• Title, Summary, Keyword: aged garlic

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Correlation between Pungency and Allicin Content of Pickled Garlic during Aging (마늘장아찌 숙성 중 매운맛과 Allicin량과의 상관관계)

  • Kim, Mee-Ree;Yun, Jun-Hwa;Sok, Dai-Eun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.805-810
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    • 1994
  • Relationship between pungency and allicin content of pickled garlic during aging was examined . Degree of pungency of pickled garlic during aging at 20 $^{\circ}C$ was determined by the sensory evaluation. A panel of 10 members evaluated seven samples of pickled garlic which were aged for 0, 10 , 20, 40 , 50 or 60 days by using scoring test (seven point scale). The sensory evaluation results showed that pungency of pickled garlic decreased gradually during aging, and scored at 3.07 on the 40 th day of aging. Content of allicin, which was a major pungent component of garlic homogenate, was quantitatively analyzed by HPLC. The level of allicin in homogenate of pickled garlic was found to decrease gradually, and to 5.9% on the 40 th day of aging compared with that of fresh garlic. Relationship between the pungency score results and the content of allicin demonstrated a highly positive correlation (r=0.9648).

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Antioxidants Activity of Aged Red Garlic (숙성 홍마늘의 생리활성)

  • Lee, Soo-Jung;Shin, Jung-Hye;Kang, Min-Jung;Jung, Woo-Jae;Ryu, Ji-Hyun;Kim, Ra-Jeong;Sung, Nak-Ju
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.775-781
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    • 2010
  • The antioxidant activities of hot water extracts from fresh, red and black garlic processed in low temperatures were compared. The chromaticity value of browning garlic was between that of fresh and black garlic. Red garlic was similar in browning intensity to fresh garlic. Also, total phenol, flavonoids, total pyruvate and thiosulfate contents were similar between fresh and black garlic. DPPH, ABTs, NO radical scavenging activity and reducing power of red garlic were significantly higher than fresh garlic, but lower than those of black garlic. $\alpha$-Glucosidase inhibitory activity in red garlic was similar to that in black garlic. Antioxidant activities of red garlic were higher than fresh garlic but lower than black garlic, and it was confirmed that antioxidant activity by production of browning material through the thermal process was the main parameter of the biological activity in the aged red garlic.

Effects of Diaphragm Breathing and Garlic Powder Intake on Body Composition, Heart Rate, Blood Pressure and Immunoglobulin in Middle-aged Male smokers. (횡격막 호흡과 마늘 분말 섭취가 중년 남성 흡연자의 신체조성, 심박수, 혈압 및 면역글로불린에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Seung-Uk;Baek, Yeong-Ho;Kwak, Yi-Sub
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.1266-1271
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate combined effects of diaphragm breathing and garlic powder intake on body composition, heart rate, blood press and immunoglobulin levels in middle-aged male smokers from the age 40-49. Diaphragm breath training was 2-5 grade intensity on dyspnea scale for 20 minutes four times a week for 4 weeks and subjects were given garlic at 3 g of powder after breakfast and dinner two times a day during the 4 weeks. The conclusions of this study are as follows; Garlic intake group decreased in percentage of body fat, in the comparison between groups, garlic intake group had a lower percentage of body fat than control group. Heart rate was decreased in Diaphragm breathing group at rest. SBP was decreased in Diaphragm breathing+garlic intake group. Garlic intake group and diaphragm breathing+garlic intake group increased in IgG.

Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Activities of Freezing Pretreated Black Garlic (동결 전처리한 숙성 흑마늘의 이화학적 특성 및 항산화 활성)

  • Choi, Hye Jung;Lim, Bo Ram;Ha, Sang-Chul;Kwon, Gi-Seok;Kim, Dong Wan;Joo, Woo Hong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.471-475
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    • 2017
  • Freezing pretreatment can destroy the cell membrane of garlic and may improve some food-quality of garlic. Therefore we investigated the effect of freezing pretreatment at $-20^{\circ}C$ and $-70^{\circ}C$ on quality of aged black garlic, compared with traditional processing methods. Our results showed that freezing pretreatment at $-70^{\circ}C$ had the greatest impact on qualities and antioxidant activities of black garlic. Browning degree and pH of black garlic after both the freezing pretreatment and aging process were 3.14 and 3.55, respectively. Furthermore, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and reducing power of aged black garlic can be enhanced by pre-freezing processing. Reducing sugar and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF) contents of freezing pretreated and aged black garlic were increased by 1.69 and 1.14 fold, respectively, compared with the control samples. The results indicated that freezing pretreatment had improved the overall qualities (such as browning degree, pH, reducing sugar) and functional materials of black garlic.

Inhibition of Adipocyte Differentiation and Adipogenesis by Aged Black Garlic Extracts in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes (흑마늘 추출물에 의한 3T3-L1 지방전구세포의 분화 및 adipogenesis 억제에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Jung-Ae;Park, Cheol;Han, Min-Ho;Kim, Byung-Woo;Chung, Yoon-Ho;Choi, Yung-Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.720-728
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    • 2011
  • Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a source food as well as a traditional folk medicine ingredient since ancient times. Aged black garlic is a type of fermented garlic and is expected to have stronger anticancer and antioxidant activities than raw garlic. However, the mechanisms of their inhibitory effects on adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis are poorly understood. In the present study, the effects and mechanisms of water extracts of raw garlic (WERG) and aged black garlic (WEABG) on adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were investigated. Treatment with WEABG significantly suppressed terminal differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner as confirmed by a decrease in lipid droplet number and lipid content through Oil Red O staining, however WERG had no such effect. In addition, WEABG reduced accumulation of cellular triglyceride, which is associated with a significant inhibition of key pro-adipogenic transcription factors including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}$ (PPAR${\gamma}$), cytidine-cytidine-adenosine-adenosine-thymidine (CCAAT)/enhancer binding proteins ${\alpha}$ (C/EBP${\alpha}$) and C/EBP${\beta}$. Taken together, these results provide important new insight that aged black garlic might inhibit adipogenesis by suppressing the pro-adipogenic transcription factors in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, and further studies will be needed to identify the active compounds that confer the anti-obesity activity of aged black garlic.

Hepatoprotective Effect of Aged Black Garlic Extract in Rodents

  • Shin, Jung Hyu;Lee, Chang Woo;Oh, Soo Jin;Yun, Jieun;Kang, Moo Rim;Han, Sang-Bae;Park, Heungsik;Jung, Jae Chul;Chung, Yoon Hoo;Kang, Jong Soon
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.49-54
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    • 2014
  • In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of aged black garlic (ABG) in rodent models of liver injury. ABG inhibited carbon tetrachloride-induced elevation of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), which are markers of hepatocellular damage, in SD rats. D-galactosamine-induced hepatocellular damage was also suppressed by ABG treatment. However, ABG does not affect the elevation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a marker of hepatobilliary damage, in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride or D-galactosamine. We also examined the effect of ABG on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced fatty liver and subsequent liver damage. ABG had no significant effect on body weight increase and plasma lipid profile in HFD-fed mice. However, HFD-induced increase in AST and ALT, but not ALP, was significantly suppressed by ABG treatment. These results demonstrate that ABG has hepatoprotective effects and suggest that ABG supplementation might be a good adjuvant therapy for the management of liver injury.

Aged Garlic Extract and Its Components Inhibit Platelet Aggregation in Rat (흰쥐에서 흑마늘 추출물과 그 성분들에 의한 혈소판 응집억제 효과)

  • Choi, You-Hee;Jeong, Hyung-Min;Kyung, Kyu-Hang;Ryu, Beung-Ho;Lee, Kwang-Youl
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.10
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    • pp.1355-1363
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    • 2011
  • Many clinical trials have demonstrated the beneficial effects of garlic (Allium sativum) on general cardiovascular health. Aged garlic extract (AGE) is known to display diverse biological activities such as in antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. However, few studies have been directed on the effect of AGE on cardiovascular function. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of AGE and its components on platelet activation, a key contributor in thrombotic diseases. In freshly isolated rat platelets, AGE and its components have shown inhibitory activities on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. These in vitro results were further confirmed in an in vivo platelet aggregation measurement where tail vein injection of garlic oil and S-Allylmercapto-cysteine (SAMC) significantly reduced thrombin and ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Potential active components for antiplatelet effects of AGE were identified to be SAMC and diallyl sulphide through agonist-induced platelet aggregation assay. These results indicate that aged garlic extract can be a novel dietary supplement for the prevention of cardiovascular risks and the improvement of blood circulation.

Effects of Aging Temperature and Time on the Conversion of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Components (온도 및 숙성기간이 마늘의 화학적 성분변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Kang-Jin;Cha, Ji-Young;Yim, Joo-Hyuk;Kim, Jae-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.84-88
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    • 2011
  • Some thermally processed foods have higher biological activities due to their various chemical changes during heat treatment. Especially, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is derived from dehydration of sugars and has been identified in processed garlic. The biological function of HMF have revealed as antisickling agent and thyrosinase inhibitor. This study was carried out to examine the formation of HMF and free sugars from the aged garlics when it is treated at 60 and $75^{\circ}C$ and different incubation periods from 7 to 35 days. HMF and free sugars from the hot-water extracts of aged garlics were analyzed with GC/MS, LC/MS, and HPLC. The amount of HMF was higher than at $75^{\circ}C$ and increasing incubation period. Among free sugars, the only fructose except glucose and sucrose was formed and converted to HMF at high temperature and long incubation period. However, fructose formed in low temperature during making of aged garlic was rarely converted to HMF. This result indicates that formation of HMF can be dependent on the temperature and incubation period for making aged garlic.

The Effects of Dietary Garlic Powder on the Performance, Egg Traits and Blood Serum Cholesterol of Laying Quails

  • Yalcin, Sakine;Onbasilar, Ilyas;Sehu, Adnan;Yalcin, Suzan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.944-947
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to study the effects of dietary garlic powder on laying performance, egg traits and blood serum cholesterol level of quails. A total of three hundred quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) aged nine weeks were used. They were allocated to 3 dietary treatments. Each treatment comprised 5 replicates of 20 quails. The diets were supplemented with 0, 5 and 10 g/kg garlic powder. The experimental period lasted 21 weeks. The addition of garlic powder did not significantly affect body weight, egg production, feed consumption, feed efficiency, egg shell thickness, egg albumen index, egg yolk index and egg Haugh unit. Adding 5 and 10 g/kg garlic powder to the laying quail diets increased egg weight (p<0.01). Egg yolk cholesterol and blood serum cholesterol concentration were reduced with garlic powder supplementation. The results of this study demonstrated that garlic powder addition had a significant cholesterol-reducing effect in serum and egg yolk without adverse effects on performance and egg traits of laying quails.

Analysis of Biological Activity by Time of Black Garlic Ripening in Seosan Yukjok Garlic and Elephant Garlic (서산육쪽·코끼리마늘의 흑마늘 숙성 시기별 생리활성 분석)

  • Cho, Yong-Koo;Ann, Seoung-Won;Jang, Myoung-Jun;Oh, Tae-Seok;Oh, Min-Gyo;Park, Youn-Jin;Kim, Chang-ho
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.469-477
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    • 2020
  • This study analyzed the quality characteristics of black garlic made from Seosan Yukjok Garlic and elephant garlic in Seosan, Chungnam province. Of the inorganic components, Mg content was the highest in all treatment groups, and the Ca content was high in each of the 15 day treatments. The content of K was high after 10 days aging in Yukjok garlic and after 15 days in the elephant garlic. The Fe, Na, K, and Mg content was high in Yukjok black garlic after 15 days, and Na, K, Ca, and Mg were high in the elephant black garlic aged for 15 days. The crude fat content was high in both Yukjok black garlic and elephant black garlic after 15 days. Vitamin C content was highest in both types of garlic after aging for 15 days. An analysis of four kinds of organic acids showed that citric acid was the only organic acid to appear in raw garlic of Yukjok garlic and elephant garlic. Black Yukjok garlic and elephant black garlic had a greater total amino acid content than the raw garlic of either type. However, among the tested amino acids, 13 kinds of amino acids were at their highest after five days of ripening in Yukjok black garlic, while 15 kinds of amino acids were abundant in elephant garlic after the same period. Eight kinds of amino acids were high after aging for 15 days. Through this study, it was confirmed that, in the process of making black garlic, changes in the main components of the garlic occur through different routes, and these changes vary depending on the garlic species. Therefore, this study provided basic data for the processing of Seosan's Yukjok black garlic and elephant black garlic.