• Title, Summary, Keyword: amylose content

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Physicochemical Factors Affecting Cooking and Eating Qualities of Rice and the Ultrastructural Changes of Rice during Cooking (쌀의 취반 및 식미특성에 영향을 주는 요인들과 취반 시 쌀의 배유 조직의 변화)

  • 이영은;오스만엘리자베쓰엠
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.637-645
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    • 1991
  • Physicochemical factors affecting cooking and eating quality of rice and their mechanisms were investigated. The stickiness of cooked rice was negatively correlated with amylose content(r=0.58, p<0.05) and protein content(r=-0.72, p<0.01), but not affected by crude fat content of rice. The ultrastructure of cooked rice grain showed the progressive gelatinization of starch from the periphery toward the center of the endosperm as water and heat energy diffused into. The rate of water diffusion appears to be dependent on the cell arrangement in the endosperm and the protein content of milled rice. Once water and heat reach the starch granules, the rate of in situ gelatinization of starches appears to be dependent on their own gelatinization temperature range and amylose content. Protein acts as a barrier for the swelling of starch and water diffusion in two ways : 1) by encasing starch granules in the starchy endosperm, and 2) by forming a barrier between the subaleurone layer and the starchy endosperm. Therefore, the separation and fragmentation of the outermost layers of the endosperm occurred more easily in the low-protein content rices, and was associated with increases of solids lost in cooking-water at 95$^{\circ}C$ and stickiness of cooked rice.

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Formation and Properties of Gel from Maize Starches with Different Amylose Content (아밀로오스 함량이 다른 옥수수 전분의 겔 형성과 특성)

  • 문세훈;김완수;신말식
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.379-383
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    • 1997
  • To study the effect of amylose on the mechanism of gel formation, swelling power, water solubility, the pattern of alkali gelatinization and gel properties were investigated. The swelling power of waxy maize starch (Amioca) was the highest and followed by those of PFP > Amaizo > Amylomaize VII. Amioca showed higher iodine affinity of soluble amylose than other maize starches. The apparent viscosity of alkali gelatinization measured by Brookfield viscometer for Amaizo was 70${\times}$10$^3$cp which was higher than Amylomaize VII. The apparent viscosity of PFP was increased to 70${\times}$10$^3$cp and then decreased. As maize starches were autoclaved at 121$^{\circ}C$ with starch: water ratio (1 : 9) and autoclaving-cooling cycle were up to 4 times, gel properties were measured by rheometer. Amaizo showed the highest value for hardness, adhesiveness, springiness, and cohesiveness, and hardness of gel after two cycles of autoclaving-cooling was the highest. Gel properties seemed to be affected by the chain length of amylose rather than the content of amylose.

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Effect of Processing Treatment on Physicochemical Characteristics of Brown Rice Varieties with Different Amylose Content (아밀로오스 함량이 다른 현미의 품종별 가공 처리에 따른 품질 특성 비교)

  • Lee, Jong Gu;Im, Moo-Hyeog
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.613-618
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    • 2013
  • The quality characteristics of brown rice polished with grains of four rice varieties (Hwaseonchal, Baegjinju, Ilpum and Goami) were examined. For the physical properties of native and fried brown rice starches, the gelatinization temperatures and enthalpies (determined with differential scanning calorimetry) of brown rice starches decreased with increasing amylose content. The pasting viscosities of native brown rice starches in distilled water were higher than those in $HgCl_2$ solution (as an ${\alpha}$-amylase inhibitor). The highest viscosity of gelatinized starch was observed for the starch of Ilpum rice variety relative to other varieties. Cystal packing arrangement of brown rice starches subjected to deep-fat frying converted A-type (typically observed for cereal starches) into V-type (formed by retrogradation and recrystllization of amylose molecules).

Varietal Variation in Structure and Physical Characteristics of Rice Endosperm Strach (쌀 배유전분구조 및 물리적 특성의 품종 변이)

  • 강미영;최해춘
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.513-523
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    • 1993
  • Varietal difference in structural and physical characteristics of rice starch and interrelationships between these starch properties and the physicochemical components of rice grains were investigated for twenty four rice varieties, which were considerably different in amylose content, gelatinization temperature and gel consistency, to obtain the basic informations for diversifying the utility of rice grains and for developing various rice cultivars adaptable to rice food processing. Wave length of maximum absorbance for blue color reaction of starch-I$_2$ complex was 520nm for glutinous rice and 560~600nm for nonglutinous rice. The higher amylose rice showed the longer wave length but there was considerable difference of the wave length among rice materials with similar amylose content. Varietal difference in frequency distribution of debranched starch molecules by isoamylase hydrolysis was largest in amylose fraction, the longest fraction(Fr. I), and was next bigger in intermediate fraction(Int.Fr.) and the ratio between short and long glucose chain of amylopectin fraction(Fr. III /Fr. II). The Fr. III / Fr II ratio was higher in glutinous rice than in nonglutinous one but it was considerably different among nonglutinous rice varieties without any connection with amylose content. The lower alkali digestible rice showed the longer half-hydrolysis time in acid solution. Both soft and hard gel rice varieties in gel consistency test revealed significant varietal difference of 50% acid hydrolysis time. The harder rice in gel consistency exhibited the less frequency of short branch fraction of amylopectin (Fr. III) and the higher amylose content. Twenty four rice varieties were cleary classified by upper two principal components contracted from structural or physical traits of rice starch and some physicochemical properties of rice grain by principal component analysis. The 1st and 2nd principal components can be characterized to components related with amylose and amylopectin structure respectively.

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Factors Affecting Gelatinization Temperature of Rice Starch (쌀 전분의 호화온도에 영향을 주는 요인들)

  • 이영은;오스만엘리자베쓰엠
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.646-652
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    • 1991
  • Factors affecting gelatinization temperature of rice starches from different varieties were investigated. Birefringence end-point temperature(BEPT), amylose content, granule size distribution and degree of crystallinity of rice starches showed the significant varietal differences at ${\alpha}\;=0.01$. Susceptibility of the granule to gelatininzation was dependent mainly on the degree of crystallinity, as indicated by the significant positive correlation between BEPT and the relative crystallinity(r=0.67, p<0.01). However, granule size distribution did not affect the GT(gelatinization temperature) range, nor did amylose electron microscopy (SEM). SEM also confirmed that there is no relationship between the size and the shape and the amylose content of the rice starch.

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Comparison of Korean and Japanese Rice Cultivars in Terms of Physicochemical Properties (II) The Comparison of Korean and Japanese Rice by Amylose Content and Cooking Characteristics (한국 쌀과 일본 쌀의 물리화학적 특성 연구 (II) 아밀로즈 함량과 조리특성의 차이에 의한 품질비교)

  • 김혁일
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.145-155
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    • 2004
  • From the cooking data, Japanese rice showed higher water uptake but lower expansion volume, pH and iodine blue value than those of Korean rice. Japanese rice had higher maximum viscosity, breakdown viscosity and pasting temperature but lower final viscosity and setback viscosity than those of Korean rice by RVA analysis. Japanese rice had higher LC (low compression) hardness, U stickiness and HC (high compression) stickiness, LC balance and HC balance, but had lower HC hardness and thickness in the tensipresser data. Also Japanese rice had higher stickiness and balance, and lower hardness from the texturometer analysis. Japanese rice showed higher a cooked taste score than that of the Satake cooked taste machine. The various mean values of Japanese rice after cooking showed better cooking characteristics than the Korean rice. These results might be caused because Japanese rice had a little lower amylose and protein content, but higher tat acidity content.

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Interrelation between Physicochemical Properties of Milled Rice and Retrogradation of Rice Bread during COld Storage (쌀의 이화학적 특성과 저장 쌀빵의 노화성과의 관계)

  • 강미영;최영희;최해춘
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.886-891
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    • 1997
  • The interrelation between physicochemical properties of milled rice and retrogradation of rice bread during cold storage was examined to compare the varietal difference in maintenance of rice bread quality. Twelve rice materials showed big varietal difference on physicochemical properties of rice starch such as amylose content(0.0~29.2%), gel consistency(20~98mm), and alkali digestion value(2.0~7.0). Rice bread made from milled rice of Jungwonbyeo, AC 27 and IRAT 177 exhibited soft texture and late retrogradation of rice bread during cold storage(4$^{\circ}C$). The amylose content of milled rice was closely associated with gel consistency negatively and with springiness of rice bread positively. The retrogradation of rice bread texture during cold storage was correlated with gel consistency of rice flour positively and with alkali digestion value of milled rice negatively.

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Simplified Procedure of Amylose Analysis by Rapid Flow Autoanalyzer RFA-300 (자동분석기 RFA-300 이용한 아밀로스 분석법)

  • Choi, Hae-Chune;Son, Yong-Hee;Cho, Soo-Yeon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.66-71
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    • 1993
  • Several trials and errors were repeated to develop a simplified recipe of amylose analysis using a Rapid Flow Autoanalyzer(Alpkem, RFA-300). The amylose content of rice samples analyzed by the Rapid Flow Autoanalyzer were compared with those of Williams’ and Juliano’s assay. The results by the simplified recipe of RFA amylose analysis were highly correlated with those by Williams’ and Juliano’s method(r=0.95$^{**}$-0.97$^{**}$). The relative amylose content of defatted rice starch was higher than those of non-defatted rice flour, showing very close correlations between those analyzed by three method.

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Chemical Properties and Fatty Acid Composition of Layers of Rice Grain (미립(米粒)의 층별 일반성분 및 지방산 조성)

  • 오만진;손종록;금종화;이미현;정재홍
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.497-503
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    • 1996
  • In order to obtain basic data for the preparation of rice flour, chemical properties of grain layers were compared using Chucheongbyeo and Samgangbyeo, which are Japonica and Tongil type rice, respectively. The amylose contents of L6(center) layer in two different type of rice were the highest among 6 layers of rice grain tested. Reduction in amylose content was observed as the layer reached the surface, resulting in the lowest amylose content in the L0 layer. Amylose contents of L6 layer of Chucheongbyeo and Sangangbyeo were 3 and 2.2 times higher than those of L1 layer, respectively. Crude protein content of the L2 layer was the highest among 6 layers of rice grain tested and 2.2~2.5 times higher than that of whole milled rice. Crude fat content of grain layer was reduced as reaching the center layer. The crude fat contents of L6 layer of grain were 0.21% and 0.25% in Chucheongbyeo and Samgangbyeo, respectively. Most of free and bound lipids in L0 layer of two different rices were 69 : 31 and 79.5 : 20.5, respectively. Bound lipid content of grain layers increased as reaching the center layer. Major fatty acids in free lipids of both cultivars were linoleic acid, oleic acid, and palmitic acid. Linoleic acid content was higher than oleic acid in Chucheongbyeo, but oleic acid content was higher in Samgangbyeo. Palmitic and myristic acid contents of Chucheongbyeo were higher than those of Samgangbyeo, but stearic and linolenic acid contents were lower than those of Samgangbyeo.

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Effect of Microwave Irradiation on Crystallinity and Pasting Viscosity of Corn Starches Different in Amylose Content

  • Lee, Su-Jin;Sandhu, Kawaljit Singh;Lim, Seung-Taik
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.832-835
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    • 2007
  • Moisture content of normal, waxy, and high amylose com starches was adjusted to 10-35%, and irradiated in a microwave oven. The effect of microwave irradiation on the crystalline structure of starch was measured by using a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray diffractometry. Pasting viscosity profile was also determined by using a rapid viscoanalyzer (RVA). For all the 3 types of starches tested, the rate of temperature increase by the microwave irradiation was faster and more rapidly reached the maximum temperature of the pressure bomb ($120^{\circ}C$) when the moisture content was higher. X-ray diffraction and DSC data revealed that the microwave irradiated starch underwent partial disruption of crystalline structure. RVA studies showed that the irradiation caused significant reductions in maximal viscosity and breakdown, whereas pasting temperature was increased. Overall trends revealed that the microwave irradiation on the starch containing limited moisture content (less than 35%) provided the effects similar to the heat moisture treatment. These effects became more significant when the moisture content was higher. Compared to waxy com starch, normal, and high amylose com starches appeared to be more susceptible to the microwave irradiation.