• Title, Summary, Keyword: amylose content

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The Properties of Amylose of Cow Pea Starch (동부 전분의 아밀로오스 특성)

  • Kweon, Mee-Ra;Ahn, Seung-Yo
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.39-42
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    • 1990
  • The properties of amylose of cow pea starch were investigated. Amylose content of cow pea was 25.1 % and iodine binding capacity was 20.2 %. The ${\beta}-amylolysis$ limit of the amylose was 82.3%. The limiting viscosity number of the amylose fraction was 204 ml/g and the corresponding average degree of polymerization was 1,510 glucose units. The percent distribution of molecular weight of the amylose by gel chromatography was $1{\times}10^4$(0.7 %), $1{\times}10^4{\sim}4{\times}10^4$(4.1 %), $4{\times}10^4{\sim}5{\times}10^5$(44.6 %), $5{\times}10^5{\sim}4{\times}10^7$(49.6 % ).

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Studies on the Components of Korean Panax Ginseng C.A. Mayer -Part. I On the Content of Starch, Size Frequency Distribution of Starch Granules, Amylose Content and Blue Value- (한국인삼 성분에 관한 연구 -제1보 전분함량, 전분의 입경분포, amylose함량 및 blue value에 대하여-)

  • Kim, Hai-Jung;Nam, Sung-Hi;Kim, Hyong-Soo;Lee, Suk-Kun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.19-23
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    • 1977
  • The variation of the amount of starch, size and shape of the starch granules, amylose content, and blue value of the starch in the Korean ginseng roots from one year old to five year old cultivated at Kumsan was studied. The results obtained were as follows; 1) The starch content of the ginseng root(dried) was increased with the age of the root; that is, 9.62% for one-year-old roots, 10.35% for two-year-old root, 15.50% for three-year-old root, 17.05% for four-year-old root, and 18.32% for five-year-old root. 2) The shape of the ginseng starch granules was round or short oval, and in the latter case the ratio of minor axis to major axis was 1 to 1.1. Diameter of the starch granules was in the range of $1.48\;{\mu}\;to\;8.14\;{\mu}$ and the most frequent granule size was $3\;{\mu}\;(32.1{\sim}35.7%)$. The number of big size starch granules was increased during the five years of growing, while, the number of small size granules was decreased. 3) The amylose content in the ginseng starch was varied with the age of the root, in the range of $53.6{\sim}70.5%$. 4. The blue value of the ginseng starch was in the range of 0.60 to 0.71.

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Effect of Amylose Content on Corn Starch Modification by Thermus aquaticus 4-$\alpha$-Glucanotransferase

  • Cho, Kyoung-Hee;Auh, Joong-Hyuck;Kim, Jung-Hwan;Ryu, Je-Hoon;Park, Kwan-Hwa;Park, Cheon-Seok;Yoo, Sang-Ho
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.19 no.10
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    • pp.1201-1205
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    • 2009
  • Corn starches with different amylose contents were enzymatically modified using Thermus aquaticus 4-$\alpha$-glucanotransferase ($TA{\alpha}GTase$). Upon the enzyme treatment, the chain-length distributions of isoamylolytically debranched products became broader [degree of polymerization (DP): 3-40] than those of untreated corn starches. In addition, a variety of cycloamyloses (CAs) with different sizes were formed by the glucanotransfer activity of $TA{\alpha}GTase$. CAs with DP 5-40 were detectable in all of the $TA{\alpha}GTase$-treated corn starches. From the results of high-performance anion-exchange chromatography and high-performance size-exclusion chromatography analyses, it was suggested that the amount of CAs produced by the enzyme treatment increased as the amylose content of the starches increased. Thus, we concluded that the extent of modification of starch molecules was enhanced in proportion to amylose content by the transfer activity of $TA{\alpha}GTase$. This finding could be useful for developing an efficient process of CA production using this enzyme.

Effect of Heat Treatments on in vitro Starch Hydrolysis of Selected Grains (가열처리가 잡곡류의 in vitro 전분가수분해율에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Young-Tack
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.8
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    • pp.1102-1105
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    • 2006
  • The effect of heat treatments on in vitro starch hydrolysis of proso millet, sorghum, Job's tears, and buckwheat by pancreatic ${\alpha}-amylase$ was investigated. Grain samples were tested raw, boiled in water, or steamed/roasted. Starch content of the grains varied from 59.5% in Job's tears to 65.5% in proso millet, and amylose content varied from 5.3% in Job's tears to 36.3% in buckwheat. The in vitro starch hydrolysis of raw and heat-treated grains continuously increased during 60 min of hydrolysis. The starch hydrolysis (%) of raw grains after 60 min incubation was in the order of buckwheat (5.7%), proso millet (33.0%), Job's tears (51.2%), and sorghum (57.6%). Grains treated with steaming/roasting appeared to have higher starch hydrolysis rates than those with boiling except proso millet. Hydrolysis rates of buckwheat with a high amylose content appeared to be lower, compared to proso millet, sorghum, and Job's tears containing low amylose contents.

Quantitative Analysis of Amylose and Protein Content of Rice Germplasm in RDA-Genebank by Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (근적외선 분광분석법을 이용한 벼 유전자원의 아밀로스 함량과 단백질 함량 정량분석)

  • Kim, Jeong-Soon;Cho, Yang-Hee;Gwag, Jae-Gyun;Ma, Kyung-Ho;Choi, Yu-Mi;Kim, Jung-Bong;Lee, Jeong-Heui;Kim, Tae-San;Cho, Jong-Ku;Lee, Sok-Young
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.217-223
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    • 2008
  • Amylose and protein contents are important traits determining the edible quality of rice, especially in East Asian countries. Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) has become a powerful tool for rapid and nondestructive quantification of natural compounds in agricultural products. To test the practically of using NIRS for estimation of brown rice amylose and protein contents, the spectral reflectances ($400{\sim}2500\;nm$) of total 9,483 accessions of rice germplasm in Rural development Administration (RDA) Genebank ere obtained and compared to chemically determined amylose and protein content. The protein content of tested 119 accessions ranged from 6.5 to 8.0% and 25 accessions exhibited protein contents between 8.5 to 9.5%. In case of amylose content, all tested accessions ranged from 18.1 to 21.7% and the grade from 18.1 to 19.9% includes most number of accessions as 152 and 4 accessions exhibited amylose content between 20.5 to 21.7%. The optimal performance calibration model could be obtained from original spectra of brown rice using MPLS (Modified Partial Least Squares) with the correlation coefficients ($r_2$) for amylose and protein content were 0.865 and 0.786, respectively. The standard errors of calibration (SEC) exhibited good statistic values: 2.078 and 0.442 for amylose and protein contents, respectively. All these results suggest that NIR spectroscopy may serve as reputable and rapid method for quantification of brown rice protein and amylose contents in large numbers of rice germplasm.

Variation of Amylose Content Using dsRNAi Vector by Targeting 3'-UTR Region of GBSSI Gene in Rice (GBSSI 유전자 3'UTR 영역의 발현 억제 dsRNAi 벡터를 이용한 아밀로스함량 조절 벼 개발)

  • Park, Hyang-Mi;Choi, Man-Soo;Chun, Areum;Lee, Jeung-Heui;Kim, Myeong-Ki;Kim, Yeon-Gyu;Shin, Dong-Bum;Lee, Jang-Yong;Kim, Yul-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.515-524
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    • 2010
  • The amylose content of starch is a major factor in the texture of cooked cereal grains. Therefore, down-regulation of amylose synthesis is one of the alternative method to improve eating quality of rice. We developed transgenic rice plants designed to suppress granule-bound starch synthase I(GBSSI) gene using RNA interference(RNAi) technology. Transgenic plants with RNAi vector containing the 3'-UTR region of GBSSI showed a lower amylose content in rice endosperm than that of wild-type. The range of amylose content was 5.9~9.0% in the transgenic plants, whereas that of wild-type was 17.7~18.0%. Transgenic rices showed the decrease of short chain and the increase of long chain by analyzing chain length distribution of amylopectin in the endosperm. In the SEM micrographs, we found that compound starch granules in whole grains of the wild-type rice were readily split during fracturing, while the starch granules in RNAi-transgenic lines showed small voluminous, non-angular rounded bodies.

The Effect of Roasted Soybean Flour Supplimentation to Jeolpyons(Korean Rice Cake) on Changing the Contents of Amino Acid, Amylose, and Minerals (볶은 콩가루 첨가가 절편의 아미노산, 아밀롯 및 무기물 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • 정해옥;정복미
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.614-617
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    • 1994
  • This study was undertaken to determine the changes in amino acids, amylose and mineral contents of Jeolpyons(Korean rice cake) supplemented with various levels of roasted soybean flour (RSF). Amino acids content of Jeolpyons increased as RSF content increased. Especially the contents of total essential amino acids of Jeolpyon supplemented with RSF(5, 10, 15 and 20%) increased 1.22 to 2.74 times greater than those of the ocntrol. Amylose, which is related to retrogradatin effect on rice products decreased about 0.9 to 4.7% by increasing the soybean flour contents. Mineral contents by jeolpyon containing RSF increased as RSF contents increased.

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Amylose, Tocopherol, Free Sugar and Fatty Acid Content in Selected Mutant Lines of Oryza sativa cv. Shindongjin

  • Cho, Yoo-Hyun;Lee, Sok-Young;Kim, Seong-Min;Yu, Jae-Woong;Lee, Jung-Ro;Hong, Ha-Cheol;Kim, Jung-Bong;Ma, Kyung-Ho;Kwon, Taek-Ryun;Kang, Hee-Kyoung;Lee, Gi-An;Gwag, Jae-Gyun;Kim, Tae-San;Park, Yong-Jin
    • Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.181-186
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    • 2008
  • To assess the potential as biofortified rice varieties, new endosperm and grain mutant lines were selected from $M_4$ generation seeds of the rice cultivar Shindongjin, which were either $\gamma$-irradiated or treated with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea(MNU) and lipid, sugar, and tocopherol content were analyzed. Amylose content in non-waxy mutants ranged from 8.8% in SM-4, a dull-type mutant, to 29.5% in SM-51, compared to 18.9% in the parental variety, Shindongjin. SM-23, a floury-type mutant, contained 0.09 ${\mu}g/g$ $\alpha$-tocopherol(40.9% of total tocopherol), was three times higher than in the parental variety. SM-32, a giant embryo-type mutant, had a 2.2-fold higher total tocopherol content, 2.1-fold higher $\alpha$-tocopherol, and 5.5-fold higher $\delta$-tocopherol content(47.3% of total tocopherol) than the parental variety(0.13 ${\mu}g/g$). Total free sugar content was elevated in all selected mutants and 1.2-8.6 times higher than in the parental variety(11.38 ${\mu}g/g$). These increased sugar levels were due to increase in sucrose concentration. SM-23(floury-type mutant) and SM-51(high amylose-type mutant) had 4.6 and 7.0 times more sugar, respectively, than the parental variety(11.38 ${\mu}g/g$). With relatively high concentrations, most mutants showed elevated fatty acid content in the SM 32(giant embryo-type) and SM-51(high amylose-type) mutants, at 124.56 and 89.59 mg/g, respectively. All selected mutants displayed valuable characteristics for the development of new varieties in rice-breeding programs.

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