)

  • 김관민;한정호;김주현
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.33 no.9
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    • pp.697-706
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    • 2000
  • Background: Isolated lung perfusion(ILP) was developed as a new treatment approach to non-resectable primary or metastatic lung cancer, because of its ability to reduce systemic toxicity while delivering high-dose chemotherapeutic agents to the target organs. This research was planned to evaluate the direct toxic effect of high-dose cisplatin to the lung tissue during isolated lung perfusion. Material and Method: Fifteen mongrel dogs were divided in the perfusate for 40 minutes. The second group was composed of 5 mongrel dogs which underwent ILP with cisplatin 2.5 mg/Kg added to the perfusate for 30 minutes and 10 minutes with washing solution without cisplatin. The third group underwent the same procedure as the second group except cisplatin 5.0 mg/Kg in the perfusate. Activities of serum angiotensin converting enzyme(ACE), tumor necrosis factor-$\alpha$(TNF-$\alpha$), and concentration of serum lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) and blood urea nitrogen/creatinine (BUN/Cr) were analyzed in each groups at the time of pre-perfusion, 1 hour, 1 day, 1 week, and 2 weeks after ILP. Result: Serum ACE activities before and 1 hour, 1 day, 1 week, and 2 weeks after ILP in control group were 45.1$\pm$6.3, 44.6$\pm$9.3, 46.7$\pm$9.5, 50.8$\pm$9.1, 46.1$\pm$4.3 U/L. Those in cisplatin 2.5 and 5.0 mg/Kg groups were 49.4$\pm$12.6, 39.0$\pm$8.6, 42.3$\pm$15.9, 50.0$\pm$2.6, 53.8$\pm$8.3 and 55.5$\pm$12.3, 47.0$\pm$6.3, 45.1$\pm$6.9, 74.8$\pm$19.5, 60.2$\pm$12.0 U/L, respectively. Serum TNF-$\alpha$ activities in each group before and after ILP were 5.0$\pm$1.5 / 7.7$\pm$2.2 / 6.6$\pm$2.5 / 4.3$\pm$1.3 / 5.2$\pm$1.1(control), 8.7$\pm$1.6 / 9.9$\pm$2.2 / 7.9$\pm$1.5 / 6.3$\pm$2.2 / 7.4$\pm$2.4 (cisplatin 2.5 mg/Kg), and 6.9$\pm$0.7 / 8.9$\pm$3.4 / 7.9$\pm$4.0 / 3.3$\pm$0.9 / 5.8$\pm$1.3 pg/ml(cisplatin 5.0 mg/Kg). Mean LDH levels of each group were 225.7 / 271.3 / 328.9 / 350.8 / 255.7(control), 235.7 / 265.7 / 336.0 / 379.5 / 299.2 (cisplatin 2.5 mg/Kg), and 259.6 / 285.2 / 340.6 / 433.4 / 292.4 IU/L(cisplatin 5.0 mg/Kg). So there was no significant difference in serum ACE, TNF-$\alpha$, and LDH activity changes after ILP between the 3 groups. And, there was no significant changes in BUN/Cr in each groups, which was independent of ILP and perfused concentration of cisplatin. In addition, all dogs survived the ILP and there was no significant evidence of pulmonary vascular injury after 2 weeks of ILP with cisplatin. Conclusion: There was no harmful effect of cisplatin to the lund tissue of the mongrel dog up to 5.0 mg/Kg in perfusate. Therefore, it is perceived to be safe and effective to deliver high-dose cisplatin to the lung without pulmonary toxicity and renal damage with ILP.

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Physiological Activity of Sarcodon aspratus Extracts (능이버섯(Sarcodon aspratus) 추출물의 생리활성)

  • 송재환;이현숙;황진국;한정환;노정근;금동혁;박기문
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.172-179
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried out to find the preventive medical and therapeutic effects of Sarcodon asparatus on adult disease by employing several biological and biochemical assays. Nitrate scavenging ability(NSA) of Sarcodan asparatus extracts was displayed up to 99.9% at pH 1.2 in a dose-dependent manner. They also had 90.4% electron donating ability(EDA) at the concentration of 0.1 mg/mL. Extracts of Sarcodon asparatus were also able to function as a powerful antioxidant at all concentrations(0.01∼l.0 mg/mL). Furthermore, we observed that 1 mg/mL concentration of the extracts was more powerful than BHT, With respect to fibrolytic activity, Sarcodon asparatus showed 1,843.8 unit/g, which was higher than streptokinase(1,189 unit/g). The inhibitory effects of the extracts on angiotensin converting enzyme, measured by the normal and pretreatment methods, were 53 and 58%, respectively. We also performed cytotoxicity effect of Sarcodon asparatus extracts on a various cancer cell lines. The growth inhibitory effects of the extracts(5.0 mg/mL) on A549, HeLa, AGS, and SK-Hep-1 cells were 78.9, 55.3, 69.0, and 42.5 %, respectively. Interestingly, Sarcodon asparatusextracts induced mutation on Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 when Ames test was done.

An Analysis of 94 Percutaneous Renal Biopsies (경피적 신생검 94례에 대한 분석)

  • Kang, Ho-Jung;Lim, Sang-Woo;Do, Joo-Yeung;Yoon, Kyung-Woo
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.84-95
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    • 1995
  • A clinical and histopathological study was performed on ninety-four patients with nephrotic syndrome (91 idiopathic and 3 secondary) who were admitted to Department of Internal Medicine, Yeungnam University Hospital during the period of nine years, from January 1985 to May 1994. The results were as following. 1. the ratio of male to female was 1.76:1. In young age group, minimal change was the most predominant type. In old age group, membranous glomerulonephritis and focal glomerulosclerosis were predominant types. 2. The primary nephrotic syndromes were 96.8% and secondary nephrotic syndromes were 3.2%. Histopathologic findings of 94 renal biopsy tissue were classified into minimal change (43.6%), mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (29.8%), membranous glomerulonephritis (12.8%), TypeI membranous proliferative glomerulonephritis (4.3%), focal glomerulosclerosis (3.2%) and others (6.4%). 3. The response of eighty-six patients treated with steroid showed complete remission in 51.2%, partial remission in 20.9%, steroid dependent in 2.3%, and no effect in 25.6% of cases respectively. The response to steroid therapy was most effective in the patients with minimal change lesion. 4. In the patient with membranous proliferative glomerulonephlitis, long-term angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor treatment showed less deterioration of renal function.

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Bronchial Responsiveness in Patients with Mitral Valvular Heart Disease (승모판 심장질환 환자에서 기관지 반응성에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Ho-Cheol;Kim, Min-Gu;Hwang, Young-Sil
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.752-759
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    • 1995
  • Background: Bronchial asthma is characterized by noctunal dyspnea, cough and wheezing because of airway hyperresponsiveness to nonspecific stimuli. These symptoms and signs are also observed in patients with congestive heart failure. Therefore, this is so called "cardiac asthma". There are lots of experimental and clinical datas to suggest that airway dysfunctions occur in acute and chronic congestive heart failure. However, it is still controversial whether bronchial hyperresponsiveness is present in patients with congestive heart failure. To assess whether bronchial hyperresponsiveness is present in patients with congestive heart failure and to demonstrate the relationship between bronchial responsiveness and vascular pressure, we performed methacholine provocation test in 11 patients with mitral valvular heart disease. Methods: All patients were in the New York Heart Association functional class II and treated continuously with digoxin and/or dichlozid and/or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor except one patient. All patients were undergone right and left side heart catheterization for hemodynamic measurements. A 20 percent fall of peak expiratory flow rate were considered as positive response to methacholine provocation test. Results: 1) Only one patient who has normal pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, cardiac index was positive in methacholine provocation test. 2) Their mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure were $21.72{\pm}9.70mmHg$, $15.45{\pm}8.69mmHg$ respectively which were significantly higher. Conclusion: It is speculated that in stable congestive heart failure patients, bronchial responsiveness as assessed by methacholine provocation test may not be increased.

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Major Constituents and Bioactivities of Tea Products by Various Manufacturing (제조방법을 달리한 차의 주요성분과 생리활성)

  • Jo, Kwang-Ho;Pae, Yu-Rim;Yang, Eun-Jung;Park, Eun-Ji;Ma, Sueng-Jin;Park, Yong-Seo;Chung, Dong-Ok;Jung, Soon-Teck
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.596-602
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to investigate the changes of major components and bioactivities of tea produce. The tea produce were made by various methods, with different degree of fermentation during manufacturing process. Except green tea, degrees of fermentation in Wizo Tea, Ilsoae Tea, and Hwang Tea were $5{\sim}10%,\;50{\sim}60%$ and $70{\sim}80%$ respectively. The result are as follows : The general component(moisture, crude ash, crude lipid, and crude protein) and the content of total polyphenol in tea products were not shown significant difference during the fermentation process. The content of caffeine in tea extracts decreased sharply as degree of fermentation of tea. In comparison of hunter values in tea extract, lightness was decreased as fermentation redness (a) was all (-), and yellowness(b) was increased sharpy with degree of fermentation. Radical scavenging activity using DPPH of tow kinds of tea was potent and decreased generally with degree of feimentation. Inhibitory effects of tea extracts against angiotensin I converting enzyme were also potent.

Biological Activities and Quality Characteristics of Rice Germ after Microbial Fermentation (미생물 발효 쌀 배아의 품질특성 및 생리활성)

  • Song, Hyo-Nam;Lee, Youn Ri
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.59-66
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    • 2017
  • This study investigated the quality characteristics and biological activities of rice germ fermented by Bacillus spp. During the milling process, the contents of rice germ in the rice bran (Control) were adjusted to 30% (RG30) and 70% (RG70). The approximate composition, pH, total acidity, total soluble solid, total sugar, polyphenol and flavonoid contents were measured. DPPH radical scavenging activity, xanthine oxidase (XO) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activities were also determined. We observed that the moisture content decreased after fermentation, while the crude protein was significantly increased. Fermentation remarkably lowered the pH from 5.83~6.26 to 4.77~4.93, thereby elevating the total acidity. Fermentation also increased the total solid contents, from $0.40{\sim}0.87^{\circ}Bx$ to $1.63{\sim}2.20^{\circ}Bx$. The total sugar decreased to 136.81~151.53 mg/mL from 377.56~450.64 mg/mL. Polyphenol contents were the highest in control (0.59 and 0.73 mg/mL before and after fermentation, respectively). Fermentation significantly affected the increase of the polyphenols in both rice germ 30% and 70% samples, from 0.26 and 0.28 mg GAE/g before fermentation, to 0.52 and 0.70 mg GAE/g after fermentation, respectively. There was a slight increase in the flavonoid contents after fermentation. The $IC_{50}$ value of the electron donating ability, as evaluated by the DPPH method, was the lowest in control (3.77 and 3.36 mg/mL before and after fermentation, respectively). Fermentation increased the XO inhibition activity up to 63.69% in control, 49.81% in rice germ 30%, and 59.32% in rice germ 70%. The ACE inhibition activities were also increased in the fermented control, rice germ 30% and 70%, to 40.51%, 22.69% and 33.91%, respectively.

Changes of Quality and Physiological Functionality during the Fermentation of Doenjangs Made by Isolated Nuruk Mold and Commercial Nuruk Mold (분리국균과 시판국균으로 제조한 된장의 숙성 중 품질과 생리기능성 변화)

  • No, Jae-Duck;Lee, Dae-Hyung;Lee, Dae-Hyoung;Choi, Shin-Yang;Kim, Na-Mi;Lee, Jong-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.8
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    • pp.1025-1030
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    • 2006
  • In other to develop new functional doenjangs, two types of the isolated nuruk doenjangs were prepared with protease and amylase-producing Aspergillus oryzae D-2 and antihyperlipidemia Bacillus subtilis LK-12 and then changes of its quality and physiological functionalities were investigated during 2 months of fermentation and compared with those of the commercial nuruk doenjangs made by commercial Aspergillus oryzae and antihyperlipidemia Bacillus subtilis LK-12. ${\alpha}-Amylase$ activity of the isolated nuruk doenjangs during fermentation were decreased slightly, whereas proteases activities were increased significantly to $1.8{\sim}2.8$ Unit per mL after 1 month of fermentation. These ${\alpha}-amylase$ activities and proteases activities were similar with those of the commercial nuruk doenjangs. Amino-nitrogen content and reducing sugar content of the doenjangs after 2 months of fermentation were approximate $1.63{\sim}1.72\;mg%$ and $0.77{\sim}0.81%$, respectively. Antihypertensive angiotensin-Ⅰ converting enzyme inhibitory activities of the isolated nuruk doenjangs were slightly decreased from $85.6{\sim}87.2%$ to $84.0{\sim}85.1%$ after 2 months of fermentation and the commercial nuruk doenjangs were also significantly decreased from $85.7{\sim}88.0%$ to $69.1{\sim}79.7%$, lower than the isolated nuruk doenjangs. Fibrinolytic activity and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity of the isolated nuruk doenjangs were very low and it were also similar with those of the commercial nuruk doenjangs. Antioxidant activity of the isolated nuruk doenjangs were showed $17{\sim}22%$, lower than that of the commercial nuruk doenjangs $(22{\sim}26%)$.