• Title/Summary/Keyword: alignment.

Search Result 3,812, Processing Time 0.148 seconds

Position of maxillary central incisor and intercanine width in Korean adults (한국 유치악 성인의 상악 중절치 위치 및 견치간 거리에 관한 연구)

  • Yang, Dong-Hun;Lee, Jee-Yun;Ban, Jae-Sam;Oh, Gye-Jeong;Park, Sang-Won
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
    • /
    • v.51 no.3
    • /
    • pp.147-152
    • /
    • 2013
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to propose the position of maxillary anterior teeth and intercanine width measurements based on the incisive papilla in accordance with the cephalic type and gender of dentate Korean adult with normal teeth alignment. Materials and methods: 42 students with Class I normal occlusion, without crowding or spacing, were selected from the Chonnam National University School of Dentistry. The lateral skull radiographs of the subjects were taken and were classified as different cephalic types, based on their PFH / AFH ratios. 42 casts of their maxilla were prepared and both the distance between the upper central incisors and the middle of the incisor papilla was measured with a vernier caliper (A) and the distance between the maxillary canine cusp tips (B) were measured. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 15 and their significance was investigated. Results: For dolichocephalic group, the mean values for A and B were 8.43 (SD: 0.61) and 36.73 (SD: 2.17), respectively. The mean value for A was 8.51 (SD: 1.27) for the mesocephalic group and 8.76 (SD 1.03) for the brachycephalic group. The mean value for B was 35.91 (SD: 1.86) for the mesocephalic group and 37.34 (SD: 2.23) for the brachycephalic group. For the male group, the mean A value was 8.86 (SD: 1.04) and the mean B value was 37.60 (SD: 0.24). For the female group, the mean A value was 8.41 (SD: 0.93) and the mean B value was 36.18 (SD: 2.01). The difference between male and female group in A values were not statistically significant (P>.05). The B values of the male subjects were greater than those of the female subjects and was statistically significant (P<.05). Conclusion: 42 students with normal dentition and occlusion in korea, the distance from the incisive papilla and the incisal edge of maxillary central incisors had no difference in cephalic type or gender. However, the distance between the cusp tip of both canines had significant difference in gender where the male showed higher values than the female, while having no difference in cephalic types.

A Comparative Case Study on the Adaptation Process of Advanced Information Technology: A Grounded Theory Approach for the Appropriation Process (신기술 사용 과정에 관한 비교 사례 연구: 기술 전유 과정의 근거이론적 접근)

  • Choi, Hee-Jae;Lee, Zoon-Ky
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
    • /
    • v.19 no.3
    • /
    • pp.99-124
    • /
    • 2009
  • Many firms in Korea have adopted and used advanced information technology in an effort to boost efficiency. The process of adapting to the new technology, at the same time, can vary from one firm to another. As such, this research focuses on several relevant factors, especially the roles of social interaction as a key variable that influences the technology adaptation process and the outcomes. Thus far, how a firm goes through the adaptation process to the new technology has not been yet fully explored. Previous studies on changes undergone by a firm or an organization due to information technology have been pursued from various theoretical points of views, evolved from technological and institutional views to an integrated social technology views. The technology adaptation process has been understood to be something that evolves over time and has been regarded as cycles between misalignments and alignments, gradually approaching the stable aligned state. The adaptation process of the new technology was defined as "appropriation" process according to Poole and DeSanctis (1994). They suggested that this process is not automatically determined by the technology design itself. Rather, people actively select how technology structures should be used; accordingly, adoption practices vary. But concepts of the appropriation process in these studies are not accurate while suggested propositions are not clear enough to apply in practice. Furthermore, these studies do not substantially suggest which factors are changed during the appropriation process and what should be done to bring about effective outcomes. Therefore, research objectives of this study lie in finding causes for the difference in ways in which advanced information technology has been used and adopted among organizations. The study also aims to explore how a firm's interaction with social as well as technological factors affects differently in resulting organizational changes. Detail objectives of this study are as follows. First, this paper primarily focuses on the appropriation process of advanced information technology in the long run, and we look into reasons for the diverse types of the usage. Second, this study is to categorize each phases in the appropriation process and make clear what changes occur and how they are evolved during each phase. Third, this study is to suggest the guidelines to determine which strategies are needed in an individual, group and organizational level. For this, a substantially grounded theory that can be applied to organizational practice has been developed from a longitudinal comparative case study. For these objectives, the technology appropriation process was explored based on Structuration Theory by Giddens (1984), Orlikoski and Robey (1991) and Adaptive Structuration Theory by Poole and DeSanctis (1994), which are examples of social technology views on organizational change by technology. Data have been obtained from interviews, observations of medical treatment task, and questionnaires administered to group members who use the technology. Data coding was executed in three steps following the grounded theory approach. First of all, concepts and categories were developed from interviews and observation data in open coding. Next, in axial coding, we related categories to subcategorize along the lines of their properties and dimensions through the paradigm model. Finally, the grounded theory about the appropriation process was developed through the conditional/consequential matrix in selective coding. In this study eight hypotheses about the adaptation process have been clearly articulated. Also, we found that the appropriation process involves through three phases, namely, "direct appropriation," "cooperate with related structures," and "interpret and make judgments." The higher phases of appropriation move, the more users represent various types of instrumental use and attitude. Moreover, the previous structures like "knowledge and experience," "belief that other members know and accept the use of technology," "horizontal communication," and "embodiment of opinion collection process" are evolved to higher degrees in their dimensions of property. Furthermore, users continuously create new spirits and structures, while removing some of the previous ones at the same time. Thus, from longitudinal view, faithful and unfaithful appropriation methods appear recursively, but gradually faithful appropriation takes over the other. In other words, the concept of spirits and structures has been changed in the adaptation process over time for the purpose of alignment between the task and other structures. These findings call for a revised or extended model of structural adaptation in IS (Information Systems) literature now that the vague adaptation process in previous studies has been clarified through the in-depth qualitative study, identifying each phrase with accuracy. In addition, based on these results some guidelines can be set up to help determine which strategies are needed in an individual, group, and organizational level for the purpose of effective technology appropriation. In practice, managers can focus on the changes of spirits and elevation of the structural dimension to achieve effective technology use.

Experimental Study for Phase-contrast X-ray Imaging Based on a Single Antiscatter Grid and a Polychromatic X-ray Source (단일 비산란 그리드 및 다색광 x-선원 기반 위상대조 x-선 영상화 실험 연구)

  • Park, Yeonok;Cho, Hyosung;Lim, Hyunwoo;Je, Uikyu;Park, Chulkyu;Cho, Heemoon;Kim, Kyuseok;Kim, Guna;Park, Soyoung
    • Progress in Medical Physics
    • /
    • v.26 no.4
    • /
    • pp.215-222
    • /
    • 2015
  • In this work, we performed a proof-of-concept experiment for phase-contrast x-ray imaging (PCXI) based on a single antiscatter grid and a polychromatic x-ray source. We established a table-top setup which consists of a focused-linear grid having a strip density of 200 lines/inch, a microfocus x-ray tube having a focal-spot size of about $5{\mu}m$, and a CMOS-type flat-panel detector having a pixel size of $48{\mu}m$. By using our prototype PCXI system and the Fourier demodulation technique, we successfully obtained attenuation, scattering, and differential phase-contrast images of improved visibility from the raw images of several selected samples at x-ray tube conditions of $90kV_p$ and 0.1 mAs. Further, fusion image (e.g., the attenuation+the scattering) may have an advantage in displaying details of the sample's structures that are not clearly visible in the conventional attenuation image. Our experimental results indicate that single-grid-based approach seems a useful method for PCXI with great simplicity and minimal requirements on the setup alignment.

Development of Korean Green Business/IT Strategies Based on Priority Analysis (한국의 그린 비즈니스/IT 실태분석을 통한 추진전략 우선순위 도출에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jae-Kyeong;Choi, Ju-Choel;Choi, Il-Young
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
    • /
    • v.20 no.3
    • /
    • pp.191-204
    • /
    • 2010
  • Recently, the CO2 emission and energy consumption have become critical global issues to decide the future of nations. Especially, the spread of IT products and the increased use of internet and web applications result in the energy consumption and CO2 emission of IT industry though information technologies drive global economic growth. EU, the United States, Japan and other developed countries are using IT related environmental regulations such as WEEE(Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment), RoHS(Restriction of the use of Certain Hazardous Substance), REACH(Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of CHemicals) and EuP(Energy using Product), and have established systematic green business/IT strategies to enhance the competitiveness of IT industry. For example, the Japan government proposed the "Green IT initiative" for being compatible with economic growth and environmental protection. Not only energy saving technologies but energy saving systems have been developed for accomplishing sustainable development. Korea's CO2 emission and energy consumption continuously have grown at comparatively high rates. They are related to its industrial structure depending on high energy-consuming industries such as iron and steel Industry, automotive industry, shipbuilding industry, semiconductor industry, and so on. In particular, export proportion of IT manufacturing is quite high in Korea. For example, the global market share of the semiconductor such as DRAM was about 80% in 2008. Accordingly, Korea needs to establish a systematic strategy to respond to the global environmental regulations and to maintain competitiveness in the IT industry. However, green competitiveness of Korea ranked 11th among 15 major countries and R&D budget for green technology is not large enough to develop energy-saving technologies for infrastructure and value chain of low-carbon society though that grows at high rates. Moreover, there are no concrete action plans in Korea. This research aims to deduce the priorities of the Korean green business/IT strategies to use multi attribute weighted average method. We selected a panel of 19 experts who work at the green business related firms such as HP, IBM, Fujitsu and so on, and selected six assessment indices such as the urgency of the technology development, the technology gap between Korea and the developed countries, the effect of import substitution, the spillover effect of technology, the market growth, and the export potential of the package or stand-alone products by existing literature review. We submitted questionnaires at approximately weekly intervals to them for priorities of the green business/IT strategies. The strategies broadly classify as follows. The first strategy which consists of the green business/IT policy and standardization, process and performance management and IT industry and legislative alignment relates to government's role in the green economy. The second strategy relates to IT to support environment sustainability such as the travel and ways of working management, printer output and recycling, intelligent building, printer rationalization and collaboration and connectivity. The last strategy relates to green IT systems, services and usage such as the data center consolidation and energy management, hardware recycle decommission, server and storage virtualization, device power management, and service supplier management. All the questionnaires were assessed via a five-point Likert scale ranging from "very little" to "very large." Our findings show that the IT to support environment sustainability is prior to the other strategies. In detail, the green business /IT policy and standardization is the most important in the government's role. The strategies of intelligent building and the travel and ways of working management are prior to the others for supporting environment sustainability. Finally, the strategies for the data center consolidation and energy management and server and storage virtualization have the huge influence for green IT systems, services and usage This research results the following implications. The amount of energy consumption and CO2 emissions of IT equipment including electrical business equipment will need to be clearly indicated in order to manage the effect of green business/IT strategy. And it is necessary to develop tools that measure the performance of green business/IT by each step. Additionally, intelligent building could grow up in energy-saving, growth of low carbon and related industries together. It is necessary to expand the affect of virtualization though adjusting and controlling the relationship between the management teams.

A Study on the Impact of Employee's Person-Environment Fit and Information Systems Acceptance Factors on Performance: The Mediating Role of Social Capital (조직구성원의 개인-환경적합성과 정보시스템 수용요인이 성과에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구: 사회자본의 매개역할)

  • Heo, Myung-Sook;Cheon, Myun-Joong
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
    • /
    • v.19 no.2
    • /
    • pp.1-42
    • /
    • 2009
  • In a knowledge-based society, a firm's intellectual capital represents the wealth of ideas and ability to innovate, which are indispensable elements for the future growth. Therefore, the intellectual capital is evidently recognized as the most valuable asset in the organization. Considered as intangible asset, intellectual capital is the basis based on which firms can foster their sustainable competitive advantage. One of the essential components of the intellectual capital is a social capital, indicating the firm's individual members' ability to build a firm's social networks. As such, social capital is a powerful concept necessary for understanding the emergence, growth, and functioning of network linkages. The more social capital a firm is equipped with, the more successfully it can establish new social networks. By providing a shared context for social interactions, social capital facilitates the creation of new linkages in the organizational setting. This concept of "person-environment fit" has long been prevalent in the management literature. The fit is grounded in the interaction theory of behavior. The interaction perspective has a fairly long theoretical tradition, beginning with proposition that behavior is a function of the person and environment. This view asserts that neither personal characteristics nor the situation alone adequately explains the variance in behavioral and attitudinal variables. Instead, the interaction of personal and situational variables accounts for the greatest variance. Accordingly, the person-environment fit is defined as the degree of congruence or match between personal and situational variables in producing significant selected outcomes. In addition, information systems acceptance factors enable organizations to build large electronic communities with huge knowledge resources. For example, the Intranet helps to build knowledge-based communities, which in turn increases employee communication and collaboration. It is vital since through active communication and collaborative efforts can employees build common basis for shared understandings that evolve into stronger relationships embedded with trust. To this aim, the electronic communication network allows the formation of social network to be more viable to rapid mobilization and assimilation of knowledge assets in the organizations. The purpose of this study is to investigate: (1) the impact of person-environment fit(person-job fit, person-person fit, person-group fit, person-organization fit) on social capital(network ties, trust, norm, shared language); (2) the impact of information systems acceptance factors(availability, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use) on social capital; (3) the impact of social capital on personal performance(work performance, work satisfaction); and (4) the mediating role of social capital between person-environment fit and personal performance. In general, social capital is defined as the aggregated actual or collective potential resources which lead to the possession of a durable network. The concept of social capital was originally developed by sociologists for their analysis in social context. Recently, it has become an increasingly popular jargon used in the management literature in describing organizational phenomena outside the realm of transaction costs. Since both environmental factors and information systems acceptance factors affect the network of employee's relationships, this study proposes that these two factors have significant influence on the social capital of employees. The person-environment fit basically refers to the alignment between characteristics of people and their environments, thereby resulting in positive outcomes for both individuals and organizations. In addition, the information systems acceptance factors have rather direct influences on the social network of employees. Based on such theoretical framework, namely person-environment fit and social capital theory, we develop our research model and hypotheses. The results of data analysis, based on 458 employee cases are as follow: Firstly, both person-environment fit(person-job fit, person-person fit, person-group fit, person-organization fit) and information systems acceptance factors(availability perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use) significantly influence social capital(network ties, norm, shared language). In addition, person-environment fit is a stronger factor influencing social capital than information systems acceptance factors. Secondly, social capital is a significant factor in both work satisfaction and work performance. Finally, social capital partly plays a mediating role between person-environment fit and personal performance. Our findings suggest that it is vital for firms to understand the importance of environmental factors affecting social capital of employees and accordingly identify the importance of information systems acceptance factors in building formal and informal relationships of employees. Firms also need to reflect their recognition of the importance of social capital's mediating role in boosting personal performance. Some limitations arisen in the course of the research and suggestions for future research directions are also discussed.

Development of Multiplex PCR Assay for Identification of Eight Species from Meats in Korea (국내에서 유통되는 8종의 식육감별을 위한 multiplex PCR법 개발)

  • Heo, Eun-Jeong;Ko, Eun-Kyung;Yoon, Hyang-Jin;Kim, Yeon-Hwa;Kim, Young-Jo;Park, Hyun-Jung;Wee, Sung-Hwan;Moon, Jin-San
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
    • /
    • v.31 no.1
    • /
    • pp.28-35
    • /
    • 2016
  • Species identification of animal tissues in meat products is an important issue to protect the consumer from illegal and/or undesirable adulteration; for economic, religious and health reasons. In this reason, accurate analytical methods are needed for the labeling of meat products with requiring simple and fast procedure. Recently, applications of PCR in food analysis have been increased because of their simplicity, specificity and sensitivity. Therefore, in this study, a multiplex PCR assay was developed for the simultaneous identification of eight species of cow, pig, chicken, duck, goat, sheep, horse and turkey from raw meats. The primers were designed in different regions of mitochondrial 16S RNA after alignment of the available sequences in the GenBank database. Two multiplex primer sets were designed as Set 1 (cow, pig, chicken, duck) and Set 2 (goat, sheep, horse, turkey), respectively. Total 274 samples from cow (n = 55), pig (n = 30), chicken (n=30), and duck (n = 30), goat (n = 40), sheep (n = 33), horse (n = 41), and turkey (n = 15) were tested. The primers generated specific fragments of 94, 192, 279, 477 bp (pig, chicken, cow, duck), 670, 271, 152, 469 bp (goat, sheep, horse, turkey) lengths for eight species, respectively. The animal species specificity was 100% in all eight samples in the multiplex PCR assay. The detection limit of the multiplex PCR assay showed from 100 fg to 1 pg of template DNA from extracted from raw meats. When applying multiplex PCR assays to sample from pork/beef and pork/chicken, beef/chicken tested raw mixed meats and heat-treated ($83^{\circ}C$ for 30min, $100^{\circ}C$ for 20min, and $121^{\circ}C$ for 10min) mixtures, detection limit was 0.1% level beef, pork and pork in beef and chicken in pork and 1.0% level pork in chicken. This study suggest that the developed multiplex PCR assay can be used for rapid and simultaneous species identification of cow, pig, chicken, duck, goat, sheep, horse and turkey from meats.

Dose Distribution and Characterization for Radiation Fields of Multileaf Collimateor System (방사선 입체조형치료용 다엽콜리메이터의 특성과 조직내 선량분포 측정)

  • Chu, Sung-Sil;Kim, Gwi-Eon
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
    • /
    • v.14 no.1
    • /
    • pp.77-85
    • /
    • 1996
  • Purpose : Multileaf collimator(MLC) is very suitable tool for conformal radio-therapy and commissioning measurements for a multileaf collimator installed on a dual energy accelerator with 6 and 10MV photons are required, For modeling the collimator with treament planning software, detailed dosimetric characterization of the multileaf collimator including the penumbra width, leaf transmission between leaf leakage and localization of the leaf ends and sides is an essential requirement. materials and Methods : Measurement of characteristic data of the MLC with 26 pair block leaves installed on CLINAC 2100C linear accelerator was performed. Low sensitive radiographic film(X-omatV) was used for the penumbra measurement and separate experiments using radiographic film and thermoluminescent dosimeters were performed to verify the dose distribution, Measured films were analized with a photodensitometer of WP700i scanner. Results : For 6 & 10 MV x-ray energies, approximately $2.0\%$ of photons incident on the multileaf collimator were transmitted and an additional $0.5\%$ leakage occurs between the leaves. Localizing the physical end of the leaves showed less than 1mm deviation from the $50\%$ decrement line and this difference is attributed to the curved shaped end on the leaves One side of a sin히e leaf corresponded to the $50\%$ decrement line, but the opposite face was aligned with a lower value. This difference is due to the tongue and groove used to decrease between leaf leakage. Alignment of the leaves to form a straight edge resulted larger penumbra at far position from isocenter as compare with divergent alloy blocks. When the MLC edge is stepped by sloping field, the isodose lines follow the leaf pattern and Produce scalloping isodose curves in tissue. The effective penumbra by 45 degree stepped MLC is about 10mm at 10cm depth for 6MV x-ray. The difference of effective penumbra in deep tissue between MLC and divergent alloy blocks is small (5mm). Conclusion : Using the characteristic data of MLC, the MLC has the clinlical acceptability and suitability for 3-D conformal radiotherapy except small field size.

  • PDF

Molecular Characterization of Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase gene in Red Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) (고추에서 분리한 Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase 유전자의 분자생물학적 특성)

  • Kim Kye-Won;Ha Sun-Hwa;Cho Kang-Jin;Kim Eun-Ju;Lee Min-Kyung;Yu Jae-Ju;Kim Jong-Guk;Lee Shin-Woo
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.32 no.3
    • /
    • pp.167-173
    • /
    • 2005
  • Three different cDNAS for cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) which are involved in the second step of the general phenylpropanoid pathway were isolated and designated as pc4h1 (1,755 bp), pc4h2 (1,655 bp), and pc4h3 (1,316 bp), respectively. The nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that both pc4h1 and pc4h2 clones encode polypeptides of 505 amino acids frame but pc4h3 clone was truncated at the 5'-end of coding region. The alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences showed that PC4H1 and PC4H2 are highly homologous (95.8% identical) with each other and contain three conserved domains which are typical in cytochrome P450 monooxygenase: proline-rich region, threonine-containing binding pocket for the oxygen molecule, and heme binding region. In addition, result of the phylogenic tree analysis revealed that both pepper C4Hs belong to Class 1. pc4h2 transcription was strongly induced in wounded fruit (400%) and root (200%) relative to its very low basal level but not in leaf or stem tissue. In case of pc4h1, the basal level of transcription was higher than pc4h2 but induction by wounding was lower in fruit and root while leaf and stem tissues did not respond to wounding. The basal level of pc4h3 transcripts was not, if any, detectable and response to wounding was not observed.

Recent research activities on hybrid rocket in Japan

  • Harunori, Nagata
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.1-2
    • /
    • 2011
  • Hybrid rockets have lately attracted attention as a strong candidate of small, low cost, safe and reliable launch vehicles. A significant topic is that the first commercially sponsored space ship, SpaceShipOne vehicle chose a hybrid rocket. The main factors for the choice were safety of operation, system cost, quick turnaround, and thrust termination. In Japan, five universities including Hokkaido University and three private companies organized "Hybrid Rocket Research Group" from 1998 to 2002. Their main purpose was to downsize the cost and scale of rocket experiments. In 2002, UNISEC (University Space Engineering Consortium) and HASTIC (Hokkaido Aerospace Science and Technology Incubation Center) took over the educational and R&D rocket activities respectively and the research group dissolved. In 2008, JAXA/ISAS and eleven universities formed "Hybrid Rocket Research Working Group" as a subcommittee of the Steering Committee for Space Engineering in ISAS. Their goal is to demonstrate technical feasibility of lowcost and high frequency launches of nano/micro satellites into sun-synchronous orbits. Hybrid rockets use a combination of solid and liquid propellants. Usually the fuel is in a solid phase. A serious problem of hybrid rockets is the low regression rate of the solid fuel. In single port hybrids the low regression rate below 1 mm/s causes large L/D exceeding a hundred and small fuel loading ratio falling below 0.3. Multi-port hybrids are a typical solution to solve this problem. However, this solution is not the mainstream in Japan. Another approach is to use high regression rate fuels. For example, a fuel regression rate of 4 mm/s decreases L/D to around 10 and increases the loading ratio to around 0.75. Liquefying fuels such as paraffins are strong candidates for high regression fuels and subject of active research in Japan too. Nakagawa et al. in Tokai University employed EVA (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate) to modify viscosity of paraffin based fuels and investigated the effect of viscosity on regression rates. Wada et al. in Akita University employed LTP (Low melting ThermoPlastic) as another candidate of liquefying fuels and demonstrated high regression rates comparable to paraffin fuels. Hori et al. in JAXA/ISAS employed glycidylazide-poly(ethylene glycol) (GAP-PEG) copolymers as high regression rate fuels and modified the combustion characteristics by changing the PEG mixing ratio. Regression rate improvement by changing internal ballistics is another stream of research. The author proposed a new fuel configuration named "CAMUI" in 1998. CAMUI comes from an abbreviation of "cascaded multistage impinging-jet" meaning the distinctive flow field. A CAMUI type fuel grain consists of several cylindrical fuel blocks with two ports in axial direction. The port alignment shifts 90 degrees with each other to make jets out of ports impinge on the upstream end face of the downstream fuel block, resulting in intense heat transfer to the fuel. Yuasa et al. in Tokyo Metropolitan University employed swirling injection method and improved regression rates more than three times higher. However, regression rate distribution along the axis is not uniform due to the decay of the swirl strength. Aso et al. in Kyushu University employed multi-swirl injection to solve this problem. Combinations of swirling injection and paraffin based fuel have been tried and some results show very high regression rates exceeding ten times of conventional one. High fuel regression rates by new fuel, new internal ballistics, or combination of them require faster fuel-oxidizer mixing to maintain combustion efficiency. Nakagawa et al. succeeded to improve combustion efficiency of a paraffin-based fuel from 77% to 96% by a baffle plate. Another effective approach some researchers are trying is to use an aft-chamber to increase residence time. Better understanding of the new flow fields is necessary to reveal basic mechanisms of regression enhancement. Yuasa et al. visualized the combustion field in a swirling injection type motor. Nakagawa et al. observed boundary layer combustion of wax-based fuels. To understand detailed flow structures in swirling flow type hybrids, Sawada et al. (Tohoku Univ.), Teramoto et al. (Univ. of Tokyo), Shimada et al. (ISAS), and Tsuboi et al. (Kyushu Inst. Tech.) are trying to simulate the flow field numerically. Main challenges are turbulent reaction, stiffness due to low Mach number flow, fuel regression model, and other non-steady phenomena. Oshima et al. in Hokkaido University simulated CAMUI type flow fields and discussed correspondence relation between regression distribution of a burning surface and the vortex structure over the surface.

  • PDF

Optimized Implementation of Block Cipher PIPO in Parallel-Way on 64-bit ARM Processors (64-bit ARM 프로세서 상에서의 블록암호 PIPO 병렬 최적 구현)

  • Eum, Si Woo;Kwon, Hyeok Dong;Kim, Hyun Jun;Jang, Kyoung Bae;Kim, Hyun Ji;Park, Jae Hoon;Song, Gyeung Ju;Sim, Min Joo;Seo, Hwa Jeong
    • KIPS Transactions on Computer and Communication Systems
    • /
    • v.10 no.8
    • /
    • pp.223-230
    • /
    • 2021
  • The lightweight block cipher PIPO announced at ICISC'20 has been effectively implemented by applying the bit slice technique. In this paper, we propose a parallel optimal implementation of PIPO for ARM processors. The proposed implementation enables parallel encryption of 8-plaintexts and 16-plaintexts. The implementation targets the A10x fusion processor. On the target processor, the existing reference PIPO code has performance of 34.6 cpb and 44.7 cpb in 64/128 and 64/256 standards. Among the proposed methods, the general implementation has a performance of 12.0 cpb and 15.6 cpb in the 8-plaintexts 64/128 and 64/256 standards, and 6.3 cpb and 8.1 cpb in the 16-plaintexts 64/128 and 64/256 standards. Compared to the existing reference code implementation, the 8-plaintexts parallel implementation for each standard has about 65.3%, 66.4%, and the 16-plaintexts parallel implementation, about 81.8%, and 82.1% better performance. The register minimum alignment implementation shows performance of 8.2 cpb and 10.2 cpb in the 8-plaintexts 64/128 and 64/256 specifications, and 3.9 cpb and 4.8 cpb in the 16-plaintexts 64/128 and 64/256 specifications. Compared to the existing reference code implementation, the 8-plaintexts parallel implementation has improved performance by about 76.3% and 77.2%, and the 16-plaintext parallel implementation is about 88.7% and 89.3% higher for each standard.