• Title, Summary, Keyword: aged garlic

Search Result 76, Processing Time 0.039 seconds

Biological Constituents of Aged Garlic Extract as Biomarker (숙성마늘 extract 의 biomarker로서 생리활성 성분)

  • Yang, Seung-Taek
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.19 no.1
    • /
    • pp.138-146
    • /
    • 2009
  • Garlic (Allium sativum) are an agronomically important genus because of their sulfur flavour components. The majority of the volatiles flavour principles are generated through the enzymatic hydrolysis of the non-volatile organosulfur compounds. However, these compounds may be possible sources of new novel bioacuve and therapeutic principles. Garlic has strong antioxidant activity, and epidemiological studies support the fad that diets rich of garlic may prevent some of the chronic diseases. The health cares of garlic likely arise from a wide variety of components, which may work synergistically. The chemical changes of garlic composition makes it plausible that a variation in processing can lead to acquisition of differential chemical compositions of garlic products. Especially highly unstable allicin can easily disappear during processing and are quickly transformed into a various organosulfur compounds. Various supplements of garlic, particularly aged garlic extract (AGE), are known to possess a promising antioxidant potential and are effective in prevention of chronic diseases because of the bioactive constituents. Although all of active ingredients of AGE are not elucidated, water-soluble components of AGE, including S-allylcysteine, S-allylmercaptane, steroid saponins, tetrahydro-${\beta}$-carboline derivatives, and fructosyl-arginine, appears to be associated with the pharmacological effects of AGE. Consequently, the allicin free garlic components such as S-allylcysteine, S-allylmercaptane, steroid saponins, tetrahydro-${\beta}$-carboline derivatives, and fructosyl-arginine can be applicable to standardization of the quality of commercial garlic products. This review provides an insight into garlic's biomarkers and presents evidence that they may either prevent or delay chronic disease associated with aging.

Anti-inflammatory effect of aged black garlic on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced dermatitis in mice

  • You, Bo Ram;Yoo, Jae-Myung;Baek, Seong Yeon;Kim, Mee Ree
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
    • /
    • v.13 no.3
    • /
    • pp.189-195
    • /
    • 2019
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although aged black garlic has various biological activities such as anti-allergy, anti-inflammation and neuroprotection, effect of aged black garlic on chemically contact dermatitis is unclarified. MATERIALS/METHODS: To evaluate anti-dermatitic activity of aged black garlic extract, we investigated effects of a fraction of aged black garlic extract (BG10) on both in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS: BG10 almost inhibited formation of nitric monoxide and interleukin-6 (IL-6; $IC_{50}$, $7.07{\mu}g/mL$) at $25{\mu}g/mL$, and dose-dependently reduced production of tumor necrosis $factor-{\alpha}$ ($TNF-{\alpha}$; $IC_{50}$, $52.07{\mu}g/mL$) and prostaglandin $E_2$ ($IC_{50}$, $38.46{\mu}g/mL$) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, BG10 significantly inhibited the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and nuclear $NF-{\kappa}B$, and improved that of cytosolic levels of $NF-{\kappa}B$ and $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ in the cells. Consistent with in vitro studies, BG10 (0.5 mg/mL) not only reduced ear edema but also suppressed the formation of IL-6 and $TNF-{\alpha}$ induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in ear tissues of mice. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest BG10 has anti-dermatitic activity through inhibiting activation of macrophages. Therefore, such effects of BG10 may provide information for the application of aged black garlic for prevention and therapy of contact dermatitis.

Effects of the Aging Conditions on the Quality Characteristics of Garlic (숙성조건이 마늘의 품질특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeong, Yun Sook;Hwang, Kyung-A;Kim, Ga Ram;Song, Jin;Noh, Geon Min;Hwang, In Guk
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
    • /
    • v.28 no.5
    • /
    • pp.745-751
    • /
    • 2015
  • This study was performed to investigate the quality characteristics such as pH, total acidity, browning index, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), fructose, S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC), total polyphenol, and DPPH radical scavenging activity of aged garlic at different aging temperatures and periods. Aging temperature and period had a significant (p<0.05) effect on the quality characteristics of garlic. The pH in aged garlic significantly (p<0.05) decreased with increasing aging temperatures and periods, while the total acidity, browning index, and 5-HMF levels increased. The 5-HMF levels in garlic aged at 60 and $70^{\circ}C$ increased from 0.08~3.30 and from 0.05~106.07 mg/100 g, respectively. The fructose content in garlic aged at $60^{\circ}C$ gradually increased from 0.77 to 14.57%, while that of garlic aged at $70^{\circ}C$ increased from 1.07 to 19.75% until day 30, after which it decreased. The SAC level in raw garlic was 47.09 mg/100 g. The SAC contents of aged garlic differed significantly according to aging temperature and period. The SAC levels in garlic aged at $60^{\circ}C$ and $70^{\circ}C$ were in the range of 15.28~100.5 and 12.41~85.55 mg/100 g, respectively. The total polyphenol contents of garlic aged at $60^{\circ}C$ and $70^{\circ}C$ were 6.01 and 6.67 fold higher, respectively, than those in raw garlic. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of aged garlic also showed a tendency to increase during aging.

Effect of aged garlic powder on physicochemical characteristics, texture profiles, and oxidative stability of ready-to-eat pork patties

  • Kim, Ji-Han;Jang, Hyun-Joo;Lee, Chi-Ho
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.32 no.7
    • /
    • pp.1027-1035
    • /
    • 2019
  • Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aged garlic powder (AGP) on physicochemical characteristics, texture profiles, and oxidative stability of ready-to-eat (RTE) pork patties. Methods: There were five treatment groups: a control; 1% fresh garlic powder (T1); 0.5%, 1%, and 2% AGP (T2, T3, and T4). Pork patties with vacuum packaging were roasted at $71^{\circ}C$ for core temperature, stored at $4^{\circ}C$ for 14 d, and then reheated for 1 min using a microwave. Results: The AGP groups showed a lower the level of lipid oxidation and higher thiol contents than the control and T1. The pH value of the control increased whereas that of aged garlic groups decreased after re-heating process. In addition, the redness significantly increased with increasing level of AGP whereas the redness of the control and T1 decreased after reheating process. T4 added patties improved textural and sensory properties compared to the control. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that AGP addition to RTE pork patties can improve their sensory characteristics and oxidative stability.

Antioxidant and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Effect of Aged Raw Garlic Extracts (생마늘 추출 숙성물의 항산화 및 아세틸콜린에스터라아제 저해 효과)

  • Jeong, Hee-Rok;Jeong, Ji-Hee;Jo, Yu-Na;Shin, Jung-Hye;Kang, Min-Jung;Sung, Nak-Ju;Heo, Ho-Jin
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
    • /
    • v.45 no.4
    • /
    • pp.113-120
    • /
    • 2011
  • In vitro antioxidant activities and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory effects of solvent fractions from aged raw garlic extracts were investigated. Total phenolics fractioned by hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water from Aged raw garlic extracts were 3.70, 23.63, 31.27 and 2.35 mg/g, respectively. We found that ethyl acetate fractions had the highest in ABTS radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing antioxidant power and inhibitory effect on auto-oxidation of linoleic acid. Intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from $H_2O_2$ treatment of PC12 cells was significantly reduced when ethyl acetate fractions were present in the medium compared to PC12 cells treated with $H_2O_2$ only. In addition, we found that ethyl acetate fractions from aged raw garlic extracts resulted in a dose-dependent manner on AChE inhibition. Consequently, our results suggest that ethyl acetate fractions from aged raw garlic extracts may be useful as decreasing agents of oxidative stress and AChE inhibitors.

Comparison of the Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activities of the Commercial Black Garlic and Lab-Prepared Fermented and Aged Black Garlic (시판 흑마늘과 제조 흑마늘의 이화학적 품질 및 항산화 특성 비교)

  • You, Bo-Ram;Kim, Hye-Ran;Kim, Min-Ji;Kim, Mee-Ree
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.40 no.3
    • /
    • pp.366-371
    • /
    • 2011
  • This study was carried out to investigate the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of the commercial black garlic (NHBG: Namhae black garlic, USBG: Uiseng black garlic, CNBG: Changnyung black garlic) and FABG (fermented and aged black garlic). The sugar contents of NHBG, USBG, CNBG, and FABG were 42.7, 42.7, 56.7 and $54.7^{\circ}Brix$, respectively, whereas the reducing sugar contents were 15.0, 16.0, 23.5 and 25.9%. The pH decreased with the processing of the fermented aged black garlic, whereas the acidity increased. In addition, the thiol content was the highest in fermented and aged black garlic (p<0.05). The antioxidant activities by DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of fermented and aged black garlic were much higher than those of the other samples. Total phenol contents of NHBG, USBG, CNBG and FABG were 0.64 mg/mL, 0.60 mg/mL, 0.68 mg/mL and 0.72 mg/mL, respectively. ABTS radical scavenging activity of fermented and aged black garlic were much higher then those of the other samples. FRAP values of NHBG, USBG, CNBG, and FABG were 1.7 mg/mL, 1.4 mg/mL, 1.7 mg/mL and 1.9 mg/mL, respectively. Based on these results, it is suggested that the fermented and aged black garlic was appropriate for good qualities in terms of both physicochemical and antioxidative activities.

Effect of Aged and Fermented Garlic Extracts as Natural Antioxidants on Lipid Oxidation in Pork Patties

  • Lee, Hyun-Jin;Yoon, Dong-kyu;Lee, Na-yeon;Lee, Chi-ho
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
    • /
    • v.39 no.4
    • /
    • pp.610-622
    • /
    • 2019
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the natural antioxidant activity of raw garlic (RG), aged black garlic (AG), and garlic fermented with Bacillus subtilis (FG) extracts on pork patty lipid oxidation throughout refrigerated storage. The total polyphenol, total flavonoid content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity of three different types of garlic extracts were measured. The total phenolic and flavonoid content of AG was significantly higher than that of FG and RG; FG also showed a significantly higher total phenolic content than that of RG (p<0.05). The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity of AG and FG was significantly higher than that of RG and that of AG was significantly higher than that of FG (p<0.05). To investigate the effect of processed garlic extracts on pork patty lipid oxidation, freeze-dried extracts of RG, FG, and AG were added to the patties at levels of 0.5% (w/w). Patties containing 0.01% (w/w) ascorbic acid (AA) and patties without treatment (CON) were compared with patties containing garlic extracts. The pH value, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value, and volatile basic nitrogen value of pork patties containing AG and FG extracts were significantly decreased compared to the other groups (CON, AA, and RG; p<0.05). Taken together, these results suggest that AG and FG extracts possess strong antioxidative activity and can serve as natural antioxidative additives to prevent pork patty lipid oxidation.

Protective Effect of an Aged Garlic-bamboo Salt Mixture on the Rat with the Alcohol-salicylate Induced Gastropathy (마늘-죽염 제제가 위장 장애 유발 흰쥐의 항산화 효소활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Huh, Keun;Kim, Young-Hee;Jin, Da-Qing
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
    • /
    • v.45 no.3
    • /
    • pp.258-268
    • /
    • 2001
  • Garlic has been known to be effective against the gastrointestinal diseases which can be induced by production of oxygen-derived free radical. It has been shown that bamboo salt is effective on the treatment and prevention of various gastrointestinal disorders. Bamboo salt is a processed salt invented by a Korean, ll-Hoon Kim. It has been reported that garlic and bamboo-salt are useful to the treatment of gastric disorders in Korea. To clarify the protective mechanism of the garlic-bamboo salt mixture, the gas-tropathy was induced in rats with alcohol-salicylate and the activities of the free radical scavenging enzymes were examined. In this study, we found that the garlic-bamboo salt mixture reduced the severity of hemorrhagic lesion in gastric mucosa in the rats. In addition, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) were significnatly increased and the total content of GSH was recovered. From those results, we concluded that the protective effect of the garlic-bamboo salt mixture on gastropathy in rats is its ability to recover the level of GSH and to increase the activities of the free radical scavenging enzymes (SOD, GPx, GR).

  • PDF

Fractionated Aged Black Garlic Extracts Enhance Growth of Anti-My-10 Hybridoma Cells and Production of IgG1 Antibody

  • Lee, Ji Young;Chung, Namhyun;Lee, Yong Kwon
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
    • /
    • v.57 no.1
    • /
    • pp.61-63
    • /
    • 2014
  • Aged black garlic (ABG) was extracted with 20% ethanol and water (crude extracts) and fractionated into three categories (>10, 3-10, and <3 kDa). The effect of crude extract supplements on anti-My-10 hybridoma cell growth and IgG1 antibody production was investigated in suspension culture with a chemically defined protein-free medium. We observed that supplementation of ABG to the cell culture medium stimulated anti-My-10 hybridoma cell growth and production of IgG1 antibody, particularly with fractionated ABG of low molecular weight. The stimulation depended upon the concentration and the size of the fractionated ABG. We also found that the growth-promoting activity was not correlated with high antibody production. These results suggest that fractionated ABG is a novel and promising alternative as an animal cell culture supplement.