• Title, Summary, Keyword: age-period-cohort model

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The Effects of the Parents' Social Class on Infant and Child Death among 1995-2004 Birth Cohort in Korea (우리나라의 1995-2004년도 출생코호트에서 부모의 사회계급이 영아사망률과 소아사망률에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Ju-Hwan;Choi, Yong-Jun;Kong, Jeong-Ok;Choi, Ji-Sook;Jin, Eun-Jeong;Jung, Sung-Tae;Park, Se-Jin;Son, Mi-A
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.469-476
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    • 2006
  • Objectives : To investigate the effect of parents' social class on infant and child mortality rates among the birth cohort, for the period of transition to and from the Koran economic crisis 1995-2004. Methods : All births reported to between 1995 and 2004 (n=5,711,337) were analyzed using a Cox regression model, to study the role of the social determinants of parents in infant and child mortality. The results were adjusted for the parents' age, education and occupation, together with mother's obstetrical history. Results. The crude death rate among those under 10 was 3.71 per 1000 births (21,217 deaths among 5,711,337 births) between 1995 and 2004. The birth cohorts from lower educated parents less than elementary school showed higher mortality rates compared with those from higher educated parents over university level (HR:3.0 (95%CI:2.8-3.7) for father and HR:3.4 (95%CI:3.3-4.5) for mother). The mother's education level showed a stronger relationship with mortality among the birth cohort than that of the fathers. The gaps in infant mortality rates by parents' social class, and educational level became wider from 1995 to 2004. In particular, the breadth of the existing gap between higher and lower parents' social class groups has dramatically widened since the economic crisis of 1998. Discussions : This study shows that social differences exist in infant and child mortality rates. Also, the gap for the infant mortality due to social class has become wider since the economic crisis of 1998.

Relation between the Total Diet Quality based on Korean Healthy Eating Index and the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome Constituents and Metabolic Syndrome among a Prospective Cohort of Korean Adults (한국 성인의 식생활평가지수에 기반한 전체 식사의 질과 대사증후군 구성요소 및 대사증후군 발생의 연관성)

  • Shin, Saerom;Lee, Seungmin
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.61-70
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: This study examined the association of the total diet quality with the incidence risk of metabolic syndrome constituents and metabolic syndrome among Korean adults. Methods: Based on a community-based cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) from 2001 to 2014, data from a total of 5,549 subjects (2,805 men & 2,744 women) aged 40~69 years at the baseline with a total follow-up period of 38,166 person-years were analyzed. The criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel was employed to define metabolic syndrome. The total diet quality was estimated using the Korean Healthy Eating Index (KHEI). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk of metabolic syndrome constituents and metabolic syndrome in relation to KHEI quintile groups was calculated by multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results: After adjusting for age, energy intake, income, education, physical activity, smoking, and drinking, the incidence of abdominal obesity and high blood pressure was significantly lower, by approximately 29.7% (P < 0.01) and 25.2% (P < 0.01), respectively, in the fifth KHEI quintile compared to the first quintile in men. A significant decreasing trend of the metabolic syndrome incidence was observed across the improving levels of KHEI (HRq5vs.q1: 0.775, 95% CIq5vs.q1: 0.619~0.971, P for trend < 0.01). In women, the incidence of abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome was significantly lower, by approximately 29.8% (P < 0.01) and 22.5% (P < 0.05), respectively, in the fifth KHEI quintile compared to the first quintile adjusting for multiple covariates. On the other hand, the linear trend of metabolic syndrome risk across the KHEI levels did not reach the significance level. Conclusions: A better diet quality can prevent future metabolic syndrome and its certain risk factors among Korean men and women.

Pre-operative Predictive Factors for Intra-operative Pathological Lymph Node Metastasis in Rectal Cancers

  • Gao, Chun;Li, Jing-Tao;Fang, Long;Wen, Si-Wei;Zhang, Lei;Zhao, Hong-Chuan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.6293-6299
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    • 2013
  • Background: A number of clinicopathologic factors have been found to be associated with pathological lymph node metastasis (pLNM) in rectal cancer; however, most of them can only be identified by expensive high resolution imaging or obtained after surgical treatment. Just like the Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) and the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores which have been widely used in clinical practice, our study was designed to assess the pre-operative factors which could be obtained easily to predict intra-operative pLNM in rectal cancer. Methods: A cohort of 469 patients who were treated at our hospital in the period from January 2003 to June 2011, and with a pathologically hospital discharge diagnosis of rectal cancer, were included. Clinical, laboratory and pathologic parameters were analyzed. A multivariate unconditional logistic regression model, areas under the curve (AUC), the Kaplan-Meier method (log-rank test) and the Cox regression model were used. Results: Of the 469 patients, 231 were diagnosed with pLNM (49.3%). Four variables were associated with pLNM by multivariate logistic analysis, age<60 yr (OR=1.819; 95% CI, 1.231-2.687; P=0.003), presence of abdominal pain or discomfort (OR=1.637; 95% CI, 1.052-2.547; P=0.029), absence of allergic history (OR=1.879; 95% CI, 1.041-3.392; P=0.036), and direct $bilirubin{\geq}2.60{\mu}mol/L$ (OR=1.540; 95% CI, 1.054-2.250; P=0.026). The combination of all 4 variables had the highest sensitivity (98.7%) for diagnostic performance. In addition, age<60 yr and direct $bilirubin{\geq}2.60{\mu}mol/L$ were found to be associated with prognosis. Conclusion: Age, abdominal pain or discomfort, allergic history and direct bilirubin were associated with pLNM, which may be helpful for preoperative selection.

Impact of Individual and Combined Health Behaviors on All Causes of Premature Mortality Among Middle Aged Men in Korea: The Seoul Male Cohort Study

  • Rhee, Chul-Woo;Kim, Ji-Young;Park, Byung-Joo;Li, Zhong Min;Ahn, Yoon-Ok
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.14-20
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the risk of both individual and combined health behaviors on premature mortality in middle aged men in Korea. Methods: In total, 14 533 male subjects 40 to 59 years of age were recruited. At enrollment, subjects completed a baseline questionnaire, which included information about socio-demographic factors, past medical history, and life style. During the follow-up period from 1993 to 2008, we identified 990 all-cause premature deaths using national death certificates. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of each health risk behavior, which included smoking, drinking, physical inactivity, and lack of sleep hours. Using the Cox model, each health behavior was assigned a risk score proportional to its regression coefficient value. Health risk scores were calculated for each patient and the HR of all-cause premature mortality was calculated according to risk score. Results: Current smoking and drinking, high body mass index, less sleep hours, and less education were significantly associated with all-cause premature mortality, while regular exercise was associated with a reduced risk. When combined by health risk score, there was a strong trend for increased mortality risk with increased score (p-trend < 0.01). When compared with the 1-9 score group, HRs of the 10-19 and 20-28 score groups were 2.58 (95% confidence intervals [CIs], 2.19 to 3.03) and 7.09 (95% CIs, 5.21 to 9.66), respectively. Conclusions: Modifiable risk factors, such as smoking, drinking, and regular exercise, have considerable impact on premature mortality and should be assessed in combination.

Estimation of Time Trends of Incidence of Prostate Canner - an Indian Scenario

  • Lalitha, Krishnappa;Suman, Gadicherla;Pruthvish, Sreekantaiah;Mathew, Aleyamma;Murthy, Nandagudi S.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.6245-6250
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    • 2012
  • Background: With increase in life expectancy, adoption of newer lifestyles and screening using prostate specific antigen (PSA), the incidence of prostate cancer is on rise. Globally prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer and sixth leading cause of cancer death in men. The present communication makes an attempt to analyze the time trends in incidence for different age groups of the Indian population reported in different Indian registries using relative difference and regression approaches. Materials and Methods: The data published in Cancer Incidence in Five Continents for various Indian registries for different periods and/or publications by the individual registries served as the source materials. Trends were estimated by computing the mean annual percentage change (MAPC) in the incidence rates using the relative difference between two time periods (latest and oldest) and also by estimation of annual percentage change (EAPC) by the Poisson regression model. Results: Age adjusted incidence rates (AAR) of prostate cancer for the period 2005-2008 ranged from 0.8 (Manipur state excluding Imphal west) to 10.9 (Delhi) per $10^5$ person-years. Age specific incidence rates (ASIR) increased in all PBCRs especially after 55 years showing a peak incidence at +65 years clearly indicating that prostate cancer is a cancer of the elderly. MAPC in crude incidence rate(CR) ranged from 0.14 (Ahmedabad) to 8.6 (Chennai). Chennai also recorded the highest MAPC of 5.66 in ASIR in the age group of 65+. Estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) in the AAR ranged from 0.8 to 5.8 among the three registries. Increase in trend was seen in the 55-64 year age group cohort in many registries and in the 35-44 age group in Metropolitan cities such as Delhi and Mumbai. Conclusions: Several Indian registries have revealed an increasing trend in the incidence of prostate cancer and the mean annual percentage change has ranged from 0.14-8.6.

Modeling Age-specific Cancer Incidences Using Logistic Growth Equations: Implications for Data Collection

  • Shen, Xing-Rong;Feng, Rui;Chai, Jing;Cheng, Jing;Wang, De-Bin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.22
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    • pp.9731-9737
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    • 2014
  • Large scale secular registry or surveillance systems have been accumulating vast data that allow mathematical modeling of cancer incidence and mortality rates. Most contemporary models in this regard use time series and APC (age-period-cohort) methods and focus primarily on predicting or analyzing cancer epidemiology with little attention being paid to implications for designing cancer registry, surveillance or evaluation initiatives. This research models age-specific cancer incidence rates using logistic growth equations and explores their performance under different scenarios of data completeness in the hope of deriving clues for reshaping relevant data collection. The study used China Cancer Registry Report 2012 as the data source. It employed 3-parameter logistic growth equations and modeled the age-specific incidence rates of all and the top 10 cancers presented in the registry report. The study performed 3 types of modeling, namely full age-span by fitting, multiple 5-year-segment fitting and single-segment fitting. Measurement of model performance adopted adjusted goodness of fit that combines sum of squred residuals and relative errors. Both model simulation and performance evalation utilized self-developed algorithms programed using C# languade and MS Visual Studio 2008. For models built upon full age-span data, predicted age-specific cancer incidence rates fitted very well with observed values for most (except cervical and breast) cancers with estimated goodness of fit (Rs) being over 0.96. When a given cancer is concerned, the R valuae of the logistic growth model derived using observed data from urban residents was greater than or at least equal to that of the same model built on data from rural people. For models based on multiple-5-year-segment data, the Rs remained fairly high (over 0.89) until 3-fourths of the data segments were excluded. For models using a fixed length single-segment of observed data, the older the age covered by the corresponding data segment, the higher the resulting Rs. Logistic growth models describe age-specific incidence rates perfectly for most cancers and may be used to inform data collection for purposes of monitoring and analyzing cancer epidemic. Helped by appropriate logistic growth equations, the work vomume of contemporary data collection, e.g., cancer registry and surveilance systems, may be reduced substantially.

Cigarette Smoking and Mortality in the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort (KMCC) Study (한국인의 흡연과 사망 위험에 관한 코호트 연구)

  • Lee, Eun-Ha;Park, Sue-K.;Ko, Kwang-Pil;Cho, In-Seong;Chang, Soung-Hoon;Shin, Hai-Rim;Kang, Dae-Hee;Yoo, Keun-Young
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.151-158
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    • 2010
  • Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between cigarette smoking and total mortality, cancer mortality and other disease mortalities in Korean adults. Methods: A total of 14 161 subjects of the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort who were over 40 years of age and who were cancer-free at baseline enrollment reported their lifestyle factors, including the smoking status. The median follow-up time was 6.6 years. During the follow-up period from 1993 to 2005, we identified 1159 cases of mortality, including 260 cancer mortality cases with a total of 91 987 person-years, by the national death certificate. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of cigarette smoking for total mortality, cancer mortality and disease-specific mortality, as adjusted for age, gender, the geographic area and year of enrollment, the alcohol consumption status, the education level and the body mass index (BMI). Results: Cigarette smoking was significantly associated with an increased risk of total mortality, all-cancer mortality and lung cancer mortality (p-trend, < 0.01, <0.01, <0.01, respectively). Compared to non-smoking, current smokers were at a higher risk for mortality [HR (95% CI)=1.3 (1.1 - 1.5) for total mortality; HR (95% CI)=1.6 (1.1 -2.2) for all-cancer mortality; HR (95% CI)=3.9 (1.9-7.7) for lung cancer mortality]. Conclusions: This study's results suggest that cigarette smoking might be associated with total mortality, all-cancer mortality and especially lung cancer mortality among Korean adults.

Estimating the Survival of Patients With Lung Cancer: What Is the Best Statistical Model?

  • Abedi, Siavosh;Janbabaei, Ghasem;Afshari, Mahdi;Moosazadeh, Mahmood;Alashti, Masoumeh Rashidi;Hedayatizadeh-Omran, Akbar;Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza;Abedini, Ehsan
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.140-144
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: Investigating the survival of patients with cancer is vitally necessary for controlling the disease and for assessing treatment methods. This study aimed to compare various statistical models of survival and to determine the survival rate and its related factors among patients suffering from lung cancer. Methods: In this retrospective cohort, the cumulative survival rate, median survival time, and factors associated with the survival of lung cancer patients were estimated using Cox, Weibull, exponential, and Gompertz regression models. Kaplan-Meier tables and the log-rank test were also used to analyze the survival of patients in different subgroups. Results: Of 102 patients with lung cancer, 74.5% were male. During the follow-up period, 80.4% died. The incidence rate of death among patients was estimated as 3.9 (95% confidence [CI], 3.1 to 4.8) per 100 person-months. The 5-year survival rate for all patients, males, females, patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), and patients with small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) was 17%, 13%, 29%, 21%, and 0%, respectively. The median survival time for all patients, males, females, those with NSCLC, and those with SCLC was 12.7 months, 12.0 months, 16.0 months, 16.0 months, and 6.0 months, respectively. Multivariate analyses indicated that the hazard ratios (95% CIs) for male sex, age, and SCLC were 0.56 (0.33 to 0.93), 1.03 (1.01 to 1.05), and 2.91 (1.71 to 4.95), respectively. Conclusions: Our results showed that the exponential model was the most precise. This model identified age, sex, and type of cancer as factors that predicted survival in patients with lung cancer.

Lung Cancer Epidemiology in Korea

  • Shin, Aesun;Oh, Chang-Mo;Kim, Byung-Woo;Woo, Hyeongtaek;Won, Young-Joo;Lee, Jin-Soo
    • Cancer Research and Treatment
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.616-626
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    • 2017
  • Purpose The current study was undertaken to examine the trends in the lung cancer incidence, mortality, and survival after a diagnosis in Korea. Materials and Methods Lung cancer incidence data according to the histologic type and mortality data were obtained from the Korea Central Cancer Registry and the Statistics Korea, respectively. The age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated, and the Joinpoint model and age-period-cohort analyses were used to describe the trends in the rates. The 5-year relative survival rates of lung cancer were also calculated. Results Although the number of new lung cancer cases increased between 1999 and 2012, the age-standardized incidence rate decreased by 0.9% per year in men, whereas the incidence in women increased by 1.7% per year over the same time. Until 2010, the most common histologic type in men was squamous cell carcinoma, then adenocarcinoma prevailed thereafter. Since 1999, the most frequent histological type in women was adenocarcinoma. The lung cancer mortality started to decrease in 2002, with a more apparent decline for the younger age groups in both men and women. Overall, the 5-year relative survival rates have improved significantly from 11.2% for men and 14.7% for women among patients diagnosed between 1993 and 1997 to 19.3% for men and 28.2% for women among patients diagnosed between 2008 and 2012,respectively. An improvement in survival rate was observed for all major histology groups. Conclusion The epidemiology of lung cancer in Korea has changed over a short time span, with decreasing mortality and improving survival rates. Further study is warranted to determine the cause of these changes.

Cancer Risk in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes on Antidiabetic Monotherapy: A Population Based Cohort Study Using National Insurance Health Service Database (혈당강하제 단독요법 투여 당뇨병환자에서 암발생률 평가: 후향적 코호트 연구)

  • Jung, Han Yeong;Lee, Sukhyang
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.186-192
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    • 2019
  • Background: Diabetes is associated with cancer risk in the aging population. Observational studies have indicated the beneficial effects of metformin against breast cancer, making studies on the anticancer potential of antidiabetic drugs worthwhile. This study investigated cancer incidence in patients on antidiabetic monotherapy. Methods: Using National Health Insurance Service data (2002-2013), a retrospective cohort study that included type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients was conducted. Study subjects were enrolled if they were ${\geq}30$ years old, on monotherapy for diabetes, and cancer-free. They were followed up for cancer occurrence or death, until December 31st, 2013. A Cox proportional hazard model analysis was conducted between metformin and sulfonylurea (including meglitinide) users, to determine cancer risk, with adjustment for age, gender, comorbidity index, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and T2DM duration. Results: The number of antidiabetic monotherapy-treated T2DM patients without a history of cancer was 9,554 (metformin, n = 5,825; sulfonylurea, n = 3,225; others, n = 504). During the follow-up period (mean, 2.04; IQR, 3.18 years), the cancer incidence rate was 5.48/100 and 5.45/100 patient-years for metformin and sulfonylurea, respectively. The hazard ratio (HR) for risk of cancer incidence in the metformin group was 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66-0.83; p < 0.0001), compared with sulfonylurea. Additionally, the HRs for risks of lung, liver, and stomach cancer were respectively 0.46 (95% CI, 0.31-0.66; p < 0.0001), 0.41 (95% CI, 0.31-0.54; p < 0.0001), and 0.51 (95% CI, 0.35-0.73; p = 0.0003). Conclusion: Antidiabetic therapy with metformin reduces cancer risk by 26%, specifically for lung, liver, and stomach cancer.