• Title/Summary/Keyword: aerodynamic force coefficients

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Ground effects on wind-induced responses of a closed box girder

  • Mao, Wenhao;Zhou, Zhiyong
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.397-413
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    • 2017
  • When bridges are constructed with lower heights from the ground, the formed channel between the deck and the ground will inevitably hinder or accelerate the air flow. This in turn will have an impact on the aerodynamic forces on the deck, which may result in unexpected wind-induced responses of bridges. This phenomenon can be referred to "ground effects." So far, no systematic studies into ground effects on the wind-induced responses of closed box girders have been performed. In this paper, wind tunnel tests have been adopted to study the ground effects on the aerodynamic force coefficients and the wind-induced responses of a closed box girder. In correlation with the heights from the ground in two ground roughness, the aerodynamic force coefficients, the Strouhal number ($S_t$), the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) lock-in phenomena over a range of wind velocities, the VIV maximum amplitudes, the system torsional damping ratio, the flutter derivatives, the critical flutter wind speeds and their variation laws correlated with the heights from the ground of a closed box girder have been presented through wind tunnel tests. The outcomes show that the ground effects make the vortex-induced phenomena occur in advance and adversely affect the flutter stability.

The effect of Reynolds numbers on the steady state aerodynamic force coefficients of the Stonecutters Bridge deck section

  • Hui, M.C.H.;Zhou, Z.Y.;Chen, A.R.;Xiang, H.F.
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.179-192
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    • 2008
  • In a wind tunnel experiment employing a reduced scale model, Reynolds number (Re) can hardly be respected. Its effects on the aerodynamics of closed-box bridge decks have been the subject of research in recent years. Stonecutters Bridge in Hong Kong is a cable-stayed bridge having an unprecedented central span of 1018m. The issue of Re sensitivity was raised early in the design phase of the deck of Stonecutters Bridge. The objective of this study is to summarise the results of various wind tunnel experiments in order to demonstrate the effect of Re on the steady state aerodynamic force coefficients. The results may provide an insight on the choice of scale for section model experiments in bridge design projects. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of forces on bridge deck section was also carried out to see how CFD results are compared with experimental results.

Experimental Investigation of Aerodynamic Force Coefficients and Flutter Derivatives of Bridge Girder Sections (교량단면의 공기력계수 및 플러터계수에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Cho, Jae-Young;Lee, Hak-Eun;Kim, Young-Min
    • KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.26 no.5A
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    • pp.887-899
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    • 2006
  • The aim of this study is to investigate a correlation between fundamental data on aerodynamic characteristics of bridge girder cross-sections, such as aerodynamic force coefficients and flutter derivatives, and their aerodynamic behaviour. The section model tests were carried out in three stages. In the first stage, seven deck configurations were studied, namely; Six 2-edge girders and one box girder. In this stage, changes in aerodynamic force coefficients due to geometrical shape of girders, incidence angle of flow, wind directions and turbulence intensities were studied by static section model tests. In the second stage, the dynamic section model tests were carried out to investigate the relativity of static coefficients to dynamic responses. And finally, the two-dimensional (lift-torsion) aerodynamic derivatives of three bridge deck configurations were investigated by dynamic section model tests. The aerodynamic derivatives can be best described as a representation of the aerodynamic damping and the aerodynamic stiffness provided by the wind for a given deck geometry. The method employed here to extract these unsteady aerodynamic properties is known as the initial displacement technique. It involves the measurement of the decay in amplitude with time of an initial displacement of the deck in heave and torsion, for various wind speeds, in smooth flow. It is suggested that the proposed aerodynamic force coefficients and flutter derivatives of bridge girder sections will be potentially useful for the aeroelastic analysis and buffeting analysis.

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Aerodynamic force characteristics and galloping analysis of iced bundled conductors

  • Lou, Wenjuan;Lv, Jiang;Huang, M.F.;Yang, Lun;Yan, Dong
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.135-154
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    • 2014
  • Aerodynamic characteristics of crescent and D-shape bundled conductors were measured by high frequency force balance technique in the wind tunnel. The drag and lift coefficients of each sub-conductor and the whole bundled conductors were presented under various attack angles of wind. The galloping possibility of bundled conductors is discussed based on the Den Hartog criterion. The influence of icing thickness, initial ice accretion angle and sub-conductor on the aerodynamic properties were investigated. Based on the measured aerodynamic force coefficients, a computationally efficient finite element method is also implemented to analyze galloping of iced bundled conductors. The analysis results show that each sub-conductor of the bundled conductor has its own galloping feature due to the use of aerodynamic forces measured separately for every single sub-conductors.

Static aerodynamic force coefficients for an arch bridge girder with two cross sections

  • Guo, Jian;Zhu, Minjun
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.209-216
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    • 2020
  • Aiming at the wind-resistant design of a sea-crossing arch bridge, the static aerodynamic coefficients of its girder (composed of stretches of π-shaped cross-section and box cross-section) were studied by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation and wind tunnel test. Based on the comparison between numerical simulation, wind tunnel test and specification recommendation, a combined calculation method for the horizontal force coefficient of intermediate and small span bridges is proposed. The results show that the two-dimensional CFD numerical simulations of the individual cross sections are sufficient to meet the accuracy requirements of engineering practice.

Experimental investigation of Reynolds number effects on 2D rectangular prisms with various side ratios and rounded corners

  • Wang, Xinrong;Gu, Ming
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.183-202
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    • 2015
  • Experiments on two-dimensional rectangular prisms with various side ratios (B/D=2, 3, and 4, where B is the along-wind dimension, and D is the across-wind dimension) and rounded corners (R/D=0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%, where R is the corner radius) are reported in this study. The tests were conducted in low-turbulence uniform flow to measure the wind pressures on the surfaces of 12 models for Reynolds numbers ranging from $1.1{\times}10^5$ to $6.8{\times}10^5$. The aerodynamic force coefficients were obtained by integrating the wind pressure coefficients around the model surface. Experimental results of wind pressure distributions, aerodynamic force coefficients, and Strouhal numbers are presented for the 12 models. The mechanisms of the Reynolds number effects are revealed by analyzing the variations of wind pressure distributions. The sensitivity of aerodynamic behavior to the Reynolds number increases with increasing side ratio or rounded corner ratio for rectangular prisms. In addition, the variations of the mean pressure distributions and the pressure correlations on the side surfaces of rectangular prisms with the rounded corner ratio are analyzed at $Re=3.4{\times}10^5$.

Study of Neural Network Training Algorithm Comparison and Prediction of Unsteady Aerodynamic Forces of 2D Airfoil (신경망 학습알고리즘의 비교와 2차원 익형의 비정상 공력하중 예측기법에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Seung-On;Jun, Sang-Ook;Park, Kyung-Hyun;Jeon, Yong-Hee;Lee, Dong-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.425-432
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    • 2009
  • In this study, the ability of neural network in modeling and predicting of the unsteady aerodynamic force coefficients of 2D airfoil with the data obtained from Euler CFD code has been confirmed. Neural network models are constructed based on supervised training process using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, combining this into genetic algorithm, hybrid genetic algorithm and the efficiency of the two cases are analyzed and compared. It is shown that hybrid-genetic algorithm is more efficient for neural network of complex system and the predicted properties of the unsteady aerodynamic force coefficients of 2D airfoil by the neural network models are confirmed to be similar to that of the numerical results and verified as suitable representing reduced models.

A Study on Buffeting Responses of a In-service Steel Cable-stayed Bridge Using Full-scale Measurements (실측 데이터를 이용한 공용중인 강사장교의 버페팅 응답 분석)

  • Lee, Deok Keun;Kong, Min Joon;You, Dong Woo
    • KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.349-359
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    • 2016
  • In order to analytically evaluate buffeting responses, the analysis of wind characteristics such as turbulence intensity, turbulence length, gust, roughness coefficient, etc must be a priority. Static aerodynamic force coefficients, flutter coefficients, structural damping ratios, aerodynamic damping ratios and natural frequencies affect the analytical responses. The bridge interested in this paper has being been used for 32 years. As the time passes, current terrain conditions around the bridge are different markedly from the conditions it was built 32 years ago. Also, wind environments were considerably varied by the climate change. For this reason, it is necessary to evaluate the turbulence intensity, length, spectrum and roughness coefficient of the bridge site from full-scale measurements using the structural health monitoring system. The evaluation results indicate that wind characteristics of bridge site is analogous to that of open terrain although the bridge is located on the coastal area. To calculate buffeting responses, the analysis variables such as damping ratios, static aerodynamic force coefficients and natural frequency were evaluated from measured data. The analysis was performed with regard to 4 cases. The evaluated variables from measured data are applied to the first and second analysis cases. And the other analysis cases were performed based on Design Guidelines for Steel Cable Supported Bridges. The calculated responses of each analysis cases are compared with the buffeting response measured at less than 25m/s wind speed. It is verified that the responses by the numerical analysis applying the estimated variables based on full-scale measurements are well agreed with the measured actual buffeting responses under wind speed 25m/s. Also, the extreme wind speed corresponding to a recurrence interval 200 years is derived from Gumbel distribution. The derived wind speed for return period of 200 years is 45m/s. Therefore the buffeting responses at wind speed 45m/s is determined by the analysis applying the estimated variables.

Flutter and Buffeting Control of Long-span Suspension Bridge by Passive Flaps: Experiment and Numerical Simulation

  • Phan, Duc-Huynh;Nguyen, Ngoc-Trung
    • International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.46-57
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    • 2013
  • Flutter stability and buffeting response have been the topics of most concern in the design state of long-span suspension bridges. Among approaches towards the aerodynamic stability, the aerodynamic-based control method which uses control surfaces to generate forces counteracting the unstable excitations has shown to be promising. This study focused on the mechanically controlled system using flaps; two flaps were attached on both sides of a bridge deck and were driven by the motions of the bridge deck. When the flaps moved, the overall cross section of the bridge deck containing these flaps was continuously changing. As a consequence, the aerodynamic forces also changed. The efficiency of the control was studied through the numerical simulation and experimental investigations. The values of quasi-steady forces, together with the experimental aerodynamic force coefficients, were proposed in the simulation. The results showed that the passive flap control can, with appropriate motion of the flaps, solve the aerodynamic instability. The efficiency of the flap control on the full span of a simple suspension bridge was also carried out. The mode-by-mode technique was applied for the investigation. The results revealed that the efficiency of the flap control relates to the mode number, the installed location of the flap, and the flap length.

Experimental study on Re number effects on aerodynamic characteristics of 2D square prisms with corner modifications

  • Wang, Xinrong;Gu, Ming
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.573-594
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    • 2016
  • Simultaneous pressure measurements on 2D square prisms with various corner modifications were performed in uniform flow with low turbulence level, and the testing Reynolds numbers varied from $1.0{\times}10^5$ to $4.8{\times}10^5$. Experimental models were a square prism, three chamfered-corner square prisms (B/D=5%, 10%, and 15%, where B is the chamfered corner dimension and D is the cross-sectional dimension), and six rounded-corner square prisms (R/D =5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30%, and 40%, where R is the corner radius). Experimental results of drag coefficients, wind pressure distributions, power spectra of aerodynamic force coefficients, and Strouhal numbers are presented. Ten models are divided into various categories according to the variations of mean drag coefficients with Reynolds number. The mean drag coefficients of models with $B/D{\leq}15%$ and $R/D{\leq}15%$ are unaffected by the Reynolds number. On the contrary, the mean drag coefficients of models with R/D=20%, 30%, and 40% are obviously dependent on Reynolds number. Wind pressure distributions around each model are analyzed according to the categorized results.The influence mechanisms of corner modifications on the aerodynamic characteristics of the square prism are revealed from the perspective of flow around the model, which can be obtained by analyzing the local pressures acting on the model surface.