• Title, Summary, Keyword: aged garlic

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Effect of Garlic on the Quality of Barley Kochuzang Brewed with Whole Red Pepper (통고추를 이용한 보리고추장 양조시 마늘이 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • 이갑상;문정옥;백승화;김동한
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.225-232
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    • 1986
  • This study was to improve the quality of Kochuzang and utilize red pepper seed. Kochuzang were prepared with the addition of red pepper seed and garlic (2%), compared the changes in the various chemical components and enzyme activity during the aging period of Kochuzang, and also organoleptic values of the products. Enzyme activities of liquefying and saccharogenic amylase, protease and lipase were increased by addition of garlic pulp and the suvival activities of enzyme except liquefying amylase were lasted high the late period of aging. Also the addition of red pepper seed was effective in maintaining the enzyme activities Change of titration acidity and pH of kochuzang were little when red pepper seed was added, but in case of a garlic additive it showed no difference at the late period of aging. Total nitrogen and amino nitrogen were increased by the addition of red pepper seed or garlic until the late period of aging, and ammonia nitrogen also increased during the middle period of againg, but showed no difference at the late period. Alcohol content was decreased by the addition of garlic or red pepper seed. but crude lipid was increased by the audition of red pepper seed. but crude lipid was increased by the addition of red pepper seed. Generally, taste, flavor and color of garlic added group were superior to the non-garlic added group for the products which aged for 10 weeks. Therefore, The quality of Barley Kochuazng may be improved by adding 2% garlic to the whole red pepper.

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S-benzyl-cysteine-mediated Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis Involving Activation of Mitochondrial-dependent Caspase Cascade through the p53 Pathway in Human Gastric Cancer SGC-7901 Cells

  • Sun, Hua-Jun;Meng, Lin-Yi;Shen, Yang;Zhu, Yi-Zhun;Liu, Hong-Rui
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.6379-6384
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    • 2013
  • S-benzyl-cysteine (SBC) is a structural analog of S-allylcysteine (SAC), which is one of the major water-soluble compounds in aged garlic extract. In this study, anticancer activities and the underlying mechanisms of SBC action were investigated and compared these with those of SAC using human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. SBC significantly suppressed the survival rate of SGC-7901 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and the inhibitory activities of SBC were stronger than those of SAC. Flow cytometry revealed that SBC induced G2-phase arrest and apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells. Typical apoptotic morphological changes were observed by Hoechst 33258 dye assay. SBC-treatment dramatically induced the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (${\Delta}{\Psi}m$), and enhanced the enzymatic activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 whilst hardly affecting caspase-8 activity. Furthermore, Western blotting indicated that SBC-induced apoptosis was accompanied by up-regulation of the expression of p53, Bax and the down-regulation of Bcl-2. Taken together, this study suggested that SBC exerts cytotoxic activity involving activation of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis through p53 and Bax/Bcl-2 pathways in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells.

Changes of Physicochemical Components and Antioxidant Activity of Aged Garlic at Different Temperatures (숙성 온도에 따른 마늘의 이화학적 성분 및 항산화 활성의 변화)

  • Shin, Jung-Hye;Choi, Duck-Joo;Chung, Mi-Ja;Kang, Min-Jung;Sung, Nak-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.9
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    • pp.1174-1181
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    • 2008
  • Garlics were aged at 60, 70, 80, and $90^{\circ}C$ for 1, 3 and 6 days. Samples were analyzed for physico-chemical components and antioxidant activities, such as DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power of hot water and ethanol extracts. The Hunter L, a and b values were significantly lower in sample aged at higher temperature and for longer time. In initiation of aging, the share force was the lowest in sample aged at $90^{\circ}C(85.70{\pm}1.44\;kg/cm^2)$ and it increased for 6 days to $411.30{\pm}13.90\;kg/cm^2$ in aging. The pH of garlic was acidified at increasing aged temperature and periods. In sample aged for 6 days at $60^{\circ}C$ and $90^{\circ}C$, pH was 6.12 and 3.90, respectively. Contents of total phenolics and flavonoids also increased in sample aged at higher temperature and for longer time. Their contents increased about 3.5 and 9.1 times higher in sample aged for 6 days at $90^{\circ}C$ than sample aged for 6 days at $60^{\circ}C$, respectively. Total pyruvate contents were fluctuated by aging temperature and periods. DPPH scavenging activity was increased in sample aged at higher temperature and longer time. The highest activity of DPPH scavenging showed $87.48{\pm}0.20%$ in sample aged for 6 days at $90^{\circ}C$. Similar results were observed in reducing power activity. It was estimated that such increases in anti-oxidant activities in aged garlics may come from actions of phenolics, flavonoids and browning compounds in them.

In vitro Inhibitory Effect of Aged Black Garlic Extract with Antioxidant Activity on MMP-2 and MMP-9 Related to Metastasis (In vitro에서 항산화 효능이 있는 흑마늘 추출물의 MMP-2 및 MMP-9에 대한 활성 억제효과)

  • Lee, Soo-Jin;Nam, Hyang;Kim, Moon-Moo;Jang, Ho-Jung;Park, Jung-Ae;Kim, Byung-Woo;Chung, Kyung-Tae
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.760-767
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    • 2010
  • The oxidative damage of lipids, protein, and DNA is known to be involved in not only chronic inflammations such as arthritis, hepatitis, nephritis, gastritis, colitis, and periodontitis but also metastasis. It has given impetus to searching for natural compounds without toxicity, which prevent the development of these diseases. The direct scavenging effects of aged black garlic extract (ABGE) were evaluated in vitro on DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, and genomic DNA damage related to oxidative stress. Furthermore, its antioxidant effect on lipid peroxidation was investigated in human fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080), which were exposed to the hydroxyl radical generated by the Fenton reaction. It was observed that ABGE exhibited a greater inhibitory effect on hydrogen peroxide than other reactive oxygen species, and also blocked DNA oxidation and lipid peroxidation induced by the hydroxyl radical. The oxidative stress in live cells was also inhibited in the presence of ABGE. In addition, its inhibitory effects on the activity and expression of MMP-2 and -9 related to metastasis were determined using gelatin zymography and western blot. The data showed that it inhibited MMP-2 and -9 in PMA-stimulated HT1080 cells. Therefore, these results suggest that ABGE show potential as an excellent agent for prevention of metastasis related to oxidative stress.

Antioxidative Capacity and Quality Characteristics of Yanggaeng with Fermented Aged Black Giant Garlic (Allium ampeloprasum L. var. ampeloprasum auct.) Paste (효소 발효 자이언트 흑마늘 페이스트를 첨가한 양갱의 항산화 활성 및 품질 특성)

  • Park, Cho-Hee;Kim, Kyoung-Hee;Kim, Na-Young;Kim, Sung-Hwan;Yook, Hong-Sun
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.1014-1021
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    • 2014
  • This study was performed to investigate the quality characteristics of the Yanggaeng with the addition of fermented aged black giant garlic paste (FABGGP) such as pH, reducing power, color, texture, total polyphenol, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and sensory acceptability. FABGGP was incorporated into Yanggaeng at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12%(w/w) weight amounts based on the total weight of cooked white bean and FABGGP. pH decreased significantly with the increasing levels of FABGGP add. Reducing the sugar content increased as the amount of FABGGP increased. In term of color, lightness(L) and yellowness(b) decreased significantly but redness increased with increasing the levels of FABGGP. In the texture analysis, hardness, springiness and gumminess of FABGGP Yanggaeng were lower than those of the control. Total polyphenol content and 1,1-di-phenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity significantly increased as the FABGGP concentration increased in the formulation, The results of the sensory test showed that Yanggaeng with 6% FABGGP had the highest score in color, overall preference and chewiness. Based on these results, it is suggested that Yanggaeng with up to 6% added FABGGP can be developed as products without adverse effects on the sensory characteristics.

Independent beneficial effects of aged garlic extract intake with regular exercise on cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women

  • Seo, Dae-Yun;Lee, Sung-Ryul;Kim, Hyoung-Kyu;Baek, Yeong-Ho;Kwak, Yi-Sub;Ko, Tae-Hee;Kim, Na-Ri;Rhee, Byoung-Doo;Ko, Kyoung-Soo;Park, Byung-Joo;Han, Jin
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.226-231
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of the study was to assess the effects of a 12 weeks aged garlic extract (AGE) regimen with regular exercise on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in postmenopausal women. A total of 30 postmenopausal women ($54.4{\pm}5.4$ years) were randomly divided into the following four groups: Placebo (Placebo; n = 6), AGE intake (AGEI; n = 8), exercise and placebo (Ex + Placebo; n = 8), exercise and AGE (Ex + AGE; n = 8) groups. The AGE group consume 80 mg per day, and exercise groups performed moderate exercise (aerobic and resistance) three times per week. After 12 weeks of treatment, body composition, lipid profile, and CVD risk factors were analyzed. Body weight was significantly decreased in AGEI, Ex + Placebo, and Ex + AGE groups compared to baseline. Body fat % was significantly decreased in the AGEI and Ex + Placebo groups. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly decreased in the AGEI, Ex + Placebo, and Ex + AGE groups. Fat-free mass was significantly decreased in the AGEI group. Total cholesterol (TC) was significantly lower in the Ex + Placebo compared to the Placebo group. AGE supplementation or exercise effectively reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Triglyceride (TG) was significantly increased in the AGEI group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly decreased in the AGEI, Ex + Placebo, and Ex + AGE compared to the placebo group. AGE supplementation reduced homocysteine levels regardless of whether the women also exercised. The present results suggest that AGE supplementation reduces cardiovascular risk factors independently of exercise in postmenopausal women.

Effects of Aged Black Garlic Extracts on the Rheology of Flour Dough (숙성 흑마늘 추출액 첨가가 빵용 밀가루 반죽의 레올로지 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Wang, Sug-Ja;Lee, Jeong-Hoon;Choi, Mi-Jung;Lee, Si-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.430-435
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to investigate the rheological effects of black garlic extracts on the bread dough. 0, 5, 10 and 15% of black garlic extracts were added in the bread flour. Falling number, RVA (Rapid visco analyser), farinograph and alveograph were analyzed. Falling number was lowered by increasing the amount of the extract added in the wheat flour. The pasting characteristics of the dough by RVA, value of pasting temperature, peak viscosity, holding strength, final viscosity, break down and set back were increased compared to the control. In the Farinograph analysis, the consistency and the water absorption ratio were elevated with the increase of the extract added. However, the rapid decrease of stability and the time to breakdown values were observed by increasing the extract addition amount compared to the control. However the mixing tolerance index (MTI) was rapidly increased as the amount of the extract addition was increased, and the highest farinogram quality number was observed in the control. Through the alveograph analysis, $P_{max}$ value was found to show the highest value in the control, while the L and G values were higher but W values was lowered in the dough with added 15% black garlic extract. As a result of the analysis, there was no significant bad effect until 5% of black garlic extracts was added to the bread dough.

Effect of S-Allyl Cysteine(SAC) on the Proliferation of Umbilical Cord Blood(UCB)-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells(MSCs) (S-Allyl Cysteine(SAC)이 제대혈 유래 중간엽 줄기세포 증식에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Ran-Sook
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.313-319
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    • 2009
  • To improve the growth of human mesenchymal stem cells(hMSCs) under general cell culture conditions(20% $O_2$ and 5% $CO_2$), we examined the effect of s-allylcysteine(SAC), which is known as an antioxidant and the main component of aged-garlic extract, on hydrogen peroxide-induced cellular stress in hMSCs. We found that SAC blocked hydrogen peroxideinduced cell death and cellular apoptosis, but that SAC did not improve the growth of hMSCs during short-term culture. To evaluate the protective effect of SAC, we examined the endogenous expression of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase(SOD), and glutathione peroxidase(Gpx) in hMSCs. Hydrogen peroxide was found to downregulate the expression of CAT, SOD, and Gpx at the protein level. However, in the pre-treatment group of SAC, SAC inhibited the hydrogen peroxide-induced down-regulation of CAT, SOD, and Gpx. Unfortunately, treatment with SAC alone did not induce the up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and the cell proliferation of hMSCs. Surprisingly, SAC improved cell growth in a single cell level culture of hMSCs. These results indicate that SAC may be involved in the preservation of the self-renewal capacity of hMSCs. Taken together, SAC improves the proliferation of hMSCs via inhibition of oxidative-stress-induced cell apoptosis through regulation of antioxidant enzymes. In conclusion, SAC may be an indispensable component in an in vitro culture system of human MSCs for maintaining self-renewal and multipotent characterization of human MSCs.

Antioxidative Effect of S-allylmercaptocysteine Derived from Aged Garlic on Oxidation of Human Low Density Lipoprotein (숙성 마늘 유래 S-allylmercaptocysteine의 human low density lipoprotein (LDL)에 대한 항산화 효과)

  • Yang, Seung Taek
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.12
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    • pp.1712-1717
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    • 2012
  • Oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) plays an important role in the development and progression of atherosclerotic disease. In this study, human LDL was isolated and oxidized using $CuSO_4$ in the presence or absence of S-allylmercaptocysteine. Oxidative modification of the LDL fraction was monitored by both the appearance of thiobarbituric acid substances (TBARS), an increase in electrophoretic mobility, and conjugated diene formation. The addition of S-allylmercaptocysteine reduced lipid peroxide formation, indicating it to be an effective antioxidant. The inhibition of LDL oxidation by $5{\sim}20{\mu}g/ml$ S-allylmercaptocysteine occurred in a dose-dependent manner, as assessed by the TBARS assay. S-allylmercaptocysteine at $20{\mu}g/ml$ almost completely inhibited the $Cu^{2+}$ induced increases in electrophoretic mobility of LDL and almost completely inhibited conjugated diene formation. A more potent antioxidative activity was observed for S-allylmercaptocysteine than for either Vitamin C or $d{\ell}-{\alpha}$-tocopherol. Thus, S-allylmercaptocysteine aid in preventing the development and progression of atherosclerotic disease.