• Title, Summary, Keyword: agro-based industries

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Assessment of Groundwater Quality for Irrigation and Agro-based Industrial Usage in Selected Aquifers of Bangladesh

  • Rahman, Md. Mokhlesur;Hoque, Syed Munerul;Jesmin, Sabina;Rahman, Md. Siddiqur;Kim, Jang-Eok
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.98-105
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    • 2005
  • Groundwater sampled from 24 tube wells of three districts namely Sherpur, Gaibandha and Naogaon in Bangladesh was appraised for their water quality for irrigation and agro-based industrial usage. All waters under test were slightly alkaline to alkaline (pH = 7.2 to 8.4) in nature and were not problematic for crop production. As total dissolved solid (TDS), all groundwater samples were classified as fresh water (TDS<1,000 mg/L) in quality. Electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) values reflected that waters under test were under medium salinity (C2), high salinity (C3) and also low alkalinity (S1) hazard classes expressed as C2S1 and C3S1. As regards to EC and soluble sodium percentage (SSP), groundwater samples were graded as good and permissible in category based on soil properties and crop growth. All water samples were free from residual sodium carbonate (RSC) and belonged to suitable in category. Water samples were under soft moderately hard, hard and very hard classes. Manganese, bicarbonate and nitrate ions were considered as major pollutants in some water samples and might pose threat in soil ecosystem for long-term irrigation. For most of the agro-based industrial usage, Fe and Cl were considered as troublesome ions. On the basis of TDS and hardness, groundwater samples were not suitable for specific industry. Some water samples were found suitable for specific industry but none of these waters were suitable for all industries. The relationship between water quality parameters and major ions was established. The correlation between major ionic constituents like Ca, Mg, K, Na, $HCO_3$ and Cl differed significantly. Dominant synergistic relationships were observed between EC-TDS, SAR-SSP, EC-Hardness, TDS-Hardness and RSC-Hardness.

Improvement Strategies of Agro-Value Chain for Agricultural Development in Developing Countries: The Case of Cambodia (개도국 농업발전을 위한 농산물 가치사슬 개선 전략: 캄보디아 사례를 중심으로)

  • Kim, Dong-Hwan
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.127-134
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    • 2016
  • Purpose - Value chain in agriculture refers to direct and indirect activities related to value-added process from raw materials to final products in agricultural industries. In recent years, value chain analysis has become more important in the area of agricultural development. This article reviews the concept and importance of value chain analysis in the context of agricultural development and attempts to suggest improvement strategies. Research design, data, methodology - A literature survey was conducted for value chain analysis for agricultural development. The case of agro-value chain in Cambodia was deeply analyzed based upon interviews with government officers and related experts. Results - It seems that agro-value chain in developing countries are not well developed and does not carry out appropriate functions, compared to developed countries. Because value adding facilities, such as storage, processing and packing plants, milling plants, and etc. are not sufficiently constructed, the quality of agricultural products is low. Especially developing countries may loose opportunities to increase value of their product by exporting their agricultural products as raw materials to neighboring countries. Value adding process is also mainly controlled by traders in local markets or wholesale markets in urban areas. Farmers therefore can get lower share of final value of agricultural products compared to the shares paid to traders. Lastly it is argued that governments of developing countries do not play an active role in developing value chains and do not carry out coordinating functions in an effective and efficient manner. Conclusions - The first step to improve agro-value chain in developing countries is to identify and analyze value chain structure of agricultural products and to make development strategies and implementation programs. For improving value chain of agricultural products in developing countries, it is required to provide not only plans for constructing hardwares, such as wholesale markets, storage facilities, processing and packing plants, and etc., but also plans for improving softwares, such as measures for improving product quality and safety, setting up grade and standard, providing market information, and nurturing producer cooperatives.

Employment Rate of Graduates of Agricultural Science Colleges in the Fields of Agro-industry (농학계열 대학 졸업생의 농산업 분야 취업률)

  • Kim, Jung Tae;Bae, Sung Eui
    • Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.1093-1124
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    • 2014
  • Studies on the role of agricultural science colleges are mostly divided into agricultural production, which is the primary function of agriculture, and other functions, which have recently begun to be emphasized as a result of social needs. With the green revolution and the aging of the farming population, there is a strong view that the role of agricultural science colleges should remain as it is. However, agriculture is expanding in terms of concept and content by converging with other industries not traditionally associated with agricultural production. Thus, the fields that now need to form part of agricultural science knowledge are becoming more detailed and expansive. The government's perception remains at the level of merely fostering farmers. This was evident in a survey on the employment rate, a factor used to evaluate colleges, in which the role of agricultural science colleges was limited to fostering farmers. Agro- industry fields, other than agriculturalists, include general industries in which the academic fields of agricultural science are combined with other academic fields. Thus, even when someone is employed in an industry that requires background knowledge of agricultural science, there is often a perception that he or she is employed in a field that is irrelevant to the major. This study examines the role of agricultural science colleges in agriculture and farm villages by focusing on the employment of graduates of these colleges within agro-industry. We categorize academic research on agricultural science into 16 fields, based on the medium level of the National Standard Science and Technology Classification Codes. Then, we categorize the employment fields into 168 fields, based on the small classification level of the inter-industry relations classification. Thus, we investigate 220 departments of 37 colleges, nationwide. Our findings show that the average employment rate of graduates of agricultural science colleges is 69.0%. Furthermore, 33.0% of all employees work in agro-industry fields that require background knowledge in agricultural science, which is one out of three job seekers. Then, 3.6% of employees work in business startups in agro-industry. The aforementioned government survey showed that only 0.1% of all college graduates in Korea were employed as agriculturalists in 2013. However, our results showed that 13.3% of graduates were working as agriculturalists, which is significantly different to the results of the government survey. These results confirm that agricultural science colleges contribute greatly to the employment of graduates, including farmers, agro-industry, and business startups in agro-industry fields.

Manufacturing Industries and Policy Agenda of Goryeong County (고령군 제조업의 실태와 정책과제)

  • Lee, Chul-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean association of regional geographers
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.290-308
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    • 2008
  • The industrial development of Goryeong County was started by the operation of the Ssangrym Agro¬industrial complex in the 1980s. As of 2m3, there are 6 industrial complexes in Goryeong County which account for 80 percent of total employment and 67 percent of total production outPuts in local manufacturing. The local manufacturing industries grew steadily before the 1997 financial crisis which resulted in industrial decline and have shown again a growing tendency since 2000. In this period of growth, manufacturing outPuts are increased and the industrial structure are improved, while employment and value added are in stagnation. The major industrial agglomerations are based in Gaejin-Myun, Dasan-Myun and Ssangrym-Myun, all of which are those in which the agro-industrial complex is operated. More than half of local manufacturing finns are those which came to move in from other regions, looking for cheap labour forces, agglomeration of the related finns and the easy accessibility to transport and communication. However, such local advantages are increasingly losing due to the shortage of labour forces and the lack of industrial networks. Some policy agendas can be suggested as follows. First of all, industrial policy should attempt links with the building-up of the Daegu Technopolis and the up-grading of the local industrial structure towards the knowledge-based industries. Secondly, the local government should make efforts to establish the innovation supporting system for local firms and the industrial and residential basis.

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A Study on the Improvement Directions and Case Analysis of Rural Tourism Development in Fiji (피지(Fiji)의 농촌관광개발 사례분석 및 개선방안 연구)

  • Hwang, Hancheol
    • Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.13-24
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    • 2016
  • Tourism is often considered as one of the main industries to promote development and modernization in small South Pacific islands countries. In Fiji, this was recognized in the 1960s, and resulted in large-scale resort based tourism development in coastal areas. While tourism has obvious advantages to the economy, a lot of problems such as exclusive foreign control of the main hotels and resorts, considerable overseas leakage of earnings, the limited participation by indigenous resource owners, and localized environmental damages to reefs and mangroves are emerging. For sustainable tourism development, it is needed to set growth objectives and targets for tourism in terms of benefits to Fiji, and to concentrate support on 'Rural Tourism' such as community-based tourism that have lower leakage and put more into local economies. Through case study in this paper, to develop rural tourism at the local level, several recommendations are as follows: 1) to introduce various rural tourism programs such as experiencing Fiji's traditional culture, participating in activities, picking fruits and harvesting agro-products, 2) to enhance aggressive promotion and marketing strategies, 3) to build the capacity of local communities for improving the quality of tourism services, and 4) to provide the infrastructure for tourism business such as road accessing, water supply and disaster prevention.

A Study on Promoting Overseas Agricultural Development in the Russian Far East (극동러시아 해외농업개발 활성화 연구)

  • Lee, Dae Seob;Lee, Yoon Jung
    • The Journal of the Korean Society of International Agriculture
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.234-241
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    • 2017
  • The objective of this study is to promote overseas agricultural development in the Russian Far East based on the analysis on the operational conditions of agro-companies and Russia's development strategy for the region as concrete action plans. Korean agro-companies have started to enter the Russian Far East since 1990s and have built up a huge store of know-how. However, they have difficulty in securing sustainability due to poor logistics and infrastructure. The Russian government has promoted the development strategy of the region with implementing investment projects in the agricultural sector. The measures to facilitate overseas agricultural development and promote the development of the region are to establish a grain terminal and to develop a Multi-Industry Cluster which focuses on the agricultural and food industries.

Lessons from the Design of Innovation Systems for Rural Industrial Clusters in India

  • Abrol, Dinesh
    • Journal of Technology Innovation
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.67-97
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    • 2004
  • Practical experience with technology implementation of the upgrading of very small village industries in India suggests that innovation failures are not merely a result of the lack of proper interaction between the users and suppliers of technologies under implementation, but also a result of adoption of the primitive conception of competitiveness in their practice of technology development. The approach of promoting the small producers to become individually competitive by using labour intensive, small-scale intermediate technologies is proving to be totally inadequate for the achievement of technological efficiency in a dynamic sense. Guided by a primitive notion of competitiveness, the suppliers of intermediated technologies are thus being led into limiting their technological efforts in the sectors of direct interest to the rural industrial clusters to the transitional objectives of mainly poverty alleviation. Consequently they have not been able to target the small producers of these village industries for the objectives of business growth. This paper posits that under competitive conditions the self-employed small producer has not only to come together for access to resources, but also has to emerge as a multi-sectoral collective of producers, co-operating in production. With the aim to draw lessons that are generic and have policy implications for the development of innovation systems for local economy based rural industrial clusters and value chains, the author analyses in this paper the experience of innovation in technological systems for the sectors of leather, fruits and vegetable processing and agro processing by the People's Science Movement with the help of the Ministry of Science and Technology and other sectoral ministries in India where rural poor were required to pool the resources and capabilities for raising the scale and scope of their collective production organization.

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Effect of separate and mixed refining of hardwood and softwood pulps on paper properties

  • Chauhan, Vipul S.;Kumar, Nitin;Kumar, Manoj;Chakrabarti, Swapan K.;Thapar, S.K.
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2011
  • Beating or refining is an energy intensive process in paper industry. In India, most of the paper industries blend long fibered softwood pulps with short fibered hardwood or agro based pulps to get the paper properties of competitive level. Refining characteristics of the blend of pulps is very crucial with respect to freeness and strength properties. This study has been carried out to understand the refining behavior of three hardwood pulps and a softwood pulp. The hardwood and softwood pulps are blended in different proportions in two different ways; a) blending after their separate refining, and b) blending before refining followed by mixed refining of the blended pulps. Freeness of pulp, strength, optical and surface properties of paper along with formation have been determined and compared for both the refining methods. The fiber classification of refined pulps was also carried out to analyze the effect of refining method on fiber morphology. The mixed refining of hardwood and softwood pulps marginally affects the fiber morphology in comparison to separate refining of pulps. The strength and other properties of paper prepared from mixed refining of pulps are either better or comparable than those of separately refined pulps.

Preparation of chitosan, sunflower and nano-iron based core shell and its use in dye removal

  • Turgut, Esra;Alayli, Azize;Nadaroglu, Hayrunnisa
    • Advances in environmental research
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.135-150
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    • 2020
  • Many industries, such as textiles, chemical refineries, leather, plastics and paper, use different dyes in various process steps. At the same time, these industrial sectors are responsible for discharging contaminants that are harmful and toxic to humans and microorganisms by introducing synthetic dyes into wastewater. Of these dyes, methylene blue dye, which is classified as basic dyes, is accepted as a model dye. For this reason, methylene blue dye was selected in the study and its removal from the water was studied. In this study, two efficient biosorbents were developed from chitosan and sunflower waste, an agro-industrial waste and modified using iron nanoparticles. The biosorption efficiency was evaluated for methylene blue (MB) dye removal from aqueous solution under various parameters such as treating agent, solution pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature. We investigated the kinetic properties of dye removal from water for Chitosan-Sunflower (CS), Chitosan-Sunflower-Nanoiron (CSN). When the wavelength of MB dye was spectrophotometrically scanned, the maximum absorbance was determined as 660 nm. For the core shell biosorbents we obtained, we found that the optimum time for removal of MB from wastewater was 60 min. The pH of the best pH was determined as 5 in the studied pH. The most suitable temperature for the experiment was determined as 30℃. SEM-EDAX, TEM, XRD, and FTIR techniques were used to characterize biosorbents produced and modified in the experimental stage and to monitor the change of biosorbent after dye removal. The interactions of the paint with the surface used for removal were explained by these techniques. It was calculated that 80% of CS and 88% of CSN removed MB in optimum conditions. Also, the absorption of MB dye onto the surface was investigated by Langmiur and Frendlinch isotherms and it was determined from the results that the removal was more compatible with Langmiur isotherm.