• Title/Summary/Keyword: amino acids

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A Study on the Analysis of Amino Acids in Korean Ginseng (韓國人蔘의 年根別 및 貯藏期間別 아미노酸分析)

  • Rhee, Seong-Hong;Zong, Moon-Shik
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.37-53
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    • 1983
  • The contents of amino acids were examined in the 3, 4, 5, and 6 year-old roots of fresh ginseng and the 1979, 1980, 1981, and 1982 years' products of white and red ginsengs. Samples extracted with 75% ethanol for free amino acids and hydrolyzed with 6N-HCL for total amino acids were analyzed by Amino Acid Analyzer (Hitachi model KLA-5). The results were summarized as follows: 1. Amino acids from extracted samples were 18 kinds of Tryptophan, Lysine, Histidine, Arginine, Aspartic acid, Threonine, Serine, Glutamic acid, Proline, Glycine, Alanine, Cystine, Valine, Methionine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Tyrosine, and Phenylalanine. 2. Amino acids detected in hydrolyzed samples were 17 kinds execpt Tryptophan of extracted ones. 3. Arginine was the highest quantity of amino acids in ginseng. 4. The content of Tryptophan was 0.5690 mg/g in the 6 year-old fresh ginseng and trace quantities in other samples. 5. The contents of amino acids were increased in fresh ginseng according to cultivation year. 6. The contents of amino acids in white ginseng were slightly decreased but those in red ginseng were not changed during the storage time. 7. The content ratio of free amino acids to total amino acids were 1:3.

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Changes of Components Affecting Organoleptic Quality during the Ripening of Korean Traditional Soy Sauce -Amino Nitrogen, Amino Acids, and Color (한국 전통 간장의 숙성중 관능적 품질에 미치는 성분의 변화 -아미노산성질소, 아미노산 및 색도를 중심으로)

  • 김종규
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.22-28
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    • 2004
  • This study was performed to investigate the changes of amino nitrogen, total amino acids, free amino acids, and color of Korean traditional soy sauce (kan-jang) during the ripening and storage for 12 months and the characteristics of the changes. All of the preparation methods for soy sauce followed the recommendations of the Korea Food Research Institute. The components of soy sauce were analyzed at 0,6, and 12 months. The contents of amino nitrogen of soy sauce were significantly higher than that of soybeans or meju (soybean cakes) at the initial stage of storage (p<0.05), and decreased during the storage. The content of total amino acids of soybean sauce was significantly lower than that of soybeans, and the content of free amino acids was higher than that of soybeans (p<0.05). The contents of total and free amino acids decreased in soy sauce after 12 months of storage (p<0.05). The composition of total and free amino acids and their ratios of soy sauce were changed during the storage. The ratios of free to total amino acids of soybeans, meju, and soy sauce were 0.8%, 17.3%, and 53.1-59.8%, respectively. Glutamic acid, which represents the savory taste, was detected the most abundantly in soy sauce during the storage. The ratios of free to total amino acids of glutamic acid were 42.9-59.5% in soy sauce. Lightness of Hunter color of soy sauce decreased over time (p<0.05). This study indicates that the ratios of free to total amino acids of soy sauce were much higher than those of soybeans, although its contents of total amino acids were much lower than those of soybeans. This study also indicates that this comes from the preparation and fermentation of meju. It was suspected that the organoleptic characteristics of soy sauce derived from the amino nitrogen, amino acids, and color might be inferior over 1 year of storage time. However, more detailed research should be conducted to interpretate this characteristics more accurately.

Studies on the Constituents of Higher Fungi of Korea (한국산 고등 균류의 성분에 관한 연구)

  • 이규선
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.23 no.3_4
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    • pp.153-158
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    • 1979
  • Free amino acids in extracts and total amino acids in hydrolysates of eight species of higher fungi were analyzed by an amino acid autoanalyzer. Twenty amino acids were analyzed in eight species of higher fungi. 1) of all free amino acids contained in higher fungi, alanine is the richest, and then comes glutamic acid, serine, arginine, proline and histidine in that order. Of all total amino acids contained in higher fungi, glutamic acid is the richest, and then comes proline, valine, aspartic acid, alanine, leucine in that order. Especially Russula fragilis and Lepiota procera contain large quantity of glutamic acid. 2) Gross contents of free amino acids in the extracts is high in order of Lepiota procera, Phylloporus rhodoxanthus, Russula fragilis, Tylopilus felleus and total amino acids in hydrolysates is high in Phylloporus rhodoxanthus, Lepiota procera, Russula fragilis, Lentinus lepideus. 3) Total amount of essential amino acids in the extracts was high in Lepiota procera, Phylloporus rhodoxanthus, Tylopilus felleus, Xylaria hypoxylon, Lentinus lepideus, Russula fragilis, Lactarius piperatus and Calocybe gambosa and in the hydrolysates of Phylloparus rhodoxanthus, Russula fragilis, Lepiota procera, Tylopilus felleus, Lentinus lepideus, Lactarius piperatus, Calocybe gambosa and Xylaria hypoxylon in that order, respectively.

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Effect of Essential and Nonessential Amino Acids in North Carolina State University (NCSU)-23 Medium on Development of Porcine In vitro Fertilized Embryos

  • Hashem, Md. Abul;Bhandari, Dilip P.;Hossein, Mohammad Shamim;Jeong, Yeon Woo;Kim, Sue;Kim, Ji-Hye;Koo, Ok-Jae;Park, Seon Mi;Lee, Eu Gine;Park, Sun Woo;Kang, Sung Keun;Lee, Byeong Chun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.693-700
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    • 2007
  • The present study was conducted to examine the effect of different levels of essential and nonessential amino acid in NCSU-23 medium on the in vitro-produced porcine embryo as it develops from the zygote to the blastocyst stage. Four experiments were performed, each with a completely randomized design involving 5 to 8 replications of treatments. In order to know the effect of nonessential amino acids in NCSU-23 medium, 0, 5, 10 and $20{\mu}/ml$ MEM were supplemented there to, (Exp. 1) and the medium was supplemented with same level of essential amino acids (Exp. 2). The combined effect of nonessential (0, 5, 10 and $20{\mu}/ml$ MEM) and essential amino acids (0, 5, 10 and $10{\mu}/ml$ MEM) in NCSU-23 medium (Exp. 3), first 72 h with non-essential amino acids (at 0, 5, 10 and $20{\mu}/ml$ MEM), and last 4 d with essential amino acids with the same level as NEAA (Exp. 4) were examined. The embryo development was monitored and the quality of blastocysts was evaluated by counting the number of total cells and determining the ratio of inner cell mass (ICM) to trophoectoderm (TE) cells. When Eagle's nonessential amino acids (MEM) added to NCSU-23 medium, it significantly increased the likelihood of development to the 2- to 4-cell stage and subsequent blastocyst development. Supplementation of different levels of essential amino acids in the NCSU-23 medium decreased cleavage rate, rate of morula and blastocyst development and the number of ICMs. In the case of the combined effect of essential and nonessential amino acids, better and significant results were found for blastocysts, hatching blastocysts and for ICM numbers which were also dose dependent. With respect to the biphasic effect of nonessential and essential amino acids, nonessential amino acids increased cleavage whereas essential amino acids increased the total cell number. Neither the nonessential nor the essential group of amino acids, on their own, affected blastocyst cell number or the differentiation of cells in the blastocyst. In conclusion, this study determined the role of nonessential and essential amino acids in the culture of the porcine embryo and showed that the embryo requires different levels of amino acids as it develops from the zygote to the blastocyst stage.

Natural Inhibitors for $CO_2$ Hydrate Formation (천연 물질을 이용한 이산화탄소 하이드레이트 형성 억제)

  • Sa, Jeong-Hoon;Lee, Bo Ram;Park, Da-Hye;Han, Kunwoo;Chun, Hee Dong;Lee, Kun-Hong
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.122.1-122.1
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    • 2011
  • The motivation for this work was the potential of hydrophobic amino acids such as glycine, L-alanine, and L-valine to be applied as thermodynamic hydrate inhibitors (THIs). To confirm their capabilities in inhibiting the formation of gas hydrates, three-phase (liquid-hydrate-vapor) equilibrium conditions for carbon dioxide hydrate formation in the presence of 0.1 to 3.0 mol% amino acid solutions were determined in the range of 273.05 to 281.45 K and 14.1 to 35.2 bar. From quantitative analyses, the inhibiting effects of the amino acids (on a mole concentration basis) decreased in the following order: L-valine > L-alanine > glycine. The application of amino acids as THIs has several potential advantages over conventional methods. First, the environmentally friendly nature of amino acids as compared to conventional inhibitors means that damage to ecological systems and the environment could be minimized. Second, the loss of amino acids in recovery process would be considerably reduced because amino acids are non-volatile. Third, amino acids have great potential as a model system in which to investigate the inhibition mechanism on the molecular level, since the structure and chemical properties of amino acids are well understood.

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Hydrophobicity of Amino Acids in Protein Context

  • Cho, Hanul;Chong, Song-Ho;Ham, Sihyun
    • Proceeding of EDISON Challenge
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    • pp.103-113
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    • 2014
  • Hydrophobicity is the key concept to understand the role of water in protein folding, protein self-assembly, and protein-ligand interaction. Conventionally, hydrophobicity of amino acids in a protein has been argued based on hydrophobicity scales determined for individual free amino acids, assuming that those scales are unaltered when amino acids are embedded in a protein. Here, we investigate how the hydrophobicity of constituent amino acids depends on the protein context, in particular, on the total charge and secondary structures of a protein. To this end, we compute and analyze the hydration free energy - free energy change upon hydration quantifying the hydrophobicity - of three short proteins based on the integral-equation theory of liquids. We find that the hydration free energy of charged amino acids is significantly affected by the protein total charge and exhibits contrasting behavior depending on the protein net charge being positive or negative. We also observe that amino acids in the central ${\beta}$-strand sandwiched by ${\beta}$-sheets display more enhanced hydrophobicity than free amino acids, whereas those in the ${\alpha}$-helix do not clearly show such a tendency. Our results provide novel insights into the hydrophobicity of amino acids, and will be valuable for rationalizing and predicting the strength of water-mediated interaction involved in the biological activity of proteins.

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Stability Test and Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of the Amino Acids in Pharmacopuncture Extracted from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans

  • Cho, GyeYoon;Han, KyuChul;Yoon, JinYoung
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.44-55
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans (S. subspinipes mutilans) is known as a traditional medicine and includes various amino acids, peptides and proteins. The amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans by using derivatization methods were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) over a 12 month period to confirm its stability. Methods: Amino acids of pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans were derived by using O-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) & 9-fluorenyl methoxy carbonyl chloride (FMOC) reagent and were analyzed using HPLC. The amino acids were detected by using a diode array detector (DAD) and a fluorescence detector (FLD) to compare a mixed amino acid standard (STD) to the pharmacopuncture from centipedes. The stability tests on the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were done using HPLC for three conditions: a room temperature test chamber, an acceleration test chamber, and a cold test chamber. Results: The pharmacopuncture from centipedes was prepared by using the method of the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute (KPI) and through quantitative analyses was shown to contain 9 amino acids of the 16 amino acids in the mixed amino acid STD. The amounts of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were 34.37 ppm of aspartate, 123.72 ppm of arginine, 170.63 ppm of alanine, 59.55 ppm of leucine and 57 ppm of lysine. The relative standard deviation (RSD %) results for the pharmacopuncture from centipedes had a maximum value of 14.95% and minimum value of 1.795% on the room temperature test chamber, the acceleration test chamber and the cold test chamber stability tests. Conclusion: Stability tests on and quantitative and qualitative analyses of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from centipedes by using derivatization methods were performed by using HPLC. Through research, we hope to determine the relationship between time and the concentrations of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from centipedes.

A Study on the Compositions of the Total Amino Acids and Free Amino Acids in Parts of Omija (Schizandra Chinensis Baillon) (오미자의 부위별 총 아미노산과 유리 아미노산 조성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Joung-Sook;Lee, Sung-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.181-184
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    • 1989
  • The compositions of total and free amino acids in parts of Omija were investigated. The most abundant amino acids in fruits, endocarps, and seeds were arginine (50.80%), lysine (14.37%), glutamic acid (14.22%), respectively. Since the amino acid scores of fruits, endocarps, and seeds were 9.4, 11.9, and 16.7, respectively, the limiting amino acid of each part were S-compound amino acids. In the composition of free amino acids, contents of lysine were highest one such as 51.78, 57.00 and 32.88% in fruits, endocarps and seeds, respectively. The contents of histidine from free amino acids were 23.62% in fruits, 22.37% in endocarps, and 26.41% in seeds.

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Separation of D and L Amino Acids by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

  • Lee, Sun-Haing;Ryu, Jae-Wook;Park ,Kyoung-Sug
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.45-50
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    • 1986
  • Separation of optical isomers of some derivatives of amino acids by reversed-phase HPLC has been accomplished by adding a chelate of an optically active amino acid to copper(Ⅱ) to the mobile phase. Cu(Ⅱ) complexes of L-proline and L-hydroxyproline in the mobile phase showed different degrees of separation. Optical isomers of DNS derivatives of amino acids are selectively separated, but those of several other derivatives are not at all. The kinds of buffer agents, the pH, and the concentrations of acetonitrile and the Cu(Ⅱ) ligand all affect the separations. The elution behavior between D and L DNS-amino acids appears to depend on the alkyl side chain of the amino acids. A chromatographic mechanism is proposed that is based on a stereospecificity of the formation of ternary complexes by the D, L-DNS-amino acids and the chiral additive associated with the stationary phase. The steric effects of the ligand exchange reactions are related with the feasibility of cis and/or trans attack of the amino acids to the binary chiral chelate retained on the stationary phase.

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A Study on the Fetal Amino Acids Nutrition at Term of Human Pregnancy (임신말 태아의 아미노산영양에 대한 연구)

  • Ahn, Hong-Seok
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.50-59
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    • 1984
  • This study was performed to investigate the placental transfer and the human fetal utilization of amino acids at term of pregnancy. The plasma levels of 23 free amino acids in both the umbilical circulation ( umbilical vein and artery ) and the uterine circulation ( uterine vein and iliac artery ) of 34 pregnant women were measured at delivery by the cesarean section. In the umbilical circulation, 9 amino acids ( alanine, lysine, valine, leucine, arginine, isoleucine, ornithine, cystine, ${\alpha}-aminobutyrate$ ) were significantly higher and 2 amino acids ( glutamate, aspartate ) were significantly lower in the umbilical vein than in the umbilical artery. In the uterine circulation, alanine, tyrosine and methionine were significantly lower in the uterine vein than in the iliac artery. Glutamate was significantly lower in the uterine vein than in the iliac artery. According to these results, the origin of fetal plasma amino acids was discussed in terms of the metabolic conversions which would occur in the Placenta and the fetal utilization of amino acids was estimated.

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