• Title, Summary, Keyword: androgen

Search Result 263, Processing Time 0.055 seconds

Androgen in the Uterus: A Compensator of Estrogen and Progesterone

  • Cheon, Yong-Pil;Lee, Dong-Mok;Chun, Tea-Hoon;Lee, Ki-Ho;Choi, In-Ho
    • Development and Reproduction
    • /
    • v.13 no.3
    • /
    • pp.133-143
    • /
    • 2009
  • Pivotal roles of steroid hormones in uterine endometrial function are well established from the mouse models carrying the null mutation of their receptors. Literally androgen belongs to male but interestingly it also detected in female. The fluctuations of androgen levels are observed during reproductive cycle and pregnancy, and the functional androgen receptor is expressed in reproductive organs including uterus. Using high throughput methodology, the downstream genes of androgen have been isolated and revealed correlations between other steroid hormones. In androgen-deficient mice, uterine responses to exogenous gonadotropins are impaired and the number of pups per litter is reduced dramatically. As expected androgen has important role in decidual differentiation through AR. It regulates specific gene network during those cellular responses. Recently we examined the effects of steroid hormonal complex containing high level of androgen. Interestingly, on the contrary to the androgen-alone administration, the hormonal complex did not disturb the decidual reaction and the pubs did not show any morphological abnormality. It is suspected that the complexity of communication between other steroid hormone and their receptors are the reasons. In summary, androgen exists in female blood and it suggests the importance of androgen in female reproduction. However, the complex interactions with other hormones are not fully understood compared with estrogen and progesterone. The further studies to evaluate the possible role of androgen are needed and important to provide the in vivo rational for the prevention of associated pregnancy complications and help human's health.

  • PDF

Further Evaluation of Androgen Therapy in Aplastic Anemia - With Special Reference to Correlation between Response to Androgen and EEI - (재생불량성빈혈(再生不良性貧血)에 대(對)한 Androgen요법(療法)속보(續報) - Androgen의 효과(效果)와 Ferrokinetics Index 및 EEI와의 관계(關係) -)

  • Whang, Kee-Suk
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
    • /
    • v.1 no.1
    • /
    • pp.79-82
    • /
    • 1967
  • Patients with aplastic anemia were treated with a combination of depo-testosterone cyclopentylpropionate(Upjohn) and dexamethasone. In 7 of 15 patients treated, there was response in which either a significant increase in hemoglobin concentration, a prolonged interval or a cessation of blood transfusion requirement developed during androgen therapy. Younger patients with cellular marrow appeared to be better responding to androgen. EEI(Effective Erythropoietic Index) formulated by Gardner & Nathan(1966) which was a helpful measurement as to whether patients with myelofibrosis whould respond to androgen, was evaluated in patients with aplastic anemia. It was concluded that EEI as well as ferrokinetics indices (Plasma-$^{59}Fe$-disappearance rate, RBC $^{59}Fe$ net incorporation) did not significantly correlate with the degree of response to androgen in aplastic anemia.

  • PDF

Benzyldihydroxyoctenone, a Novel Nonsteroidal Antiandrogen, Shows Differential Apoptotic Induction in Prostate Cancer Cells in Response to Their Androgen Responsiveness

  • Suh, Hye-Won;Oh, Ha-Lim;Lee, Chul-Hoon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.21 no.5
    • /
    • pp.540-544
    • /
    • 2011
  • The molecular mechanisms of apoptotic induction by benzyldihydroxyoctenone (BDH), a nonsteroidal antiandrogen, isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp., have been previously published in prostate cancer LNCaP cells. Apoptotic induction of BDH-treated LNCaP cells was associated with downregulation of Bcl-xL that caused, in turn, cytochrome c release from mitochondria, and activation of procaspases and specific proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the patterns of apoptotic induction by BDH in non-prostate, ovarian cancer PA-1 (androgen-independent and -insensitive) cells and prostate cancer cells with different androgen responsiveness, such as C4-2 (androgen-independent and -sensitive), 22Rv1 (androgen-dependent and -low sensitive), and LNCaP (androgen-dependent and -high sensitive) cells. We found that BDH-treated LNCaP cell proliferation was significantly inhibited in a time-dependent manner and induced apoptosis via downregulation of the androgen receptor (AR) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA), as well as antiapoptotic Bcl-xL protein. However, the levels of BDH-mediated apoptotic induction and growth inhibition in 22Rv1 cells were apparently lower than those of LNCaP cells. In contrast, the induction of apoptosis and antiproliferative effect in BDH-treated non-prostate cancer PA-1 and hormone refractory C4-2 cells were not detectable and marginal, respectively. Therefore, BDH-mediated differential apoptotic induction and growth inhibition in a cell type seem to be obviously dependent on its androgen responsiveness; primarily on androgen-dependency, and then on androgensensitivity.

Proteomic analysis of androgen-independent growth in low and high passage human LNCaP prostatic adenocarcinoma cells

  • Youm, Yun-Hee;Kim, Se-Yoon;Bahk, Young-Yil;Yoo, Tag-Keun
    • BMB Reports
    • /
    • v.41 no.10
    • /
    • pp.722-727
    • /
    • 2008
  • The present study compared the proteomic characteristics of a low passage number (L-33) and high passage number (H-81) LNCaP cell clone. Marked differences in protein expression were noted in the response of L-33 and H-81 cells to androgens. To investigate if regulation of these proteins was androgen-dependent, expression of the androgen receptor was silenced via small interfering RNA. Consistent with the proteomic data, abrogation of androgen receptor production in H-81 cells resulted in the reversed expression level into L-33 cells compared with non-treated H-81 LNCaP cells. The results clarify the progression into an androgen-independent phenotype.

Induction of transforming growth factor-beta 1 by androgen is mediated by reactive oxygen species in hair follicle dermal papilla cells

  • Shin, Hyoseung;Yoo, Hyeon Gyeong;Inui, Shigeki;Itami, Satoshi;Kim, In Gyu;Cho, A-Ri;Lee, Dong Hun;Park, Won Seok;Kwon, Ohsang;Cho, Kwang Hyun;Won, Chong Hyun
    • BMB Reports
    • /
    • v.46 no.9
    • /
    • pp.460-464
    • /
    • 2013
  • The progression of androgenetic alopecia is closely related to androgen-inducible transforming growth factor (TGF)-${\beta}1$ secretion by hair follicle dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in bald scalp. Physiological levels of androgen exposure were reported to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In this study, rat vibrissae dermal papilla cells (DP-6) transfected with androgen receptor showed increased ROS production following androgen treatment. We confirmed that TGF-${\beta}1$ secretion is increased by androgen treatment in DP-6, whereas androgen-inducible TGF-${\beta}1$ was significantly suppressed by the ROSscavenger, N-acetyl cysteine. Therefore, we suggest that induction of TGF-${\beta}1$ by androgen is mediated by ROS in hair follicle DPCs.

Application of Bioinformatics for the Functional Genomics Analysis of Prostate Cancer Therapy

  • Mousses, Spyro
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Bioinformatics Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.74-82
    • /
    • 2000
  • Prostate cancer initially responds and regresses in response to androgen depletion therapy, but most human prostate cancers will eventually recur, and re-grow as an androgen independent tumor. Once these tumors become hormone refractory, they usually are incurable leading to death for the patient. Little is known about the molecular details of how prostate cancer cells regress following androgen ablation and which genes are involved in the androgen independent growth following the development of resistance to therapy. Such knowledge would reveal putative drug targets useful in the rational therapeutic design to prevent therapy resistance and control androgen independent growth. The application of genome scale technologies have permitted new insights into the molecular mechanisms associated with these processes. Specifically, we have applied functional genomics using high density cDNA microarray analysis for parallel gene expression analysis of prostate cancer in an experimental xenograft system during androgen withdrawal therapy, and following therapy resistance, The large amount of expression data generated posed a formidable bioinformatics challenge. A novel template based gene clustering algorithm was developed and applied to the data to discover the genes that respond to androgen ablation. The data show restoration of expression of androgen dependent genes in the recurrent tumors and other signaling genes. Together, the discovered genes appear to be involved in prostate cancer cell growth and therapy resistance in this system. We have also developed and applied tissue microarray (TMA) technology for high throughput molecular analysis of hundreds to thousands of clinical specimens simultaneously. TMA analysis was used for rapid clinical translation of candidate genes discovered by cDNA microarray analysis to determine their clinical utility as diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic targets. Finally, we have developed a bioinformatic approach to combine pharmacogenomic data on the efficacy and specificity of various drugs to target the discovered prostate cancer growth associated candidate genes in an attempt to improve current therapeutics.

  • PDF

A Study of Estrogen only Therapy and Estrogen Plus Androgen Combination Therapy in Surgical Menopause Patients (난소적출술 환자에서 Estrogen 단독요법 및 Estrogen-androgen 병합요법에 관한 연구)

  • Bai, Kwang-Bum
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
    • /
    • v.29 no.4
    • /
    • pp.279-285
    • /
    • 2002
  • Objective : To evaluate the difference between estrogen only therapy and estrogen-androgen combination therapy in surgical menopause patients. Materials and Method: Surgical menopause patients received 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogens or 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogens plus 1.25 mg methyltestosterone for 2 years. Bone mineral density, menopausal symptoms, lipoprotein profiles were measured. Results: Both groups showed increased bone mineral density. In the combination group, total cholestero l, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides decreased. In the estrogen only group, low density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased but high density lipoprotein cholesterol increased significantly. In both groups, menopausal symptoms were much improved. Side effects were easily tolerated in both groups. Conclusions: Estrogen-androgen combination therapy had comparable benefits compared with estrogen only therapy.

Gene Microarray Assessment of Multiple Genes and Signal Pathways Involved in Androgen-dependent Prostate Cancer Becoming Androgen Independent

  • Liu, Jun-Bao;Dai, Chun-Mei;Su, Xiao-Yun;Cao, Lu;Qin, Rui;Kong, Qing-Bo
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.15 no.22
    • /
    • pp.9791-9795
    • /
    • 2014
  • To study the gene expression change and possible signal pathway during androgen-dependent prostate cancer (ADPC) becoming androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC), an LNCaP cell model of AIPC was established using flutamide in combination with androgen-free environment inducement, and differential expression genes were screened by microarray. Then the biological process, molecular function and KEGG pathway of differential expression genes are analyzed by Molecule Annotation System (MAS). By comparison of 12,207 expression genes, 347 expression genes were acquired, of which 156 were up-ragulated and 191 down-regulated. After analyzing the biological process and molecule function of differential expression genes, these genes are found to play crucial roles in cell proliferation, differntiation, cell cycle control, protein metabolism and modification and other biological process, serve as signal molecules, enzymes, peptide hormones, cytokines, cytoskeletal proteins and adhesion molecules. The analysis of KEGG show that the relevant genes of AIPC transformation participate in glutathione metabolism, cell cycle, P53 signal pathway, cytochrome P450 metabolism, Hedgehog signal pathway, MAPK signal pathway, adipocytokines signal pathway, PPAR signal pathway, TGF-${\beta}$ signal pathway and JAK-STAT signal pathway. In conclusion, during the process of ADPC becoming AIPC, it is not only one specific gene or pathway, but multiple genes and pathways that change. The findings above lay the foundation for study of AIPC mechanism and development of AIPC targeting drugs.

Pharmacological Comparison of Timosaponin A III on the 5-beta Reductase and Androgen Receptor via In Silico Molecular Docking Approach (In silico 약리학적 분석을 통한 티모사포닌 A III의 5-베타 리덕타아제 단백질 및 안드로겐 수용체 단백질 활성 부위에 대한 결합 친화도 비교 연구)

  • Kim, Dong-Chan
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.28 no.3
    • /
    • pp.307-313
    • /
    • 2018
  • Alopecia cause psychological stress due to their effect on appearance. Thus, the global market size of the alopecia treatment products are growing quickly. Timosaponin A III is the well known active ingredient of Anemarrhenae Rhizoma. In this study, we investigated and compared the binding affinity of timosaponin A III with finasteride (5-beta reductase antagonist) and minoxidil (androgen receptor antagonist) on the target protein active site by in silico computational docking studies. The three dimensional crystallographic structure of 5-beta reductase (PDB ID : 3G1R) and androgen receptor (PDB ID: 4K7A) was obtained from PDB database. In silico computational autodocking analysis was performed using PyRx, Autodock Vina, Discovery Studio Version 4.5, and NX-QuickPharm option based on scoring functions. The timosaponin A III showed optimum binding affinity (docking energy) with 5-beta reductase as -12.20 kcal/mol as compared to the finasteride (-11.70 kcal/mol) and with androgen receptor as -9.00 kcal/mol as compared to the minoxidil (-7.40 kcal/mol). The centroid X, Y, Z grid position of the timosaponin A III on the 5-beta reductase was similar (overlap) to the finasteride, but the X, Y, Z centroid grid of the timosaponin A III on the androgen receptor was significantly far from the minoxidil centroid position. These results significantly indicated that timosaponin A III could be more potent antagonist to the 5-beta reductase and androgen receptor. Therefore, the extract of Anemarrhenae Rhizoma or timosaponin A III containing biomaterials can substitute the finasteride and minoxidil and can be applied to the alopecia protecting product and related industrial fields.