• Title, Summary, Keyword: age-period-cohort model

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Longevity Bond Pricing by a Cohort-based Stochastic Mortality (코호트 사망률을 이용한 장수채권 가격산출)

  • Jho, Jae Hoon;Lee, Kangsoo
    • The Korean Journal of Applied Statistics
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.703-719
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    • 2015
  • We propose an extension of the Lee and Jho (2015) mean reverting the two factor mortality model by incorporating a period-specific cohort effect. We found that the consideration of cohort effect improves the mortality fit of Korea male data above age 65. Parameters are estimated by the weighted least squares method and Metropolis algorithm. We also emphasize that the cohort effect is necessary to choose the base survival index to calculate longevity bond issue price. A key contribution of the article is the proposal and development of a method to calculate the longevity bond price to hedge the longevity risk exposed to Korea National Pension Services.

Projection of Breast Cancer Burden due to Reproductive/Lifestyle Changes in Korean Women (2013-2030) Using an Age-Period-Cohort Model

  • Lee, Joo Eun;Lee, Sang Ah;Kim, Tae Hyun;Park, Sohee;Choy, Yoon Soo;Ju, Yeong Jun;Park, Eun-Cheol
    • Cancer Research and Treatment
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.1388-1395
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    • 2018
  • Purpose The aim of this study was to estimate the burden of breast cancer that can be attributed to rapid lifestyle changes in South Korea in 2013-2030. Materials and Methods An age-period-cohort model was used to estimate the incidence and mortality. The Global Burden of Disease Study Group method was used to calculate the years of life lost and years lived with disability in breast cancer patients using a nationwide cancer registry. The population attributable risks were calculated using meta-analyzed relative risk ratios and by assessing the prevalence of risk factors. Results Women's reproductive/lifestyle changes, including advanced maternal age at first childbirth (from 37 to 85 disability-adjusted life years [DALYs] per 100,000 person-years), total period of breastfeeding (from 22 to 46 DALYs per 100,000 person-years), obesity (from 37 to 61 DALYs per 100,000 person-years), alcohol consumption (from 19 to 39 DALYs per 100,000 person-years), oral contraceptive use (from 18 to 27 DALYs per 100,000 person-years), and hormone replacement therapy use (from 2 to 3 DALYs per 100,000 person-years) were identified as factors likely to increase the burden of breast cancer from 2013 to 2030. Approximately, 34.2% to 44.3% of the burden of breast cancer could be avoidable in 2030 with reduction in reproductive/lifestyle risk factors. Conclusion The rapid changes of age structure and lifestyle in South Korea during the last decade are expected to strongly increase the breast cancer burden over time unless the risk factors can be effectively modified.

A prediction model of low back pain risk: a population based cohort study in Korea

  • Mukasa, David;Sung, Joohon
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.153-165
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    • 2020
  • Background: Well-validated risk prediction models help to identify individuals at high risk of diseases and suggest preventive measures. A recent systematic review reported lack of validated prediction models for low back pain (LBP). We aimed to develop prediction models to estimate the 8-year risk of developing LBP and its recurrence. Methods: A population based prospective cohort study using data from 435,968 participants in the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort enrolled from 2002 to 2010. We used Cox proportional hazards models. Results: During median follow-up period of 8.4 years, there were 143,396 (32.9%) first onset LBP cases. The prediction model of first onset consisted of age, sex, income grade, alcohol consumption, physical exercise, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, blood pressure, and medical history of diseases. The model of 5-year recurrence risk was comprised of age, sex, income grade, BMI, length of prescription, and medical history of diseases. The Harrell's C-statistic was 0.812 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.804-0.820) and 0.916 (95% CI, 0.907-0.924) in validation cohorts of LBP onset and recurrence models, respectively. Age, disc degeneration, and sex conferred the highest risk points for onset, whereas age, spondylolisthesis, and disc degeneration conferred the highest risk for recurrence. Conclusions: LBP risk prediction models and simplified risk scores have been developed and validated using data from general medical practice. This study also offers an opportunity for external validation and updating of the models by incorporating other risk predictors in other settings, especially in this era of precision medicine.

Breast Cancer in Lampang, a Province in Northern Thailand: Analysis of 1993-2012 Incidence Data and Future Trends

  • Lalitwongsa, Somkiat;Pongnikorn, Donsuk;Daoprasert, Karnchana;Sriplung, Hutcha;Bilheem, Surichai
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8327-8333
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    • 2016
  • Background: The recent epidemiologic transition in Thailand, with decreasing incidence of infectious diseases along with increasing rates of chronic conditions, including cancer, is a serious problem for the country. Breast cancer has the highest incidence rates among females throughout Thailand. Lampang is a province in the upper part of Northern Thailand. A study was needed to identify the current burden, and the future trends of breast cancer in upper Northern Thai women. Materials and Methods: Here we used cancer incidence data from the Lampang Cancer Registry to characterize and analyze the local incidence of breast cancer. Joinpoint analysis, age period cohort model and Nordpred package were used to investigate the incidences of breast cancer in the province from 1993 to 2012 and to project future trends from 2013 to 2030. Results: Age-standardized incidence rates (world) of breast cancer in the upper parts of Northern Thailand increased from 16.7 to 26.3 cases per 100,000 female population which is equivalent to an annual percentage change of 2.0-2.8%, according to the method used. Linear drift effects played a role in shaping the increase of incidence. The three projection method suggested that incidence rates would continue to increase in the future with incidence for women aged 50 and above, increasing at a higher rate than for women below the age of 50. Conclusions: The current early detection measures increase detection rates of early disease. Preparation of a budget for treatment facilities and human resources, both in surgical and medical oncology, is essential.

Joint Effects of Smoking and Alcohol Drinking on Esophageal Cancer Mortality in Japanese Men: Findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study

  • Yaegashi, Yumi;Onoda, Toshiyuki;Morioka, Seiji;Hashimoto, Tsutomu;Takeshita, Tatsuya;Sakata, Kiyomi;Tamakoshi, Akiko
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.1023-1029
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    • 2014
  • Background: The purpose of our study was to elucidate the joint effects of combined smoking and alcohol intake on esophageal cancer mortality in Japanese men through a large cohort study with a 20-year follow-up period. Materials and Methods: The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC Study) was established in the late 1980s, including 46,395 men and 64,190 women aged 40 years and older and younger than 80. Follow-up of these participants was conducted until 2009. We used the Cox proportional hazards model to analyze data for 42,408 people excluding female participants, 411 people with histories of malignant neoplasms, and 3,576 with unclear smoking and drinking data. Results: The joint effects of age at start of smoking and amount of alcohol consumed per day were compared with non-smokers and non-drinkers or those consuming less than one unit of alcohol per day. The mortality risk was 9.33 (95% confidence interval, 2.55-34.2) for those who started smoking between ages 10 and 19 years and drinking at least three units of alcohol per day. Regarding the joint effects of cumulative amount of smoking and alcohol intake, the risk was high when both smoking and alcohol intake were above a certain level. Conclusions: In this Japanese cohort study, increased cancer mortality risks were observed, especially for people who both started smoking early and drank alcohol. Quitting smoking or not starting to smoke at any age and reducing alcohol consumption are important for preventing esophageal cancer in Japan.

Smoking and Colorectal Cancer Risk in the Korean Elderly (노인 인구에서 흡연과 대장암 발생 위험간의 관련성)

  • Kim, Hwa-Jung;Lee, Seung-Mi;Choi, Nam-Kyong;Kim, Seon-Ha;Song, Hong-Ji;Cho, Young-Kyun;Park, Byung-Joo
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.123-129
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    • 2006
  • Objectives : The incidence of colorectal cancer increased greatly among the elderly in Korea, but the relationship between smoking and colon cancer remains controversial. Few studies have targeted Asian elderly people. We analyzed the smoking status, the amount smoked, and the smoking duration as risk factors of colorectal cancer to determine their association and causality. Methods: The cohort members (n=14, 103) consisted of 4,694 males and 9,409 females, and they were derived from the Korea Elderly Phamacepidemilogic Cohort (KEPEC), which was a population-based dynamic cohort. They were aged 65 years or more and they lived in Busan Metropolitan City between from 1993-1998; they were beneficiaries of the Korean Medical Insurance Corporation (KMIC). The baseline information was surveyed by a self-administered mailed questionnaire; after 8.7 person-years of mean follow up period, 100 cases of colorectal cancer occurred. The adjusted relative ratio (aRR) of smoking status, the smoking amount and the smoking duration were calculated from the Cox's proportional hazard model with the never-smokers as a reference group and the Cox model controlled for age, gender, precancerous lesions of CRC, medication history of NSAIDs & antibiotics, the alcohol drinking status and BMI. Results : Compared with the never smokers, the aRRs were 2.03 (95% CI=1.02-4.03) and 1.36 (95% CI=0.80-2.32) for the ex-smokers and current smokers, respectively. Statistical significant trends were not observed for the dose-relationship among the elderly, either for the mean daily amount smoked (p for trend=0.28) or for the total amount (p for trend=0.15). Still, the aRRs were 1.51 (95% CI=0.97-2.34) for the elderly who smoked less than 40 years and 2.35 (95% CI=1.16-4.74) for the elderly who had 40 years or more of smoking (p for trend=0.06). Smokers who started smoking before the age 20 had an increased aRR of 2.15 (95% CI=1.17-3.93) compared to the never smokers. Conclusions : After controlling for age, gender, precancerous lesion of CRC, medication history of NSAIDs & antibiotics, the alcohol drinking status and BMI, smoking increases the risk of colorectal cancer among elderly people. The age when starting smoking is also important.

Power Estimation and Follow-Up Period Evaluation in Korea Radiation Effect and Epidemiology Cohort Study (원전 코호트 연구의 적정 대상규모와 검정력 추정)

  • Cho, In-Seong;Song, Min-Kyo;Choi, Yun-Hee;Li, Zhong-Min;Ahn, Yoon-Ok
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.543-548
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    • 2010
  • Objectives: The objective of this study was to calculate sample size and power in an ongoing cohort, Korea radiation effect and epidemiology cohort (KREEC). Method: Sample size calculation was performed using PASS 2002 based on Cox regression and Poisson regression models. Person-year was calculated by using data from '1993-1997 Total cancer incidence by sex and age, Seoul' and Korean statistical informative service. Results: With the assumption of relative risk=1.3, exposure:non-exposure=1:2 and power=0.8, sample size calculation was 405 events based on a Cox regression model. When the relative risk was assumed to be 1.5 then number of events was 170. Based on a Poisson regression model, relative risk=1.3, exposure:non-exposure=1:2 and power=0.8 rendered 385 events. Relative risk of 1.5 resulted in a total of 157 events. We calculated person-years (PY) with event numbers and cancer incidence rate in the nonexposure group. Based on a Cox regression model, with relative risk=1.3, exposure:non-exposure=1:2 and power=0.8, 136 245PY was needed to secure the power. In a Poisson regression model, with relative risk=1.3, exposure:non-exposure=1:2 and power=0.8, person-year needed was 129517PY. A total of 1939 cases were identified in KREEC until December 2007. Conclusions: A retrospective power calculation in an ongoing study might be biased by the data. Prospective power calculation should be carried out based on various assumptions prior to the study.

Association between Health Risk Factors and Mortality over Initial 6 Year Period in Juam Cohort (주암 코호트에서 초기 6년간 건강위험인자와 사망의 관련성)

  • Kim, Sang-Yong;Lee, Su-Jin;Sohn, Seok-Joon;Choi, Jin-Su
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.13-26
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    • 2007
  • Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the association between health risk factors and mortality in Juam cohort. Methods: The subjects were 1,447 males and 1,889 females who had been followed up for 68.5 months to 1 January 2001. Whether they were alive or not was confirmed by the mortality data of the National Statistical Office. A total of 289 persons among them died during the follow-up period. The Cox's proportional hazard regression model was used for survival analysis. Results: Age, type of medical insurance, self cognitive health level, habit of alcohol drinking, smoking, exercise and BMI level were included in Cox's proportional hazard model by gender. The hazard ratio of age was 1.07(95% CI: 1.05-1.10) in men, 1.09(95% CI: 1.06-1.12) in women. The hazard ratio of medical aid(lower socioeconomic state) was 1.43(95% CI 1.02-2.19) in women. The hazard ratios of current alcohol drinking and current smoking were respectively 1.69(95% CI: 1.01-2.98), 1.52(95% CI: 1.02-2.28) in women. The hazard ratio of underweight was 1.56(95% CI 1.08-2.47) in men. The hazard ratios of underweight, normoweight, overweight, and obesity were respectively 1.63(95% CI: 1.02-2.67), 1.0(referent), 0.62(95% CI: 0.32-1.63), 1.27(95% CI: 0.65-3.06), which supported the U-shaped relationship between body mass index and mortality among the men over 65. Conclusions: The health risk factors increasing mortality were age, underweight in male, age, lower socioeconomic state, current alcohol drinking, current smoking in female. To evaluate long-term association between health risk factors and mortality, further studies need to be carried out.

Econometric Analysis on Factors of Food Demand in the Household : Comparative Study between Korea and Japan (가계 식품수요 요인의 계량분석 - 한국과 일본의 비교 -)

  • Jho, Kwang-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.371-383
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    • 1999
  • This report gave analysis of food demand both in Korea and Japan through introducing the concept of cohort analysis to the conventional demand model. This research was done to clarify the factors which determine food demand of the household. The traits of the new model for demand analysis are to consider and quantify those effects on food demand not only of economic factors such as expenditure and price but also of non-economic factors such as the age and birth cohort of the householder. The results of the analysis can be summarized as follows: 1) The comparison of the item-wise elasticities of food demand demonstrates that the expenditure elasticity is higher in Korea than in Japan and that the expenditure elasticity is -0.1 for cereal and more than 1 for eating-out in both countries. In respect to price elasticity, the absolute values of all the items except alcohol and cooked food are higher in the Korea than in Japan, and especially the price elasticities of beverages, dairy products and fruit are predominantly higher in Japan. In this way, both expenditure and price elasticities of a large number of items are higher in Korea than in Japan, which may be explained from the fact that the level of expenditure is higher in Japan than in Korea. 2) In both of Korea and Japan, as the householder grows older, the expenditure for each item increases and the composition of expenditure changes in such a way that these moves may be regarded as due to the age effect. However, there are both similarities and differences in the details of such moves between Korea and Japan. Those two countries have this trait in common that the young age groups of the householder spend more on dairy products and middle age groups spend more on cake than other age groups. In the Korea, however, there can be seen a certain trend that higher age groups spend more on a large number of items, reflecting the fact that there are more two-generation families in higher age groups. Japan differs from Korea in that expenditure in Japan is diversified, depending upon the age group. For example, in Japan, middle age groups spend more on cake, cereal, high-caloric food like meat and eating-out while older age groups spend more for Japanese-style food like fish/shellfish and vegetable/seaweed, and cooked food. 3) The effect of the birth cohort effect was also demonstrated. The birth cohort effect was introduced under the supposition that the food circumstances under which the householder was born and brought up would determine the current expenditure. Thus, the following was made clear: older generations in both countries placed more emphasis upon stable food in their composition of food consumption; the share of livestock products, oil/fats and externalized food was higher in the food composition of younger generation; differences in food composition among generations were extremely large in Korea while they were relatively small in Japan; and Westernization and externalization of diet made rapid increases simultaneously with generation changes in Korea while they made any gradual increases in Japan during the same time period. 4) The four major factors which impact the long-term change of food demand of the household are expenditure, price, the age of the householder, and the birth cohort of the householder. Investigations were made as to which factor had the largest impact. As a result, it was found that the price effect was the smallest in both countries, and that the relative importance of the factor-by-factor effects differed among the two countries: in Korea the expenditure effect was greater than the effects of age and birth cohort while in Japan the effects of non-economic factors such as the age and birth cohort of householder were greater than those of economic factors such as expenditures.

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Cost-Effectiveness of Denosumab for Post-Menopausal Osteoporosis in South Korea (폐경기 골다공증 환자에서 데노수맙 사용에 대한 비용-효과 분석)

  • Bae, Green;Kwon, Hye-Young
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.131-137
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    • 2018
  • Background: In South Korea, 22.3% of women ${\geq}50years$ of age and 37% of women ${\geq}70years$ of age visit the doctor to obtain treatment for osteoporosis. According to the analysis of the National Health Insurance Services claim data between 2008 and 2012, the number and incidence of hip and vertebral fractures increased during the same period. Denosumab, a newly marketed medicine in Korea, is the first RANK inhibitor. Methods: A cost-utility analysis was conducted from a societal perspective to prove the superiority of denosumab to alendronate. A Markov cohort model was used to investigate the cost-effectiveness of denosumab. A 6-month cycle length was used in the model, and all patients were individually followed up through the model, from their age at treatment initiation to their time of death or until 100 years of age. The model consisted of eight health states: well; hip fracture; vertebral fracture; wrist fracture; other osteoporotic fracture; post-hip fracture; post-vertebral fracture; and dead. All patients began in the well-health state. In this model, 5% discounted rate, two-year maximum offset time, and persistence were adopted. Results: The total lifetime costs for alendronate and denosumab were USD 5,587 and USD 6,534, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for denosumab versus alendronate was USD 20,600/QALY. Given the ICER threshold in Korea, the results indicated that denosumab was remarkably superior to alendronate. Conclusion: Denosumab is a cost-effective alternative to the oral anti-osteoporotic treatment, alendronate, in South Korea.