• Title, Summary, Keyword: agricultural-waste burning

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A Study on Estimation of Air Pollutants Emission from Agricultural Waste Burning (농업잔재물 노천소각에 의한 대기오염물질 배출량 산출에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Dong Young;Choi, Min-Ae;Han, Yong-Hee;Park, Sung-Kyu
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.167-175
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    • 2016
  • In this study, we estimate air pollutants emission from agricultural waste burning. We investigated activities related to agricultural waste burning such as crop burning rates, location, and time by region. The average crop burning rates per square meter farmland of fruits, pulses, barleys, cereals, vegetables, and special crops were $273.1g/m^2$, $105.7g/m^2$, $7.4g/m^2$, $121.0g/m^2$, $290.7g/m^2$, and $392.9g/m^2$, respectively. We estimated air pollutants emissions with pre-developed emission factors. The estimated air pollutant emission of agricultural biomass burning were CO 148,028 ton/year, $NO_x$ 5,220 ton/year, $SO_x$ 11 ton/year, VOC 59,767 ton/year, TSP 21,548 ton/year, $PM_{10}$ 8,909 ton/year, $PM_{2.5}$ 7,405 ton/year, and $NH_3$ 5 ton/year. When these results compared with the entire emissions of national inventory (CAPSS), CO, VOC, $PM_{10}$ account for about 17.8%, 6.2%, 6.7% of the total, respectively.

Risk Assessment and Air Pollution by the Open Burning of Agricultural Waste and Residues (농업폐기물 소각에 따른 대기오염 실태 및 위해성 평가)

  • Kim, Moon-Hyeon;Yang, Won-Ho
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.30-35
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    • 2007
  • Waste policies with waste metering system and recycling in 1995 have contributed to the reduction of solid waste generation. Now rural areas as well as urban areas produce less amount of solid wastes in terms of per capita. However most policies in relation to waste issue have been concentrated in urban areas. Large portion of agricultural waste in rural region are being illegally treated such as open incineration or burned out on the road. In this study, we assessed the atmospheric air quality and health risk by illegal open incineration in rural region. In case of benzene level, worst concentration during illegal open incineration was 0.23 ppm and cancer risk by exposure was estimated to $2.29{\times}10^{-3}$.

Chemical Composition of Post-Harvest Biomass Burning Aerosols in Gwangju, Korea

  • Kim, Young-J.;Ryu, Seong-Y.;Kang, Gong-U.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Environmental Sciences Society Conference
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    • pp.79-84
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    • 2003
  • The main objective of this study was to investigate the chemical characteristics of post-harvest biomass burning aerosols from field burning of barley straw in late spring and rice straw in late fall in rural area in Korea. 12-hr integrated intensive sampling of $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ biomass burning aerosols had been conducted continuously at Gwangju, Korea 4-15 June 2001 and 8 October-14 November 2002. The fine and coarse particles of biomass burning aerosols were collected for mass, ionic, elemental, and carbonaceous species analysis. Average fine and coarse mass concentrations of biomass burning aerosols were measured to be 129.6, 24.2 ${{\mu}gm}^{-3}$ in June 2001 and 47.1, 33.2 ${{\mu}gm}^{-3}$ in October to November 2002, respectively. Exceptionally high level of $PM_{2.5}$ concentration up to 157.8 ${{\mu}gm}^{-3}$ well above 24-hour standard was observed during the biomass burning event days under stagnant atmosphere condition. During biomass burning periods dominant ionic species were $Cl^{-}$, ${NO_3}^{-}$, ${SO_4}^{2-}$, and ${NH_4}^{+}$ in fine and coarse mode. In the fine mode $Cl^{-}$ and ${KCl}^{+}$ were unusually rich due to the high content of the semiarid vegetation. High OC values and OC/EC ratios were also measured during the biomass burning periods. Increased amount of fine aerosols with high enrichment, which were originated from biomass burning of post-harvest agricultural waste, resulted in extremely severe particulate air pollution and visibility degradation in the region. Particulate matters from open field burning of agricultural wastes cause great adverse impact on local air quality and regional climate.

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Densified Pellet Fuel Using Woody Core of Industrial Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) as an Agricultural waste (농업부산물인 산업용 대마(Cannabis sativa L.) 목부를 이용한 고밀화 펠릿 연료)

  • Han, Gyu-Seong;Lee, Soo-Min;Shin, Soo-Jeong
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.293-298
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    • 2009
  • We prepared densified wood pellet by agricultural waste. The hemp woody core was used as replacing wood resource. Hemp was separated into the bast fiber and the woody core by hot steaming treatment. The hemp woody core had a similar lignin content(19.4%) and carbohydrate composition with hardwood(20-25% lignin in hardwood), respectively. Also, the hemp had a low ash content(0.5%), which resulted in a low ash formation in pellet burning. Heating value of the hemp pellet(18.40 MJ/kg) had a very similar to the pellet made by hardwoods. The hemp woody core could be replaced the hardwood for densified wood pellet.

Fuel Research of suljigemi Pellet using Biomass (바이오매스를 이용한 술지게미 펠릿의 연료 연구)

  • Kim, Dae-Nyeon;Choi, Jeong-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Industry Convergence
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.109-115
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    • 2018
  • This paper proposes the method to develop the fuel of suljigemi pellet using agricultural by-products the occurred during the manufacturing of alcohol. The goal of the development of suljigemi using biomass is to make the pellet fuel of high calorie. The suljigemi pellet is difficult to recycle waste in the manufacture company of alcohol. suljigemi pellet has the effect of zero emission as the soil conditioner using ash after burning. Also suljigemi pellet has the reduction effect of carriage fee, fuel economy and low-cost high-efficiency effects, environmentally clean fuel as CO2 emissions savings. So the technologies of the suljigemi fuel pellet are developing low carbon, green growth renewable energy fuel through futuristic energy system will be. In experiments, suljigemi pellets confirmed the calories by about 10% higher than wood pellets with the same conditions.

A Study on Estimation of Air Pollutants Emission from Traditional Fireplace in Korea (아궁이 사용에 의한 대기오염물질 배출량 산정에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Dong Young;Choi, Min-Ae;Han, Yong-Hee;Park, Sung-Kyu
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.538-544
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    • 2014
  • A traditional fireplace has been used, but not much, for heating and cooking in rural area, Korea. Traditional fireplace as one type of biomass burnings is also emitting various air pollutants. Air pollutants emission from traditional fireplace was estimated in this study. There are two types of traditional fireplace, one for combined heating and cooking, the other one for cooking only. Types of fuels mostly used in traditional fireplace were wood, agricultural residue, solid waste. Activity levels such as fuel types, amount of fuel loading, and temporal variation were investigated by field survey over Korea. Estimated annual emissions from traditional fireplace were CO 6,335.0, NOx 555.0, SOx 9.6, VOC 1,771.7, TSP 181.4, $PM_{10}$ 119.9, $PM_{2.5}$ 96.2, $NH_3$ 1.4 ton/yr respectively. When emissions compared with the national emission inventory (CAPSS: Clean Air Policy Support System) of 2010 year, CO and $PM_{10}$ occupy 0.8% and 0.1% of total national emission, respectively.

Biochemical characterization of cotton stalks biochar suggests its role in soil as amendment and decontamination

  • Younis, Uzma;Athar, Mohammad;Malik, Saeed Ahmad;Bokhari, Tasveer Zahra;Shah, M. Hasnain Raza
    • Advances in environmental research
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.127-137
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    • 2017
  • Cotton is the major fiber crop in Pakistan that accounts for 2% of total national gross domestic product (GDP). After picking of cotton, the dry stalks are major organic waste that has no fate except burning to cook food in villages. Present research focuses use of cotton stalks as feedstock for biochar production, its characterization and effects on soil characteristics. Dry cotton stalks collected from agricultural field of Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan were combusted under anaerobic conditions at $450^{\circ}C$. The physicochemical analysis of biochar and cotton stalks show higher values of % total carbon, phosphorus and potassium concentrations in biochar as compared to cotton stalks. The concentration of nitrogen was decreased in biochar. Similarly biochar had greater values of fixed carbon that suggest its role for carbon sequestration and as a soil amendment. The fourier transformation infrared spectroscopic spectra (FTIR) of cotton stalks and biochar exposed more acidic groups in biochar as compared to cotton stalks. The newly developed functional groups in biochar have vital role in increasing surface properties, cation exchange capacity, and water holding capacity, and are responsible for heavy metal remediation in contaminated soil. In a further test, results show increase in the water holding capacity and nutrient retention by a sandy soil amended with biochar. It is concluded that cotton stalks can be effectively used to prepare biochar.

Analysis on the Trend of the Utilization of Woody Biomass - Production, supply, and practical use of woody biomass - (목질 바이오매스의 활용에 대한 동향 분석 - 목질 바이오매스의 생산·공급, 그리고 활용을 중심으로 -)

  • Ahn, Byeong-Il;Kim, Chul-Hwan;Lee, Ji-Young;Shim, Sung-Woong;Jo, Hu-Seung;Lee, Gyeong-Sun;Lee, Jee-Young
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.32-42
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    • 2012
  • Wood biomass including forest residues, waste wood, and construction residuals has been widely generated in Korea, but forest biomass from the National Forest Management Operation Project plays a big role in generating wood biomass. Unfortunately the promotion policy of woody energy organized by the Forest Service in Korea concentrates more on demand creation rather than on supply expansion. Therefore, in order to utilize insufficient wood resources effectively, it is greatly required to develop uses for maximizing their added value. In particular, more attention to the use of the second generation biomass has been paid in foreign countries because there is a threshold that the first generation biomass cannot produce enough biofuel without threatening food supplies and biodiversity. In Korea, wood pellets are regarded as the alternative clean fuels to oils and coals that emit green house gases into the atmosphere. However, using wood as pellet raw materials can not be an economic way because the value of wood disappears right after burning in the boiler in spite of its contribution to the decrease of carbon emission. Differently from wood pellets, kraft pulping process using woody biomass produces black liquor as a by-product which can be used to generate electricity, bioenergy and biochemicals through gasification. Thus, it can be more economical to make a torrefaction of lignocellulosic biomass such as low-quality wood and agricultural leftovers as raw materials of pellets.

Diurnal Variation, Vertical Distribution and Source Apportionment of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Chiang-Mai, Thailand

  • Pongpiachan, Siwatt
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.1851-1863
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    • 2013
  • Diurnal variation of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated by collecting PM10 at three different sampling altitudes using high buildings in the city center of Chiang-Mai, Thailand, during the relatively cold period in late February 2008. At site-1 (12 m above ground level), B[a]P concentrations ranged from 30.3-1,673 pg $m^{-3}$ with an average of $506{\pm}477\;pg\;m^{-3}$ contributing on average, $8.09{\pm}8.69%$ to ${\Sigma}PAHs$. Ind and B[b]F concentrations varied from 54.6 to 4,579 pg $m^{-3}$ and from 80.7 to 2,292 pg $m^{-3}$ with the highest average of $1,187{\pm}1,058\;pg\;m^{-3}$ and $963{\pm}656\;pg\;m^{-3}$, contributing on average, $19.0{\pm}19.3%$ and $15.4{\pm}12.0%$ to ${\Sigma}PAHs$, respectively. Morning maxima were predominantly detected in all observatory sites, which can be described by typical diurnal variations of traffic flow in Chiang-Mai City, showing a morning peak between 6 AM. and 9 AM. Despite the fact that most monitoring sites might be subjected to specific-site impacts, it could be seen that PAH profiles in Site-1 and Site-2 were astonishingly homogeneous. The lack of differences suggests that the source signatures of several PAHs become less distinct possibly due to the impacts of traffic and cooking emissions from ground level.

Effect of magnesium sulphate solution on compressive strength and sorptivity of blended concrete

  • Jena, Trilochan;Panda, Kishor C.
    • Advances in concrete construction
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.267-278
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    • 2020
  • This paper reports on the result of an experimental investigation carried out to study the compressive strength and sorptivity properties of blended cement concrete exposed to 5% and 10% MgSO4 solution using fly ash (FA) and silpozz. Usually in sulphate environment the minimum grade of concrete is M30 and the mix design is done for target mean strength of 39 MPa. Silpozz is manufactured by burning of agro-waste rice husk in designed furnace in between 600° to 700℃ which is one of the main agricultural residues obtained from the outer covering of rice grains during the milling process. There are four mix series taken with control mix. The control mix made 0% replacement of FA and silpozz with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). The first mix series made 0% FA and 10-30% replacement of silpozz with OPC. The second mix series made with 10% FA and 10-40% replacement of silpozz with OPC. The third mix series made 20% FA and 10-30% replacement of silpozz with OPC and the fourth mix series made 30% FA and 10-20% silpozz replaced with OPC. The samples (cubes) are prepared and cured in normal water and 5% and 10% MgSO4 solution for 7, 28 and 90 days. The studied parameters are compressive strength and strength deterioration factor (SDF) for 7, 28 and 90 days. The water absorption and sorptivity tests have been done after 28 days of normal water and magnesium sulphate solution curing. The investigation reflects that the blended cement concrete incorporating FA and silpozz showing better resistance against MgSO4 solution when compared to normal water curing (NWC) samples.