• Title, Summary, Keyword: aged ginseng

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In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Aged Ginseng (Panax ginseng)

  • Chung, Soo Im;Kang, Mi Young;Lee, Sang Chul
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.24-30
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    • 2016
  • Fresh ginseng roots were aged in an oven at $80^{\circ}C$ for 14 d. The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of this aged ginseng, in comparison with those of the white and red ginsengs, were evaluated. In in vitro antioxidant assays, the ethanolic extracts from aged ginseng showed significantly higher free radical scavenging activity and reducing power than those of the white and red ginsengs. In in vivo antioxidant assays, mice were fed a high fat diet supplemented with white, red, or aged ginseng powders. High fat feeding resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and a substantial decrease in antioxidant enzymes activities in the animals. However, diet supplementation of ginseng powders, particularly aged ginseng, markedly reduced lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidant enzymes activities. The results illustrate that the aged ginseng has greater in vitro and in vivo antioxidant capacity than the white and red ginsengs. The aged ginseng also showed considerably higher total saponin, phenolic, and flavonoid contents, indicating that its antioxidant capacity may have been partly due to its high levels of antioxidant compounds. This new ginseng product may be useful as a functional food with strong antioxidant potential.

Administration of red ginseng ameliorates memory decline in aged mice

  • Lee, Yeonju;Oh, Seikwan
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.250-256
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    • 2015
  • Background: It has been known that ginseng can be applied as a potential nutraceutical for memory impairment; however, experiments with animals of old age are few. Methods: To determine the memory enhancing effect of red ginseng, C57BL/6 mice (21 mo old) were given experimental diet pellets containing 0.12% red ginseng extract (approximately 200 mg/kg/d) for 3 mo. Young and old mice (4 mo and 21 mo old, respectively) were used as the control group. The effect of red ginseng, which ameliorated memory impairment in aged mice, was quantified using Y-maze test, novel objective test, and Morris water maze. Red ginseng ameliorated age-related declines in learning and memory in older mice. In addition, red ginseng's effect on the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase and proinflammatory cytokines was investigated in the hippocampus of aged mice. Results: Red ginseng treatment suppressed the production of age-processed inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$, and interleukin-$1{\beta}$ expressions. Moreover, it was observed that red ginseng had an antioxidative effect on aged mice. The suppressed glutathione level in aged mice was restored with red ginseng treatment. The antioxidative-related enzymes Nrf2 and HO-1 were increased with red ginseng treatment. Conclusion: The results revealed that when red ginseng is administered over long periods, age-related decline of learning and memory is ameliorated through anti-inflammatory activity.

Red Ginseng Ameliorates Place Learning Deficits in Aged Rats Young Rats with Selective Hippocampal Lesions

  • Zhong, Yong-Mei;Hisao Nishijo;Teruko Uwano;Hidetishi Yamaguchi;Taketosho Ono
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 1998
  • Ameliorating mechanisms of red ginseng on learning deficits were investigated in the following 3 experiments; its effects on 1) place learning deficits in aged rats and in young rats with selective hippocampal lesions (behavioral study), 2) long-term potentiation in the hippocampal formation (neuro- physiological study), and 3) ChAT (choline acetyl transferase) activity in various brain regions of aged rats (pharmacological study). In the behavioral study, first, performance in the place learning tasks were compared among 3 groups of young and aged rats; control young intact rats (10-12 week old) treated with water, aged rats (28-32 month old) treated with water, and aged rats (28-32 month old) treated with red ginseng (100 mghglday) suspended in water. Second, performance in the place learning tasks was compared among 3 groups of young rats; control intact rats treated with water, rats with bilateral hippocampal lesions treated with water, and rats with bilateral hippocampal lesions treated with red ginseng (100 mg/kg/day). Each rat in these 2 behavioral experiments was tested with the 3 types of the place learning tasks in a circular open field using intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) as reward. The ICSS reward was delivered if the rat (1) moved distance of 100-160 cm (DMT): (2) entered an experiment-determined reward place within the open field, and this place was randomly varied in sequential trials (RRPST); or (3) entered 2 specific places, and did a shuttle behavior between the 2 places (PLT). Performance of the aged rats in the ginseng group was not significantly different from that of control young rats in ICSS (current intensity, bar press rates), DMT and RRPST. However, treatment with red ginseng significantly ameliorated place-navigation learning deficits in aged rats in the PLT. Similarly, red ginseng ameliorated learning and memory deficits in young rats with hippocampal lesions in the same tasks. In the neurophysiological study using young rats, perfusion of hippocampal slices with non-sapon in fraction of red ginseng significantly enhanced magnitudes of the long-term potentiation (LfP) in the CA3 subfield. In the pharmacological study, treatment with red ginseng did not affect ChAT activity in aged rat brain including the hippocampal formation. These results strongly suggest that red ginseng ameliorates learning and memory deficits in aged rats through actions on the CA3 subfield of the hippocampal formation, which were independent of the presynaptic components of the cholinergic system

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Stimulatory Effect of Saponin from Panax ginseng on Function of Lymnphocytes in the Elderly

  • Liu, Jun-Da;Wang, Shu;Liu, Hong-Tao
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.312-321
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    • 1998
  • We used the saponin Rgi extracted from Panax ginseng to study its effects on lymphocytes of 10 young and 19 elderly persons. The proliferate response of Iymphocytes cocultured for 72h with PHA and saponin was measured by using MTT method and the'H-TdR incorporation procedure. PHA and Rgl had stimulative effects on the phenotype of Iymphocytes (p<0.001). Rgl also increased the fluidity of lymphocyte membrane of the aged (p<0.001). The CD2s and CDfsRA positive cells of Iymphocytes in the elderly were lower than those of the young people,8.6clo $\pm$ 2.7olo vs 10.43% : 3.5%, 20.95% $\pm$ 15.5clQ vs 50.86% :4.3olo, respectively. More CDfsRO positive cell lymphocy populations were seen in the aged. The CEfsRO positive cells of the young people were 39.63% $\pm$ 3.2%. We discussed the cause of declined immune function of Lymphocytes of aged person and the mechanism of the effect of P. ginseng on Lymphocytes. Key words: Saponin, Lymphocytes, Aged person, Stimulatory effect, and Panax ginseng

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Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture Original Articles (산삼 약침이 정상 중년여성의 맥파요인에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Sang-Wook;Kim, Yi-Soon;Hwang, Won-Deok;Kim, Gyeong-Cheol
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.35-49
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: The aim of this experiment is to know about Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture. Methods: First 20 Middle Aged women are diagnosed by pulse diagnosis, and then Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture(1 injection 20cc) were injected. 30 minutes later, pulse diagnosis again performed. As a result, method of one-group pretest-posttes design were used for evaluation. Results: T(Total pulse cycle) time statistically significant increased on both left and right chon, kwan, cheok. T4 time statistically significant increased on both left and right chon, kwan, cheok. T4-T1/T indexs except left cheokmaek, Right cheokmaek observation area decreased significantly in four sites. Wm(indicating high pressure retention time) indexs increased significantly in the five sites were observed except right chon maek. Conclusions: Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture increased T, T4, Wm and decreased T4-T1/T indexs. The results of this experiment, Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture induced to increase the Pulse-wave's stability and strength.

Insulin sensitivity improvement of fermented Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng) mediated by insulin resistance hallmarks in old-aged ob/ob mice

  • Cheon, Jeong-Mu;Kim, Dae-Ik;Kim, Kil-Soo
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.331-337
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    • 2015
  • Background: The biological actions of various ginseng extracts have been studied for treating obesity and diabetes mellitus. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of fermented Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) on metabolic syndrome. The present study evaluated the antiobesity and antidiabetic effects of fermented red ginseng (FRG) on old-aged, obese, leptin-deficient (B6.V-Lepob, "ob/ob") mice. Methods: The animals were divided into three groups and given water containing 0%, 0.5%, and 1.0% FRG for 16 wk. The effect of FRG on ob/ob mice was determined by measuring changes in body weight, levels of blood glucose, serum contents of triglycerides, total cholesterol and free fatty acids, messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of key factors associated with insulin action, such as insulin receptor (IR), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), glucose transporter 1 and 4 (GLUT1 and GLUT4), peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma ($PPAR-{\gamma}$), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the liver and in muscle, and histology of the liver and pancreas. Results: FRG-treated mice had decreased body weight and blood glucose levels compared with control ob/ob mice. However, anti-obesity effect of FRG was not evident rather than hypoglycemic effect in old aged ob/ob mice. The hyperlipidemia in control group was attenuated in FRG-treated ob/ob mice. The mRNA expressions of IR, LPL, GLUT1, GLUT4, $PPAR-{\gamma}$, and PEPCK in the liver and in muscle were increased in the FRG-treated groups compared with the control group. Conclusion: These results suggest that FRG may play a vital role in improving insulin sensitivity relative to reducing body weight in old-aged ob/ob mice.

Effect of polysaccharides from a Korean ginseng berry on the immunosenescence of aged mice

  • Kim, Miseon;Yi, Young-Su;Kim, Juewon;Han, Sang Yun;Kim, Su Hwan;Seo, Dae Bang;Cho, Jae Youl;Shin, Song Seok
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.447-454
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    • 2018
  • Background: Korean ginseng has been widely evaluated to treat human diseases; however, most studies on Korean ginseng have focused on its root. In this study, polysaccharides [acidic-polysaccharide-linked glycopeptide (APGP) extracted with 90% ethanol and hot water] were prepared from Korean ginseng berries, and their effect on immunosenescence was explored. Methods: The effect of APGP on thymic involution was evaluated by measuring the size of thymi dissected from aged mice. The effect of APGP on populations of immune cells, including natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, age-correlated CD11c-positive B cells, and several subtypes of T cells [CD4-positive, CD8-positive, and regulatory (Treg) T cells] in the thymi and spleens of aged mice was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-6 were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. Profiles of APGP components were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Results: APGP suppressed thymic involution by increasing the weight and areas of thymi in aged mice. APGP increased the population of NK cells, but showed no effect on the population of dendritic cells in the thymi and spleens of aged mice. APGP decreased the population of age-correlated CD11c-positive B cells in the spleens of aged mice. APGP showed no effect on the populations of CD4- and CD8-positive T cells in the thymi of aged mice, whereas it increased the population of Treg cells in the spleens of aged mice. APGP further decreased the reduced serum levels of IL-2 in aged mice, but serum levels of IL-6 were not statistically changed by APGP in aged mice. Finally, HPLC analysis showed that APGP had one major peak at 15 min (a main type of polysaccharide) and a long tail up to 35 min (a mixture of a variety of types of polysaccharides). Conclusion: These results suggested that APGP exerted an anti-immunosenescent effect by suppressing thymic involution and modulating several types of immune cells.

Korean Red Ginseng Up-regulates C21-Steroid Hormone Metabolism via Cyp11a1 Gene in Senescent Rat Testes

  • Kim, In-Hye;Kim, Si-Kwan;Kim, Eun-Hye;Kim, Sung-Won;Sohn, Sang-Hyun;Lee, Soo-Cheol;Choi, Sang-Dun;Pyo, Suhk-Neung;Rhee, Dong-Kwon
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.272-282
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    • 2011
  • Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) has been shown to have anti-aging effects in animal and clinical studies. However, the molecular mechanisms by which ginseng exerts these effects remain unknown. Here, the anti-aging effect of Korean red ginseng (KRG) in rat testes was examined by system biology analysis. KRG water extract prepared in feed pellets was administered orally into 12 month old rats for 4 months, and gene expression in testes was determined by microarray analysis. Microarray analysis identified 33 genes that significantly changed. Compared to the 2 month old young rats, 13 genes (Rps9, Cyp11a1, RT1-A2, LOC365778, Sv2b, RGD1565959, RGD1304748, etc.) were up-regulated and 20 genes (RT1-Db1, Cldn5, Svs5, Degs1, Vdac3, Hbb, LOC684355, Svs5, Tmem97, Orai1, Insl3, LOC497959, etc.) were down-regulated by KRG in the older rats. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of untreated aged rats versus aged rats treated with KRG showed that the affected most was Cyp11a1, responsible for C21-steroid hormone metabolism, and the top molecular and cellular functions are organ morphology and reproductive system development and function. When genes in young rat were compared with those in the aged rat, sperm capacitation related genes were down-regulated in the old rat. However, when genes in the old rat were compared with those in the old rat treated with KRG, KRG treatment up-regulated C21-steroid hormone metabolism. Taken together, Cyp11a1 expression is decreased in the aged rat, however, it is up-regulated by KRG suggesting that KRG seems enhance testes function via Cyp11a1.

Influence of Panax ginseng on obesity and gut microbiota in obese middle-aged Korean women

  • Song, Mi-Young;Kim, Bong-Soo;Kim, Hojun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.106-115
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    • 2014
  • Background: Gut microbiota is regarded as one of the major factors involved in the control of body weight. The antiobesity effects of ginseng and its main constituents have been demonstrated, but the effects on gut microbiota are still unknown. Methods: To investigate the effect of ginseng on gut microbiota, 10 obese middle-aged Korean women took Panax ginseng extracts for 8 wk and assessment of body composition parameters, metabolic biomarkers, and gut microbiota composition was performed using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing at baseline and at 8 wk. Significant changes were observed in body weight and body mass index; however, slight changes were observed in gut microbiota. We divided the participants into two groups, the effective and the ineffective weight loss groups, depending on weight loss effect, in order to determine whether the antiobesity effect was influenced by the composition of gut microbiota, and the composition of gut microbiota was compared between the two groups. Results: Prior to ginseng intake, significant differences of gut microbiota were observed between both at phyla and genera and the gut microbiota of the effective and ineffective weight loss groups was segregated on a principal coordinate analysis plot. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that ginseng exerted a weight loss effect and slight effects on gut microbiota in all participants. In addition, its antiobesity effects differed depending on the composition of gut microbiota prior to ginseng intake.