• Title, Summary, Keyword: anaerobic plot

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A Study on the Improvement of Treatment Efficiency for Nitrogen and Phosphorus by Improved Sewage Treatment Process in Constructed Wetland by Natural Purification Method (자연정화공법에 의한 인공습지 하수처리장에서 하수처리 공정개선에 따른 질소 및 인의 처리효율 향상 방안)

  • Seo, Dong-Cheol;Park, Woo-Young;Lim, Jong-Sir;Park, Chan-Hoon;Lee, Hong-Jae;Kim, Hong-Chul;Lee, Sang-Won;Lee, Do-Jin;Cho, Ju-Sik;Heo, Jong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.27-34
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    • 2008
  • To effectively treat the domestic sewage that was produced on a small-scale in farming and fishing village in order to encourage an ecologically friendly environment, a small-scale sewage treatment apparatus using natural purification methods that consisted of an aerobic and an anaerobic plots were constructed. The efficiency of sewage treatment according to the sewage loading was investigated to obtain the optimum sewage loading in small-scale sewage treatment apparatus. Removal rate of pollutants according to the sewage loading were in the order of $150\;Lm^{-2}day^{-1}{\fallingdotseq}300\;Lm^{-2}day^{-1}>600\;Lm^{-2}day^{-1}$. Therefore, the optimum sewage loading was 300 L m-2 day-1. Under the optimum sewage loading, removal rate of BOD, $COD_{Mn}$, turbidity, T-N and T-P were 99, 94, 99, 49 and 89%, respectively. However, to satisfy the water quality standard in effluent in small-sclae sewage treatment apparatus for domestic sewage treatment, the low removal efficiency of T-N and T-P must be improved. So to improve the removal rate of T-N and T-P, the efficiency of sewage treatment according to the improved sewage treatment process such as, re-treatment at aerobic plot, anaerobic condition of aerobic plot, changing the filter media sizes and the depths in anaerobic plot, and also addition of oyster shells to filter media at anaerobic plot were investigated. In case of 150 cm depth in anaerobic plot with filter medium A (effectivity particle size 1.50 mm) and addition of oyster shells to filter media at anaerobic plot, removal rate of T-N and T-P in both plots were increased by 10 and 3%, and 14 and 7% in comparison with 100 cm depth in anaerobic plot with filter medium B(effectivity particle size 0.95 mm), respectively. The optimum improved sewage treatment process in small-scale sewage treatment apparatus were 150 cm depth in anaerobic plot with filter medium A and addition of oyster shells to filter media at anaerobic plot.

Selection of Optimum Pebbles Size in Sewage Treatment Plant by Natural Purification Method (자연정화공법에 의한 하수처리장에서 최적 여재 선정)

  • Seo, Dong-Cheol;Cho, Ju-Sik;Park, Hyun-Geoun;Kim, Hyoung-Kab;Heo, Jong-Soo;Lee, Hong-Jae
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.26-35
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    • 2003
  • An investigation was carried out to evaluate the effects of pebble size on the small-scale sewage treatment apparatus by natural purification method that consisted of aerobic and anaerobic plot. pH and EC in both plots varied minimally regardless of pebble size. DO in aerobic plot increased as the pebble size decreased. That in the anaerobic plot was slightly less in comparison with that of the aerobic plot but varied minimally, $2.4{\sim}5.1\;mg/L$ regardless of pebble size. Under all experimental conditions, removals of BOD, COD and turbidity in anaerobic plot were more than 98, 91 and 98, 98% respectively. Removals of T-N and T-P increased as pebble size decreased. Under all experimental conditions, removals of T-N and T-P in anaerobic plot were about $45{\sim}59$ and $480{\sim}96%$, respectively. Judging from the above results, it should be considered that the optimum pebble size and pebble permeability in both plot was $2{\sim}4$ and $0.1{\sim}4\;mm$, respectively.

Determination and Variation of Core Bacterial Community in a Two-Stage Full-Scale Anaerobic Reactor Treating High-Strength Pharmaceutical Wastewater

  • Ma, Haijun;Ye, Lin;Hu, Haidong;Zhang, Lulu;Ding, Lili;Ren, Hongqiang
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.10
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    • pp.1808-1819
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    • 2017
  • Knowledge on the functional characteristics and temporal variation of anaerobic bacterial populations is important for better understanding of the microbial process of two-stage anaerobic reactors. However, owing to the high diversity of anaerobic bacteria, close attention should be prioritized to the frequently abundant bacteria that were defined as core bacteria and putatively functionally important. In this study, using MiSeq sequencing technology, the core bacterial community of 98 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was determined in a two-stage upflow blanket filter reactor treating pharmaceutical wastewater. The core bacterial community accounted for 61.66% of the total sequences and accurately predicted the sample location in the principal coordinates analysis scatter plot as the total bacterial OTUs did. The core bacterial community in the first-stage (FS) and second-stage (SS) reactors were generally distinct, in that the FS core bacterial community was indicated to be more related to a higher-level fermentation process, and the SS core bacterial community contained more microbes in syntrophic cooperation with methanogens. Moreover, the different responses of the FS and SS core bacterial communities to the temperature shock and influent disturbance caused by solid contamination were fully investigated. Co-occurring analysis at the Order level implied that Bacteroidales, Selenomonadales, Anaerolineales, Syneristales, and Thermotogales might play key roles in anaerobic digestion due to their high abundance and tight correlation with other microbes. These findings advance our knowledge about the core bacterial community and its temporal variability for future comparative research and improvement of the two-stage anaerobic system operation.

Evaluation for anaerobic germinability of rice germplasm for direct-seeding cultivation under submerged conditions

  • Rauf, Muhammad;Choi, Yu-Mi;Lee, Sukyeung;Lee, Myung-Chul;Oh, Sejong;Hyun, Do Yoon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.71-71
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    • 2017
  • Stable stand establishment is pre-requisite in direct rice seeding system for obtaining optimal yield of rice crop in rain-fed and waterlogged areas. Anaerobic condition on waterlogged soil causes low germination which significantly reduces crop yield. Due to low availability of tolerant genetic material for anaerobic germination, there is urgent need to evaluate rice germplasm for better germinability under anaerobic conditions. Seeds of the 185 rice accessions were evaluated for germination vigor and coleoptile length under anaerobic conditions. The variation among germplasm was tested for significance using analysis of variance and various multivariate components. Significant level of variation was observed among all accessions for germination vigor and coleoptiles length. Although highest mean values for coleoptiles length (2.1cm) and germination rate (60%) were observed in japonica accessions but maximum coleoptile length (4.68cm) and germination rate (96%) was found in indica genotype CO18. A highly significant and positive correlation was also observed between germination vigor and coleoptiles length, which signify the importance of elongated coleoptile under anaerobic conditions. The PCA analysis illustrated that 97.24% variation was accounted by PC1 while PC2 and PC3 explained 2.54% and 0.24% variation for germination vigor and coleoptile length. PCA scattered plot divided the accessions in four various groups. All AG tolerant accessions were included in group I. Likewise in the case of cluster analysis, two major clades (I and II) were formed. All accessions showing >40% germination rate were included in clade I, whereas all other accessions with <40% germination rate were grouped in clade II. Further more highly tolerant accessions (>80% germination) were grouped in sub-cluster IA.

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Variation of Phosphorus Concentration and Redox Potential in a Paddy Field Plot During Growing Season (영농기 필지논에서의 인 (P) 농도와 산화환원전위 (Eh)의 변화 특성)

  • Kim, Young-Hyeon;Kim, Jin-Soo;Jang, Hoon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.52 no.5
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    • pp.47-52
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate characteristics of total phosphorus (TP) and phosphate phosphorous ($PO_4$-P) concentrations in ponded water and redox potential (Eh) in paddy soil during the growing season. The TP and $PO_4$-P concentrations showed twice peak values after basal dressing and tillering fertilization. The ratio of $PO_4$-P to TP showed low values (0.07~0.18), indicating that most of phosphorus is particlulate. The $PO_4$-P concentrations significantly decreased with dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. The Eh showed high values (179~636 mV) under non-ponded aerobic condition, but low values (74~112 mV) under ponded anaerobic condition The TP and $PO_4$-P concentrations in ponded water increased shortly after tillering fertilization even if phosphorus was not applied. This may be due to the release of dissolved phosphorus from the bottom sediment and its associated algal and water flea blooms under anaerobic condition. Therefore, proper water management should be needed shortly after tillering fertilization.

Effect of Chlorella Culture Solution Using Anaerobic digestate on Seed Germination in Perennial Ryegrass (혐기소화액을 배지로 이용한 클로렐라 배양액 처리가 페레니얼라이그라스 종자 발아에 미치는 영향)

  • Byeon, Ji-Eun;Lee, Jin Woong;Choi, Min Soo;Ryoo, Jong-Won
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.7-15
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    • 2018
  • This experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of Chlorella culture solution using anaerobic digestate as medium on seed germination of perennial ryegrass seeds. Four treatments were compared: control with distilled water, anaerobic digestate, Chlorella culture solution and Chlorella culture filtrate. The germination percentage of perennial ryegrass seeds was highest in the Chlorella culture solution treatment. Days required for 50, 70% seed germination were faster at 1.7 day in Chlorella culture solution compared to control. Root length of perennial ryegrass seeds was longer by 1~2cm in the Chlorella culture solution compared with control. The relative root length was by 40% longer in the Chlorella culture solution treatment compared to control. The germination index (GI) of perennial ryegrass seeds was higher by 180~202% in the Chlorella culture solution treatment compared to control. The decay rate was low as 50.0% in Chlorella culture solution, but decay rate of perennial ryegrass seeds showed 86.7~83.3% in control plot and in anaerobic digestate, respectively. Chlorella culture solution have shown stimulatory effects in germination and development of root. Overall, Chlorella culture solution could be useful to apply for promotion of germination and root elongation of seeds.

Development of Constructed Wetland using Sand and Oyster shell for Sewage Treatment (모래와 굴패각을 이용한 인공습지 오수처리장치 개발)

  • Park, Hyun-Geoun;Lee, Chun-Sik;Lee, Hong-Jae;Seo, Dong-Cheol;Heo, Jong-Soo
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.437-446
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    • 2004
  • To develop sewage treatment apparatus by natural purification method, the sewage treatment plant that consisted of aerobic and anaerobic plot was constructed. And then, the effects of treatment conditions on the removal of pollutants in the relation to sewage loading, sewage injection method and season according to the pebble kind. Removal rate of BOD and COD according to the sewage loading in effluent were over 95 and 77%, respectively. Removal rate of nitrogen in treated water by aerobic plot and effluent using sand were about 22~40 and 49~75%, respectively. Those of effluent using sand 75%+ oyster shell 25% and sand 50%+ oyster shell 50% as filter media in comparison with using sand were about 7~25 and 16~23%, respectively. Removal rate of phosphorus in treated water by aerobic plot and effluent using sand as filter media were about 30~36 and 52~56%, respectively. Those of effluent using sand 75%+ oyster shell 25% and sand 50%+ oyster shell 50% in comparison with using sand as filter media were about 11~40 and 12~45%, respectively. Removal efficiency of BOD and COD according to the intermittent injection method of sewage were slightly decreased, but those of nitrogen and phosphorus were little varied in comparison with continuous injection method. Removal efficiency of BOD and COD in winter in comparison with the others were little varied, but those of nitrogen and phosphorus slightly decreased.

Effect on the Growth of Chinese Cabbage and Chemical Composition of the Liquid Piggery Slurry Digested Anaerobically in Biogas Plant (바이오가스 프랜트에서 혐기 소화시킨 돈사 Slurry의 화학적 특성 및 배추생육 시용효과에 관한 연구)

  • Jeong, Chan-Seong;Bak, Jeong-Geun;Roh, Ahn-Sung;Cho, Woong-Gi;Lee, Sung-Sill;Moon, Yea-Hwang
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.125-132
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects on chemical properties of soil and yield of chinese cabbage when the piggery liquid slurry (ADS) digested anaerobically in the biogas plant was sprinkled to the soils. Treatments were composed of non-nitrogen plot (PK), chemical fertilizer plot (NPK) and ADS plot, and were arranged by randomized block design with 3 replications. The ADS was an alkali (pH 8.6) fertilizer containing 0.55% of total nitrogen, optimal levels of phosphorus, potassium and other components. When based (100%) on the yield of chinese cabbage in the NPK, those of the ADS and the PK were 114% and 43%, respectively. The nitrogen absorption of chinese cabbage at 50-d after transplant was significantly greater (p<0.05) in the ADS than other treatment. Heavy metal contents of soil were not difference between before and after experiment. With supplementing phosphorus and potassium sources in it, the ADS should be an excellent fertilizer in cabbage culture.

Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide by Pseudomonas carboxydohydrogena (Pseudomonas carboxydohydrogena에 의한 일산화탄소의 산화)

  • ;Hegeman, George
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.27-35
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    • 1983
  • The stoichiometry between the consumption of CO and $O_2$ and the production of $CO_2(2CO+O_2{\rightarrow}2CO_2)$) showed that Pseudomonas carboxydohydrogena grows as a typical aerobic CO oxidizer with CO. The optimal concentration of CO for growth was found to be 30% in gas mixture with air. The initial buffer concentration of the culture medium did not affect the growth of this bacterium. P. carboxydohydrogena is an obligate aerobe and dose not use nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor. The CO dehydrogenase is an inducible and soluble enzyme. The reaction rate and stability were maximal at pH7.5, and the Arrhenius plot revealed an activation energy of 37.7kJ/mol (9.0 Kcal/mol). The crude enzyme used methylene blue, thionin, and toluylene blue as electron acceptors for the oxidation of CO to $Co_2$ under anaerobic conditions. It was found that water must be the source of the second oxygen atom for CO oxidation.

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Flooding Tolerance of Cool-Season Turfgrass for the Revegetation of Waterside Slopes (수변 비탈면 녹화를 위한 한지형잔디의 내침수성 연구)

  • Shim, Sang-Ryul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 2015
  • Cool-season turfgrass is a rapidly increasing of usage for the revegetation of waterside slopes in dams, lakes and rivers. The purpose of this research is to identify the flooding tolerance of cool-season turfgrass with respect to the flooding periods of 0(control), 2, 4 and 6 days, respectively. The surface coverage ratio, turfgrass injury and soil moisture content were measured to assess the flooding tolerance of cool-season turfgrass. The increase in the flooding periods with 4 and 6 days resulted in the lower surface coverage ratio for cool-season turfgrass while no significant difference was found in the 2 days flooding when compared to 0 day (the control plot) flooding plot. In case of the turfgrass injury and the soil moisture content, however, the higher values were found with the increase of flooding periods in 2, 4 to 6 days. We observed that the higher the turfgrass injury and soil moisture content increased, the lower the surface covrage ratio decreased. In these regards, we also observed that the tolerance of cool season turfgrass were high in the 2 days flooding condition, medium in the 4 days flooding condition and low in the 6 days flooding condition. The flooding tolerance of cool-season turfgrass was gradually weakened in over 2 days flooding periods due to $O_2$ deficiency in the anaerobic soil condition. Therefore, we could suggest cool-season turfgrass within 2 days flooding periods for the revegetation of waterside slopes in dams, lakes and rivers.