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Antioxidant effect of garlic and aged black garlic in animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus

  • Lee, Young-Min;Gweon, Oh-Cheon;Seo, Yeong-Ju;Im, Ji-Eun;Kang, Min-Jung;Kim, Myo-Jeong;Kim, Jung-In
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.156-161
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    • 2009
  • Hyperglycemia in the diabetic state increases oxidative stress and antioxidant therapy can be strongly correlated with decreased risks for diabetic complications. The purpose of this study is to determine antioxidant effect of garlic and aged black garlic in animal model of type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant activity of garlic and aged black garlic was measured as the activity in scavenging free radicals by the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. Three week-old db/db mice were fed AIN-93G diet or diet containing 5% freeze-dried garlic or aged black garlic for 7 weeks after 1 week of adaptation. Hepatic levels of lipid peroxides and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured. TEAC values of garlic and aged black garlic were $13.3{\pm}0.5$ and $59.2{\pm}0.8{\mu}mol/g$ wet weight, respectively. Consumption of aged black garlic significantly decreased hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level compared with the garlic group which showed lower TBARS level than control group (p<0.05). Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) of garlic and aged black garlic group were significantly elevated compared to the control group. Catalase (CAT) activity of aged black garlic group was increased compared with the control group. These results show that aged black garlic exerts stronger antioxidant activity than garlic in vitro and in vivo, suggesting garlic and aged black garlic, to a greater extent, could be useful in preventing diabetic complications.

Antioxidant Activities and Quality Characteristics of Fermented and Aged Garlic Yanggeng (발효숙성마늘 페이스트의 양을 달리하여 제조한 발효숙성마늘 양갱의 품질특성 및 항산화성)

  • Kwak, Eun-Shil;Kim, Hye-Ran;Lee, Kun-Jong;Kim, Mee-Ree
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.739-746
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    • 2009
  • The quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of Yanggeng prepared with different amounts of fermented and aged garlic paste(0, 10, 20 or 30%) were determined. The pH of fermented and aged garlic Yanggeng decreased according to the amount of added fermented and aged garlic paste, whereas the acidity increased. In addition, the lightness of fermented and aged garlic Yanggeng decreased according to the amount of added fermented and aged garlic paste. In the texture analysis, hardness, cohesiveness and springiness of fermented and aged garlic Yanggeng were lower than those of the control. Total phenol content was highest in 30 % fermented and aged garlic Yanggeng. The antioxidant activities of fermented and aged garlic Yanggeng increased according to the amount of added fermented and aged garlic paste. The IC50 value of 30% fermented and aged garlic Yanggeng was 45.1 mg/g for DPPH and 29.6 mg/g for hydroxyl radical. The results of the sensory test showed that Yanggeng with 20% fermented and aged garlic paste had the highest score in appearance, overall preference and texture. Based on these results, it was suggested that the addition of 20% fermented and aged garlic to Yanggeng was appropriate for good food qualities both in terms of the physicochemical and antioxidative activities.

Quality Characteristics of Pound Cakes Containing Various Levels of Aged Garlic during Storage (흑마늘을 첨가한 파운드 케이크의 저장 중 품질 특성)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Hee;Lee, Jeong-Ok;Paek, Seung-Han;Yook, Hong-Sun
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.238-246
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    • 2009
  • The principal objective of this study was to develop a processed food using aged garlic. Pound cake samples were prepared with semi-solid aged garlic at levels of 0, 5, 10 and 15% ($25^{\circ}C$, 7 days). The pH of the batter prepared with the aged garlic ranged between 6.79 and 7.01 and the control pH was 7.21. The specific loaf volume of the pound cake prepared with the addition of 5~15% aged garlic decreased, from 2.78 to 2.51 cm3/g. The baking loss rate of the pound cake prepared with 0~15% added aged garlic also decreased by 6.91~6.42%. The lightness, redness, and yellowness values of the pound cake decreased with increases in the percentage of aged garlic. The adhesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness of the samples did not differ significantly with differing amounts of added aged garlic. DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, however, was improved significantly via the addition of aged garlic. In the sensory evaluations, the pound cake prepared with 10% added aged garlic received higher acceptance scores for the properties of smell, taste, softness, moistness, adhesiveness and overall acceptability. Consequently, the optimal quality achieved in this set of experiments was with a pound cake to which 10% aged garlic had been added.

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Effect of Garlic and Aged Black Garlic on Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia in Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

  • Seo, Yeong-Ju;Gweon, Oh-Cheon;Im, Ji-Eun;Lee, Young-Min;Kang, Min-Jung;Kim, Jung-In
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2009
  • Control of hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia is strongly correlated with decreased risk for cardiovascular disease, the most common and fatal diabetic complication. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of garlic and aged black garlic on glycemic control and blood lipid profile in animal model of type 2 diabetes. Three week-old db/db mice (C57BL/Ks, n=21) were fed AIN-93G semipurified diet or diet containing 5% freeze-dried garlic or aged black garlic for 7 weeks after 1 week of adaptation. Fasting serum glucose, insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol and blood glycated hemoglobin were measured. Body weight and food intake of garlic and aged black garlic group were not significantly different from those of the control group. Fasting serum glucose and blood glycated hemoglobin levels were significantly decreased and insulin level was significantly increased in garlic group compared with control group (p<0.05). Consumption of aged black garlic significantly decreased homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and tended to decrease serum glucose. Garlic consumption significantly decreased total cholesterol, while aged black garlic significantly reduced serum total cholesterol and triglyceride and increased HDL-cholesterol levels. These results suggest that garlic exerts hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic effect and aged black garlic improved insulin sensitivity and dyslipidemia in db/db mice.

Optimization of Mixing Ratio to Improve Antioxidant Activity of Aged Garlic with Pine Needle Using Response Surface Methodology

  • Park, Jae-Hee;Shin, Eunji;Park, Eunju
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.241-245
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    • 2017
  • Aged garlic has been reported to possess beneficial pharmacological activities, including anti-stress and anti-fatigue properties, and to exert protective effects on the cardiovascular system and liver. Pine needles are widely used in folk medicine and as food additives owing to their pharmacological properties such as anti-aging and anti-inflammatory effects. It has long been known that combining certain phytochemicals with other phenols or organic acids can produce synergistic effects. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop an optimal formula of aged garlic with added pine needle powder for improved antioxidant activity using the statistical technique of response surface methodology. The antioxidant activities of aged garlic mixed with pine needle powder were confirmed by measuring oxygen radical absorbance capacity and total polyphenol content. An optimized antioxidant formula was identified that contained 5.08 g aged garlic and 1.97 g pine needle powder. The antioxidant activities of the mixture prepared using this optimal formula were significantly higher than the predicted values according to an additive model. Hence, this study confirms that the addition of pine needle powder to aged garlic can improve its antioxidant activity. This study demonstrated an optimal mixing ratio to produce an aged garlic product with improved functionality through the addition of pine needle powder that could be successfully employed by the food industry to prepare functional foods.

Quality Characteristics of Cookies Containing Various Levels of Aged Garlic (흑마늘을 첨가한 쿠키의 품질 특성)

  • Lee, Jeong-Ok;Kim, Kyoung-Hee;Yook, Hong-Sun
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.71-77
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    • 2009
  • The principal objective of this study was to develop processed food with the effect of aged garlic by assessing the quality characteristics of cookies. Cookie samples were prepared with shredded aged garlic at varied levels of 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7%. The pH of dough decreased significantly with the addition of aged garlic. The spread factor of control samples also evidenced significantly higher values than the other samples. The results of a hardness assessment demonstrated that the addition of aged garlic exerted a significant effect on cookie hardness. The sensory evaluation showed that the properties of color, garlic aroma, and garlic taste of cookies tended to increase with increased levels of addition of aged garlic. The cookies with 1% and 3% added aged garlic had similar or significantly higher acceptance scores than the control cookies, for all properties except color.

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Antioxidative Activity of Extracts of Aged Black Garlic on Oxidation of Human Low Density Lipoprotein (숙성 흑마늘 추출물의 Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)의 항산화 효과)

  • Yang, Seung-Taek
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.17 no.10
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    • pp.1330-1335
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    • 2007
  • This study was developed to assess the antioxidative activity of aged black garlic extract on lipid peroxidation and low density lipoprotein (LDL). Antioxidative activity of aged black garlic extract on human low density lipoprotein (LDL) was investigated by monitoring a barbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). Electron donating ability (EDA) of aged black garlic, ethanol extract was higher than that alliin and water extract. Aged black garlic water and ethanol extracts inhibited the $Cu^{2+}$ mediated oxidation of human LDL in a dose dependent manner at concentration of 10 and $20\;{\mu}g/ml$. Ethanol extract and water extract of aged black garlic almost completely inhibited J774 mediated LDL oxidation in electrophoretic mobility and conjugated diene. These results indicate that aged black garlic might play a protective antioxidant effects on LDL, probably affecting the structural properties for the LDL oxidation.

Processing Optimization of Chocolate with Fermented and Aged Garlic Extract (발효숙성마늘 추출물 첨가 초콜릿 제조 조건의 최적화)

  • Shin, Ji-Hun;Joo, Na-Mi
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.216-224
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to aid in the development of the optimal recipe for chocolate with fermented and aged garlic extract (Allium sativum var. pekinense). We added garlic extract in order to increase the nutritional value of the chocolate. The optimal sensory composite recipe was determined, following Central Composites for chocolate with different levels of fermented and aged garlic extract (A) and cream (B), while analysis was performed by Response Surface Methodology, from the date that the sensory evaluation was performed. Ten experimental recipes, including 2 reference points in the composition, were selected. The compositional and functional properties were measured, and physical and sensory values were applied to the mathematical models. Perturbation plots showed the influence of each ingredient on the final product. Measurements showed significant values in lightness, sweetness, pH, hardness and cohesiveness, while sensory measurements showed significant values in color, texture, sourness, bitterness and overall quality. The optimum formulations were calculated by numerical and graphical methods, as being 34.61g fermented and aged garlic extract and 72.68g cream for each 200g chocolate. As well it was revealed that the aptitude of chocolate was more influenced by fermented garlic extract than it was by cream.

Effect of Aged Garlic Extract on the Antioxidant Activities and Quality Characteristics of Yanggaeng (저온숙성마늘 농축액을 첨가한 양갱의 품질특성과 항산화 효과)

  • Jeong, Yun Sook;Lee, Sang Hoon;Seong, Eun Jin;Cho, Soo-muk;Song, Jin;Hwang, Kyung-A;Noh, Geon Min;Hwang, In Guk
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2017
  • This study was performed to investigate the quality characteristics of Yanggaeng, including color, pH, total polyphenol contents, and antioxidant activities, with the addition of aged garlic extract (0, 3, 6, 9 or 12%), aged at low temperatures. Among the color characteristics, the lightness value decreased, and the redness and yellowness values increased, proportional to the amount of garlic extract concentrate added to Yanggaeng. The pH of Yanggaeng significantly (p<0.05) decreased according to the amount of aged garlic extract added. Total phenol contents of control (0% aged garlic extract added Yanggaeng) was the lowest, followed by 3, 6, 9, 12% aged garlic extract added to Yanggaeng (88.15, 118.39, 156.91, 208.79 mg/g, respectively). Antioxidant activities, such as DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, significantly increased with increase in the aged garlic extract concentration. In the sensory evaluation for Yanggaeng, 6% aged garlic extract added to Yanggaeng had the highest score in taste, flavor, and overall acceptance. Based on these results, it is suggest that the addition of 6% aged garlic extract to Yanggaeng can be developed as a product for the elderly.

Effects of Aged Black Garlic Extract on Ethanol Induced Hangover in Rats (흑마늘 추출물이 알코올을 투여한 흰쥐에 미치는 영향)

  • Yang, Seung-Taek
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.225-230
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    • 2010
  • This study was proposed to investigate the effects of water extract of aged black garlic on ethanol induced hangovers in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing $180{\pm}10\;g$ were divided into the following three groups; control, 130 mg/kg, and 260 mg/kg of aged black garlic extract. Aged black garlic was administered orally 30 min before and 30 min after ingestion of 40% ethanol (5 g/kg, B.W.). The rats were killed 24 hr after ethanol treatment, and blood was taken from the caudal artery at 1, 3, and 5 hr to test for ethanol or acetaldehyde in the serum. Groups that were administered aged black garlic extract pre- and post-alcohol consumption showed a significant decrease in ethanol levels in the blood at 1, 3, and 5 hr. The acetaldehyde concentrations decreased in both 130 mg/kg and 260 mg/kg groups that were administered aged black garlic extract pre- and post-alcohol consumption. The activities of alcohol dehydrogenase seemed to be unaffected, although the aged black garlic showed slightly higher activities of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in pre- or post-alcohol consumption. The aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in the serum, elevated by ethanol, was decreased by administering a high dosage of aged black garlic extract, but resulted in no significant change in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity. These results concluded that aged black garlic extract can reduce hangover syndrome through the elevation of ALDH.