• Title, Summary, Keyword: aged garlic

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Induction of apoptosis by a hexane extract of aged black garlic in the human leukemic U937 cells

  • Park, Cheol;Park, Sejin;Chung, Yoon Ho;Kim, Gi-Young;Choi, Young Whan;Kim, Byung Woo;Choi, Yung Hyun
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.132-137
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    • 2014
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In this study, the apoptogenic activity and mechanisms of cell death induced by hexane extract of aged black garlic (HEABG) were investigated in human leukemic U937 cells. MATERIALS/METHODS: Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide) assay. Apoptosis was detected using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenyllindile (DAPI) staining, agarose gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry. The protein levels were determined by Western blot analysis. Caspase activity was measured using a colorimetric assay. RESULTS: Exposure to HEABG was found to result in a concentration- and time-dependent growth inhibition by induction of apoptosis, which was associated with an up-regulation of death receptor 4 and Fas legend, and an increase in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression. Apoptosis-inducing concentrations of HEABG induced the activation of caspase-9, an initiator caspase of the mitochodrial mediated intrinsic pathway, and caspase-3, accompanied by proteolytic degradation of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase. HEABG also induced apoptosis via a death receptor mediated extrinsic pathway by caspase-8 activation, resulting in the truncation of Bid, and suggesting the existence of cross-talk between the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. However, pre-treatment of U937 cells with the caspase-3 inhibitor, z-DEVD-fmk, significantly blocked the HEABG-induced apoptosis of these cells, and increased the survival rate of HEABG-treated cells, confirming that HEABG-induced apoptosis is mediated through activation of caspase cascade. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the overall results, we suggest that HEABG reduces leukemic cell growth by inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, implying its potential therapeutic value in the treatment of leukemia.

Effects of Aged Black Garlic Extracts on the Tight Junction Permeability and Cell Invasion in Human Gastric Cancer Cells (흑마늘 추출물이 인체위암세포의 tight junction 투과성 조절과 세포 침윤성 억제에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Dong-Yeok;Yoon, Moo-Kyoung;Choi, Young-Whan;Gweon, Oh-Cheon;Kim, Jung-In;Choi, Tae-Hyun;Choi, Yung-Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.528-534
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    • 2010
  • Garlic (Allium sativum) has been well-known as a folk remedy for a variety of ailments since ancient times, and it is well documented that enhanced garlic consumption leads to a decrease in incidences of cancer. Tight junctions (TJs) are critical structures for the maintenance of cellular polarity, acting as paracellular permeability barriers and playing an essential role in regulating the diffusion of fluid, electrolytes and macromolecules through the paracellular pathway. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated as possible mediators of invasiveness and metastasis in some cancers. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of water extract of aged black garlic (ABG) on the correlation between tightening of TJs and anti-invasive activity in human gastric carcinoma AGS cells. The inhibitory effects of ABG on cell motility and invasiveness were found to be associated with increased tightness of TJs, which was demonstrated by an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance. Additionally, the activities of MMP-2 and -9 in AGS cells were inhibited by treatment with ABG, and this was also correlated with a decrease in the expression of their mRNA and proteins. Furthermore, RT-PCR and immunoblotting results indicated that ABG repressed the levels of the claudin proteins, major components of TJs that play a key role in the control and selectivity of paracellular transport. In conclusion, these results suggest that ABG treatment may inhibit tumor metastasis and invasion, and therefore may act as a dietary source to decrease the risk of developing cancer.

Aged garlic extract enhances exercise-mediated improvement of metabolic parameters in high fat diet-induced obese rats

  • Seo, Dae Yun;Lee, SungRyul;Figueroa, Arturo;Kwak, Yi Sub;Kim, Nari;Rhee, Byoung Doo;Ko, Kyung Soo;Bang, Hyun Seok;Baek, Yeong Ho;Han, Jin
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.6 no.6
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    • pp.513-519
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    • 2012
  • Aged garlic extract (AGE) is known to have a protective effect against immune system, endothelial function, oxidative stress and inflammation. We examined the effects of exercise with and without aged garlic extract administration on body weight, lipid profiles, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress marker in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. Forty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a HFD (HFD, n = 40) or a normal diet (ND, n = 5) for 6 weeks and thereafter randomized into ND (n = 5), HFD (n = 10), HFD with AGE (n = 10), HFD with Exercise (n = 10), or HFD with Exercise+AGE (n = 10) for 4 weeks. AGE groups were administered at a dose of 2.86 g/kg body weight, orally. Exercise consisted of running 15-60 min 5 days/week with gradually increasing intensity. AGE (P<0.01), Exercise, and Exercise+AGE (P<0.001) attenuated body weight gain and food efficiency ratio compared to HFD. Visceral fat and liver weight gain were attenuated (P<0.05) with all three interventions with a greater effect on visceral fat in the Exercise+AGE than AGE (P<0.001). In reducing visceral fat (P<0.001), epididymal fat (P<0.01) and liver weight (P<0.001), Exercise+AGE was effective, but exercise showed a stronger suppressive effect than AGE. Exercise+AGE showed further additive effects on reducing visceral fat and liver weight (P<0.001). AGE significantly attenuated the increase in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol compared with HFD (P<0.05). Exercise+AGE attenuated the increase in triglycerides compared with HFD (P<0.05). Exercise group significantly decrease in C-reactive protein (P<0.001). These results suggest that AGE supplementation and exercise alone have anti-obesity, cholesterol lowering, and anti-inflammatory effects, but the combined intervention is more effective in reducing weight gain and triglycerides levels than either intervention alone.

Effects of aged garlic extract and endurance exercise on skeletal muscle FNDC-5 and circulating irisin in high-fat-diet rat models

  • Seo, Dae Yun;Kwak, Hyo Bum;Lee, Sung Ryul;Cho, Yeun Suk;Song, In-Sung;Kim, Nari;Bang, Hyun Seok;Rhee, Byoung Doo;Ko, Kyung Soo;Park, Byung Joo;Han, Jin
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.177-182
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    • 2014
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Irisin, a newly identified hormone, is associated with energy homeostasis. We investigated whether aged garlic extract (AGE) and exercise training intervention could improve body weight, insulin sensitivity, skeletal muscle fibronectin domain containing protein 5 (FNDC-5) levels, and plasma irisin in high-fat diet (HFD). MATERIALS/METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a ND (normal diet, n=5) or HFD (n=28) for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, all rats were divided into 5 groups for the next 4 weeks: ND, (normal diet, n=5), HFD (high-fat diet, n=7), HFDA (high-fat diet + aged garlic extract, n=7), HFDE (high-fat diet + exercise, n=7), and HFDEA (high-fat diet + exercise + aged garlic extract, n=7). Exercise groups performed treadmill exercises for 15-60 min, 5 days/week, and AGE groups received AGE (2.86 g/kg, orally injected) for 4 weeks. RESULTS: Significant decreases in body weight were observed in the ND, HFDE, and HFDEA groups, as compared with the HFD group. Neither intervention affected the masses of the gastrocnemius muscle or liver. There were no significant differences in glucose levels across the groups. The homeostatic model assessments of insulin resistance were significantly higher in the HFD group, as compared with the ND, HFDA, HFDE, and HFDEA groups. However, skeletal muscle FNDC-5 levels and plasma irisin concentrations were unaffected by AGE or exercise in obese rats. AGE supplementation and exercise training did not affect skeletal muscle FNDC-5 or plasma irisin, which are associated with insulin sensitivity in obese rats. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the protection against HFD-induced increases in body fat/weight and insulin resistance that are provided by AGE supplementation and exercise training may not be mediated by the regulation of FNDC-5 or irisin.

Oxidative Stress Inhibitory Effects of Low Temperature-Aged Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Extracts through Free Radical Scavenging Activity (저온숙성마늘의 라디칼 소거 활성을 통한 산화스트레스 억제 효과)

  • Hwang, Kyung-A;Kim, Ga Ram;Hwang, Yu-Jin;Hwang, In-Guk;Song, Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.27-34
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    • 2016
  • Garlic has drawn attention as a food material for its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties as well as for prevention and treatment of cancer. In order to increase efficiency, various aging methods for garlic have been attempted. In particular, thermally processed garlic is known to have higher biological activities due to its various chemical changes during heat treatment. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the anti-oxidative effects of garlic extracts aged at low temperature ($60{\sim}70^{\circ}C$). In the results, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical scavenging activities and ferric reducing ability of low temperature-aged garlic (LTAG) were similar to those of raw garlic. LTAG also showed decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of reactive oxygen species, although there were not significant differences among samples. In addition, xanthine oxidase activity was inhibited by LTAG; the 15 days and $60^{\circ}C$ extract showed outstanding inhibition compared with the others. To understand the molecular mechanisms behind the anti-oxidative activity of LTAG, we performed quantitative real-time PCR analysis. The 30 days and $70^{\circ}C$ extract upregulated mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes such as Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), Mn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. This result indicates that LTAG can be a functional food as a nature antioxidant and antioxidant substance.

Analysis of Active Components of Giant Black Garlic (자이언트흑마늘의 유효성분 분석)

  • Kim, Dam;Kim, Kyoung-Hee;Yook, Hong-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.11
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    • pp.1672-1681
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    • 2015
  • Garlic has been consumed for a long time as a food in Korea. Among commercial garlic products, aged black garlic is known to contain bioactive ingredients. Giant garlic is large garlic with a mild and sweet flavor. However, there have been few studies on the bioactive effects of giant garlic. This study analyzed valid substances of giant black garlic (GBG), giant fresh garlic (GFG), normal black garlic (NBG), and normal fresh garlic (NFG). Moisture content of GBG decreased in comparison with that of GFG. Ash, crude protein, crude lipid, total pyruvate, S-allylcysteine, and S-allylmercaptocysteine contents were the highest in GBG. The pH values of GBG, GFG, NBG, and NFG were 3.77, 5.97, 3.94, and 6.10, respectively. Acidity of GBG was higher than that of GFG. Total sugar content of GBG increased while reducing sugar content was the same as that of GFG. Composition of amino acids except for histidine, lysine, and arginine in GBG was higher than that of GFG, and free amino acids excluding arginine, cysteine, lysine, phosphoethanolamine, and urea were higher than those of GFG. In minerals, Cu, Fe, and Mg contents were higher than those of GFG.

The effects of black garlic (Allium satvium) extracts on lipid metabolism in rats fed a high fat diet

  • Ha, Ae Wha;Ying, Tian;Kim, Woo Kyoung
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.30-36
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    • 2015
  • BACKGROUD/OBEJECTIVES: The mechanism of how black garlic effects lipid metabolism remains unsolved. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of black garlic on lipid profiles and the expression of related genes in rats fed a high fat diet. MATERIALS/METHODS: Thirty-two male Sqrague-Dawley rats aged 4 weeks were randomly divided into four groups (n=8) and fed the following diets for 5 weeks: normal food diet, (NF); a high-fat diet (HF); and a high-fat diet + 0.5% or 1.5% black garlic extract (HFBG0.5 or HFBG1.5). Body weights and blood biochemical parameters, including lipid profiles, and expressions of genes related to lipid metabolism were determined. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed in the final weights between the HFBG1.5 and HF groups. All blood biochemical parameters measured in the HFBG1.5 group showed significantly lower values than those in the HF group. Significant improvements of the plasama lipid profiles as well as fecal excretions of total lipids and triglyceride (TG) were also observed in the HFBG1.5 group, when compared to the HF diet group. There were significant differences in the levels of mRNA of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in the HFBG1.5 group compared to the HF group. In addition, the hepatic expression of (HMG-CoA) reductase and Acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) mRNA was also significantly lower than the HF group. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of black garlic extract lowers SREBP-1C mRNA expression, which causes downregulation of lipid and cholestrol metahbolism. As a result, the blood levels of total lipids, TG, and cholesterol were decreased.

Effects of Aged Black Garlic Extract on Lipid Improvement in Rats Fed with High Fat-Cholesterol Diet (흑마늘 추출물에 의한 고콜레스테롤혈증 유발 흰쥐의 지질대사의 개선효과)

  • Lee, Hyun-Sook;Yang, Seung-Taek;Ryu, Beung-Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.884-892
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    • 2011
  • This study was performed to investigate the increase of S-allylcysteine content, a biomarker of black garlic, during its aging period, as well as the serum lipid-lowering effects of black garlic extract in high fat diet fed rats. The highest content of S-allylcysteine was observed on the 15th day of the aging period. Sensory evaluation was also estimated to be extremely good on the 15th day of the aging period. High fat diet rats with induced hyperlipidemia were fed diets containing black garlic extract of low, medium, and high doses for 6 weeks. No significant difference in body weight gain and food efficiency was observed between normal, placebo and black garlic fed groups. Liver weight was significantly higher in black garlic fed groups than in the normal group. Total serum cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly lower in low, medium, and high dose groups than in the normal group. Also, HDL-cholesterol was significantly higher and LDL-cholesterol was significantly lower in black garlic diet fed groups than in the normal group. Hepatic levels including total lipid and cholesterol were especially decreased in the black garlic diet fed group than in the placebo group. These results suggest that black garlic intake reduces the levels of serum and hepatic cholesterol in high fat diet fed rats. In conclusion, black garlic has a potential to be used as a functional health food ingredient with beneficial effects on lowering cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

Effects of Fermented Garlic Powder on Production Performance, Egg Quality, Blood Profiles and Fatty Acids Composition of Egg Yolk in Laying Hens

  • Ao, X.;Yoo, J.S.;Lee, J.H.;Jang, H.D.;Wang, J.P.;Zhou, T.X.;Kim, I.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.786-791
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    • 2010
  • The effects of fermented garlic powder on production performance, egg quality, blood profiles and fatty acid composition of egg yolk in laying hens were studied in a 35-d experiment. Two-hundred and forty (ISA brown) layers aged 41 weeks were randomly allocated into the following four treatments: i) CON (basal diet); ii) G1 (CON+fermented garlic powder 1.0%); iii) G2 (CON+fermented garlic powder 2.0%) and iv) G3 (CON+fermented garlic powder 3.0%). There were no differences (p>0.05) among treatments in egg production, egg weight, eggshell breaking strength and eggshell thickness throughout the whole experimental period. However, yolk height was increased significantly (p<0.05) by the addition of fermented garlic powder during the 5th week while yolk color was greater (p<0.05) in G2 and G3 than in CON and G1 in the 5th week. Compared with CON, Haugh unit was increased (p<0.05) in response to fermented garlic powder treatments during the 5th week. No significant effects on total protein, albumin and IgG were observed in response to any of the treatments over the experimental period (p>0.05). There was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in plasma cholesterol concentration when the dietary level of fermented garlic powder was increased from 0.0 to 3.0%. The levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA) were significantly decreased (p<0.05) in response to G2 and G3 while monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were higher (p<0.05) in G2 and G3 treatment groups than in CON and G1. Compared with other treatments, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and PUFA:SFA ratio were higher (p<0.05) in G3. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that addition of fermented garlic powder reduced plasma cholesterol concentration and did not cause adverse effects on production performance. Moreover, addition of 3.0% garlic powder decreased SFA but increased PUFA and PUFA:SFA ratio in egg yolk.

Antioxidation, Antimicrobial and Antithrombosis Activities of Aged Black Garlic (Allium sativum L.) (흑마늘의 항산화, 항균 및 항혈전 활성)

  • Jung, In-Chang;Sohn, Ho-Yong
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.285-292
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    • 2014
  • In the course of study for development of functional food ingredients from aged black garlic (ABG), heat-treated ripe bulbs of Allium sativum L., the water extracts from raw-garlic (RG) and ABG, and the subsequent organic solvent fractions of ABG were prepared, and their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antithrombosis activities were compared. The extraction yield of ABG was 4-folds higher than that of RG, and the contents of total polyphenol, total flavonoid, total sugar and reducing sugar in the ABG extract were 4-folds, 1.56-folds, 3.36-folds and 6.75-folds higher than those of the RG extract, respectively. In antioxidation activity assay, the extract of ABG showed minor scavenging activity against DPPH anion, but revealed strong scavenging activity against ABTS cation and nitrite. Especially, the ethylacetate fraction from the ABG extract demonstrated stronger antioxidation activity than the RG extract and other fractions. Although the antimicrobial and antithrombosis activities of the RG extract did not appear in the ABG extract, the ethylacetate fraction from the ABG extract had antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and strong antithrombosis activity via the inhibition of prothrombin, blood coagulation factors and platelet aggregation. All extracts and fractions did not show any hemolytic activity against human red blood cells up to 5 mg/ml. Our results suggest that the ethylacetate fraction of ABG could be applicable to the development of functional food ingredients for antithrombosis agents.