• Title, Summary, Keyword: age dependence

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Assessment of Nicotine Dependence among Smokers in a Selected Rural Population in Kerala, India

  • Jayakrishnan, R.;Mathew, Aleyamma;Lekshmi, Kamala;Sebastian, Paul;Finne, Patrik;Uutela, Antti
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.2663-2667
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: An attempt was made to understand the nicotine dependence of smokers selected for an ongoing smoking cessation intervention programme in rural Kerala, India. Methods: Data were collected from resident males in the age group of 18 to 60 years from 4 randomly allocated community development blocks of rural Thiruvananthapuram district (2 intervention and 2 control groups). Trained accredited social health activist workers were utilised to collect data from all groups through face to face interview. Nicotine dependence among participants was assessed by means of the six-item Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) translated into the local language. The internal consistency of FTND was computed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Criterion validity (concurrent) was assessed by correlations of nicotine dependence scores with age at initiation of smoking and cumulative smoking volume in pack-years. Results: Among the 928 smokers identified, 474 subjects were in the intervention area (mean age = 44.6 years, SD = 9.66 years) and 454 in the control area (mean age = 44.5 years, SD = 10.30 years). The overall FTND score among current daily smokers was 5.04 (SD: 5.05). FTND scores in the control and intervention areas were 4.75 (SD: 2.57) and 4.92 (SD: 2.51) respectively. The FTND scores increased with age and decreased with higher literacy and socioeconomic status. The average FTND score was high among smokers using both bidi and cigarettes (mean 6.10, SD 2.17). Internal consistency analysis yielded a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.70 in a subsample of 150 subjects, a moderate result. The association of the scale was strongest, with the number of pack-years smoked (rho = 0.677, p < 0.001). Conclusion: A moderate level of nicotine dependence was observed among smokers in the current study. Tobacco cessation strategies could be made more cost effective and productive if a baseline assessment of nicotine dependence is completed before any intervention.

How does Dependence on Portals Help Online Retailers' Growth? : The Moderating Effects of Firm Age and Niche Width Strategy (인터넷 포탈에 대한 자원 의존성이 온라인 쇼핑몰기업의 성장에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Kyung Min;Mun, Hee Jin;Park, Sunju;Chung, Seungwha;Choi, Jeonghye
    • Journal of the Korean Operations Research and Management Science Society
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.141-154
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    • 2014
  • It is widely confirmed that online retailers can obtain crucial resources and greater growth potential by depending on the external web portal sites as it is explained in resource dependence theory. Nevertheless, recent studies show that the effect of dependence may not always be beneficial for firms and stress the importance of finding relevant contingent factors. In this study, we identify and suggest that firms' age and niche width strategy, whether generalist or specialist, are contributing factors on moderating the positive relationship between resource dependence and firm growth. To test our hypotheses based on the theory, we have collected monthly web traffic data of online retailers and portals from March 2000 and July 2008. The empirical results lend support to our theory of the firm age having a negative interaction effect on web traffic dependence. Moreover, results verified that positive effect of depending on the portals may become greater if the online retailer is a specialist in terms of niche width.

Factors which Differentiate Ex-smokers from Smokers among Patients with Cardiovascular Disease (심혈관계 질환자의 금연성공 예측 요인)

  • Choi, Jung-Myung;Kim, Eun-Kyung
    • The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.177-183
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify factors which differentiate ex-smokers from smokers among patients with cardiovascular disease. Ex-smokers were patients who abstained from smoking for at least 6 months. Method: The subjects were 92 male cardiovascular patients who try to quit. The stepwise discriminant analysis was used to identify predictors of smoking cessation. Result: 1. The ex-smokers(n=47) and smokers(n=45) were significantly different regarding the age, duration after diagnosis, nicotine dependence, family support for smoking cessation, and intention-to-quit. 2. The family support for smoking cessation, intention-to-quit, nicotine dependence, and age were the predictors which differentiate ex-smokers from smokers among cardiovascular patients. The percentage of grouped cases correctly classified was 92.4%. Conclusion: The higher the family support for smoking cessation, intention-to-quit, age and the lower the nicotine dependence, the more likely these smokers were to success smoking cessation.

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Determinants of Nicotine Dependence in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

  • Sim, Yun Su;Lee, Jin Hwa;Kim, Ki Uk;Ra, Seung Won;Park, Hye Yun;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Kim, Deog Kyeom;Shin, Kyeong-Cheol;Lee, Sang Haak;Hwang, Hun Gyu;Ahn, Joong Hyun;Park, Yong Bum;Kim, Yu-Il;Yoo, Kwang Ha;Jeong, Ina;Oh, Yeon-Mok;Lee, Sang-Do;KOLD Investigators
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.80 no.3
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    • pp.277-283
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    • 2017
  • Background: Smoking cessation is the most powerful intervention to modify progress of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and nicotine dependence is one of the most important determinants of success or failure in smoking cessation. We evaluated nicotine dependence status and investigated factors associated with moderate to high nicotine dependence in patients with COPD. Methods: We included 53 current smokers with COPD in the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease II cohort enrolled between January 2014 and March 2016. Nicotine dependence was measured by using Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence (FTND). Cognitive function was assessed by Korean version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Results: The median FTND score was 3, and 32 patients (60%) had moderate to high nicotine dependence. The median smoking amount was 44 pack-years, which was not related to nicotine dependence. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that high education status (odds ratio, 1.286; 95% confidence interval, 1.036-1.596; p=0.023), age <70 (odds ratio, 6.407; 95% confidence interval, 1.376-29.830; p=0.018), and mild to moderate airflow obstruction (odds ratio, 6.969; 95% confidence interval, 1.388-34.998; p=0.018) were related to moderate to high nicotine dependence. Conclusion: Nicotine dependence does not correlate with smoking amount, but with education level, age, and severity of airflow obstruction. Physicians should provide different strategies of smoking cessation intervention for current smokers with COPD according to their education levels, age, and severity of airflow obstruction.

The Alteration of % Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin and Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Levels of Alcohol-Dependent Inpatients according to Age and Sex (알코올의존으로 입원한 환자에서 나이와 성별에 따른 퍼센트 탄수화물-결핍트랜스페린과, 감마-글루타밀전이효소 변화 양상의 차이)

  • Jin, Gyo-Sik;Yi, Jung Seo;Lee, Boung Chul;Kim, Jee Wook;Choi, Ihn-Geun
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.219-224
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    • 2017
  • Objectives This study sought to investigate the relationship between age, sex and alterations in levels of % carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in patients admitted with alcohol dependence. Methods The study retrospectively enrolled 187 patients who were diagnosed with alcohol dependence according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth edition (DSM-IV) and were admitted into a closed ward in Hallym University Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital from 2009 to 2012 and Hallym University Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital from 2012 to 2017. Demographic factors (age, sex) and biochemical markers [%CDT, GGT, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), aspartate transferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT)] were collected by reviewing medical records. Alterations in the levels of %CDT and GGT in different groups for each demographic factor were compared after correcting for confounding variables (age, initial %CDT, GGT, MCV, AST, ALT). Results Decreased %CDT and GGT were observed during the period of abstinence after admission. The normalization period for %CDT increased with age, while the normalization period for GGT was longer in female patients. Conclusions These results suggest that alcohol-dependent patients that vary in age have different alterations in %CDT, while different sexes have different alterations in GGT. Age and sex can be potential indicators of treatment response after abstinence in patients with alcohol dependence. Further studies are needed to evaluate the relationship between these factors with regards to physiological and hematological changes in alcohol dependence.

Factors Infulencing the Dependonce of the Elderly Living in Community (지역사회 거주 노인의 의존성에 영향을 미치는 요인)

  • Park, Kyong-Ok
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.346-353
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: The Purpose of this study was to analyze factors influencing the dependence of the elderly. Method: This research was designed as a descriptive study. The subjects were 103 elders living in Seoul. Data were collected from December 2004 through January 2005. The instrument used in this study was the elderly dependence scale developed by the Park (2004). Collected data were analyzed using SPSS 11.0 for Windows. Descriptive statistics, independent t-test, ANOVA and multiple regression were done. Results: In the results of regression, residence, education, vision and age were extracted as factors influencing the dependence of the elderly. The regression model explained 33% of the variance. Conclusion: Considering the results above, we need studies on the dependence of the elderly using more independent variables, on the changing pattern of dependence and influencing factors by longitudinal design, and on the elderly with functional limitations or cognitive impairment.

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A Partial Backordering Inventory Model with a Drop-Shipping Option under Purchase Dependence (구매종속성이 존재하는 상황에서 드롭-배송 옵션을 활용한 부분 부재고 재고모형)

  • Park, Changkyu
    • Korean Management Science Review
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.1-16
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    • 2016
  • Drop-shipping is a commonly adopted online-order fulfillment strategy in the Internet age. In this practice, online retailers leverage the fulfillment capabilities of suppliers to fulfill orders. On the other hand, purchase dependence is a frequent phenomenon and is characterized by the purchase of certain items together due to their unknown interior associations. Although this concept has been significantly examined in the marketing field (e.g. market basket analysis), it has largely remained unaddressed in operations management. This paper develops an (R, T) model to address an environment in which unmet demand orders are partially lost and partially backordered when purchase dependence exists. The partial backorders are fulfilled by a drop-shipping option. Through computational analyses, this paper demonstrates the effect of both drop shipping on a partial backordering and purchase dependence. The results shows that more profit can be realized by utilizing a drop-shipping option under purchase dependence.

Cognitive Style and Interpersonal Problem Solving Ability among 5-, 7-, and 9-year-olds (아동의 인지양식과 대인 문제 해결력 - 5세, 7세, 및 9세 아동을 대상으로 -)

  • Chyung, Yun Joo;Yi, Soon Hyung
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.77-89
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    • 1993
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) children's field dependence by age and sex, (2) children's interpersonal problem solving ability by age, sex, and contextual factors, (3) children's interpersonal problem solving ability by field dependence. The subjects were 120 five-, seven-, and nine-year-olds. Children's field-dependence was measured with the Children's Embedded Figures Test (CEFT). Children's interpersonal problem solving ability was measured with the Preschool Interpersonal Problem Solving Test (PIPS Test). Statistical methods adopted for data analysis were frequencies, percentiles, means, standard deviation, t-test, oneway ANOVA. $Scheff{\acute{e}}$ test and Pearson's correlations. Major findings were that (1) The older children were more field-independent than the younger ones (2) The older children suggested more problem solving methods and higher-level problem solving strategies than the younger ones. (3) Children suggested higher-level problem solving strategies in contexts involving familiar as opposed to unfamiliar participants and contexts involving children as opposed to adults. (4) 9-year-olds' field-independence was positively associated with interpersonal problem solving ability.

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A Study on he Clothing Behaviors of the Aged Women (노년기 여성의 의복행동 연구)

  • 김진구;이유경
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.347-370
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    • 1995
  • The elderly population of Korea has been significantly increasing due to advances in public health, medical care, and quality of life. Social, economical influence of the elderly population has been increasing, too. Research regarding elderly people is important because many elderly people take care of their appearance and clothing, and clothing plays an important role in the elderly women's everyday life. This study investigated the life satisfaction, appearance satisfaction, and clothing behavior of women aged 55 years and older who were residents of Seoul. The results of this study are as followings: 1. The importance of various factors on clothing behavior is different. They are management, clothing importance, fashion indifference, information search and purchase planning, clothing dependence, status symbol, and conformity in order of the importance. 2. Age has a positive relationship with each of fashion indifference and clothing dependence, but a negative relationship with information search and purchase planning. 3. Age has a positive relationship with each of life satisfaction and allowance. 4. Appearance satisfaction is positively related with age, but is significantly related with neither allowance nor education. 5. There are positive relationships between life satisfaction and all clothing behavior factors except status symbol. 6. Appearance satisfaction are siginicantly correlated with management, conformity, clothing dependence, and clothing importance. And life satisfaction has more significant relationship with clothing behavior than appearance satisfaction does.

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The Effect of Physical Self-concept on Sportswear Dependence and Psychological Happiness (신체적 자기개념이 스포츠웨어 의존성 및 심리적 행복감에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hyunsook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.1039-1055
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    • 2018
  • This study investigates the effect of physical self-concept and sportswear dependence on psychological happiness for women over 20 years of age who participate in life sports. Survey questionnaires were developed and implemented to collect data. Three hundred and thirty nine responses were analyzed to test the structural equation model using SPSS 21.0 and Amos 21. The results were as follows. First, physical selfconcept had a significant positive effect on psychological happiness and sportswear dependence mediated the relationship between them. Second, sports competence had a significant effect on psychological happiness and sportswear dependence respectively. Third, appearance satisfaction did not significantly affect psychological happiness and had a significant positive effect on sportswear dependence. Fourth, physical strength satisfaction did not affect psychological happiness and sportswear dependence. Fifth, health condition had a significant positive effect on psychological happiness and negatively influenced sportswear dependency. In conclusion, physical self-concept and sportswear dependence plays an important role in psychological happiness that requires a differentiated marketing strategy in the sportswear market.