• Title, Summary, Keyword: aerobic plot

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Selection of Optimum Pebbles Size in Sewage Treatment Plant by Natural Purification Method (자연정화공법에 의한 하수처리장에서 최적 여재 선정)

  • Seo, Dong-Cheol;Cho, Ju-Sik;Park, Hyun-Geoun;Kim, Hyoung-Kab;Heo, Jong-Soo;Lee, Hong-Jae
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.26-35
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    • 2003
  • An investigation was carried out to evaluate the effects of pebble size on the small-scale sewage treatment apparatus by natural purification method that consisted of aerobic and anaerobic plot. pH and EC in both plots varied minimally regardless of pebble size. DO in aerobic plot increased as the pebble size decreased. That in the anaerobic plot was slightly less in comparison with that of the aerobic plot but varied minimally, $2.4{\sim}5.1\;mg/L$ regardless of pebble size. Under all experimental conditions, removals of BOD, COD and turbidity in anaerobic plot were more than 98, 91 and 98, 98% respectively. Removals of T-N and T-P increased as pebble size decreased. Under all experimental conditions, removals of T-N and T-P in anaerobic plot were about $45{\sim}59$ and $480{\sim}96%$, respectively. Judging from the above results, it should be considered that the optimum pebble size and pebble permeability in both plot was $2{\sim}4$ and $0.1{\sim}4\;mm$, respectively.

A Study on the Improvement of Treatment Efficiency for Nitrogen and Phosphorus by Improved Sewage Treatment Process in Constructed Wetland by Natural Purification Method (자연정화공법에 의한 인공습지 하수처리장에서 하수처리 공정개선에 따른 질소 및 인의 처리효율 향상 방안)

  • Seo, Dong-Cheol;Park, Woo-Young;Lim, Jong-Sir;Park, Chan-Hoon;Lee, Hong-Jae;Kim, Hong-Chul;Lee, Sang-Won;Lee, Do-Jin;Cho, Ju-Sik;Heo, Jong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.27-34
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    • 2008
  • To effectively treat the domestic sewage that was produced on a small-scale in farming and fishing village in order to encourage an ecologically friendly environment, a small-scale sewage treatment apparatus using natural purification methods that consisted of an aerobic and an anaerobic plots were constructed. The efficiency of sewage treatment according to the sewage loading was investigated to obtain the optimum sewage loading in small-scale sewage treatment apparatus. Removal rate of pollutants according to the sewage loading were in the order of $150\;Lm^{-2}day^{-1}{\fallingdotseq}300\;Lm^{-2}day^{-1}>600\;Lm^{-2}day^{-1}$. Therefore, the optimum sewage loading was 300 L m-2 day-1. Under the optimum sewage loading, removal rate of BOD, $COD_{Mn}$, turbidity, T-N and T-P were 99, 94, 99, 49 and 89%, respectively. However, to satisfy the water quality standard in effluent in small-sclae sewage treatment apparatus for domestic sewage treatment, the low removal efficiency of T-N and T-P must be improved. So to improve the removal rate of T-N and T-P, the efficiency of sewage treatment according to the improved sewage treatment process such as, re-treatment at aerobic plot, anaerobic condition of aerobic plot, changing the filter media sizes and the depths in anaerobic plot, and also addition of oyster shells to filter media at anaerobic plot were investigated. In case of 150 cm depth in anaerobic plot with filter medium A (effectivity particle size 1.50 mm) and addition of oyster shells to filter media at anaerobic plot, removal rate of T-N and T-P in both plots were increased by 10 and 3%, and 14 and 7% in comparison with 100 cm depth in anaerobic plot with filter medium B(effectivity particle size 0.95 mm), respectively. The optimum improved sewage treatment process in small-scale sewage treatment apparatus were 150 cm depth in anaerobic plot with filter medium A and addition of oyster shells to filter media at anaerobic plot.

FAME Analysis to Monitor Impact of Organic Matter on Soil Bacterial Populations

  • Kim, Jong-Shik;Joo, Jin-Bee;Weon, Hang-Yeon;Kang, Chang-Seong;Lee, Si-Kyung;Yahng, Chahng-Sool
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.382-388
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    • 2002
  • In order to assess the effects of organic fertilizer on soil microbial community structure and diversity in the greenhouse fields, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was analyzed by the MIDI (Microbial ID, Inc., Newark, DE, U.S.A.) system and enumerations were performed. In relation to bacterial division of each sample, low GC Gram-positive bacteria were predominant among bacteria cultured on aerobic bacteria media. On the other hand, alpha subdivision was predominant on proteobacteria of control and OM (organic matter) 1 treated plot, and Flavobacterium spp. existed in OM2 plot on crystal violet media of all samples. Shannon-weaver Index (H) of OM1 plot varied most by 1.9 and 5.0 among bacteria cultured on aerobic bacteria media and crystal violet media, respectively. Our results revealed that addition of the organic wastes to soil led to a highly diverse microbial community, but the excessive amounts of organic and mineral fertilizer applied in the greenhouse fields produced excess nutrients in soil and led to simplification on bacterial populations.

Development of Constructed Wetland using Sand and Oyster shell for Sewage Treatment (모래와 굴패각을 이용한 인공습지 오수처리장치 개발)

  • Park, Hyun-Geoun;Lee, Chun-Sik;Lee, Hong-Jae;Seo, Dong-Cheol;Heo, Jong-Soo
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.437-446
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    • 2004
  • To develop sewage treatment apparatus by natural purification method, the sewage treatment plant that consisted of aerobic and anaerobic plot was constructed. And then, the effects of treatment conditions on the removal of pollutants in the relation to sewage loading, sewage injection method and season according to the pebble kind. Removal rate of BOD and COD according to the sewage loading in effluent were over 95 and 77%, respectively. Removal rate of nitrogen in treated water by aerobic plot and effluent using sand were about 22~40 and 49~75%, respectively. Those of effluent using sand 75%+ oyster shell 25% and sand 50%+ oyster shell 50% as filter media in comparison with using sand were about 7~25 and 16~23%, respectively. Removal rate of phosphorus in treated water by aerobic plot and effluent using sand as filter media were about 30~36 and 52~56%, respectively. Those of effluent using sand 75%+ oyster shell 25% and sand 50%+ oyster shell 50% in comparison with using sand as filter media were about 11~40 and 12~45%, respectively. Removal efficiency of BOD and COD according to the intermittent injection method of sewage were slightly decreased, but those of nitrogen and phosphorus were little varied in comparison with continuous injection method. Removal efficiency of BOD and COD in winter in comparison with the others were little varied, but those of nitrogen and phosphorus slightly decreased.

Effect of some Different Cultivating Conditions on the Growth and Uptake of Phosphorus in Garlic Plants (Allium sativum L.) (마늘(Allium Sativum L.)에 있어서 몇가지 재배조건(栽培條件)이 생육(生育) 및 인산흡수(燐酸吸收)에 미치는 영향(響影))

  • Ahn, Hak-Soo
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.11
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    • pp.167-171
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    • 1969
  • Gartic bulblets were planted to investigate the effect of some different cultivating conditions on the growth and bulb formation of the garlic plants (Allium sativum L.) Two different conditions namely perfect and imperect aerobic condition, and 3 different fertilizer levels was made. The split plot design was adopted for this experiment. 1) For the growth rate, under the imperfect aerobic condition, the plant height was more increased than that of perfect aerobic condition no relation to the fertilizer levels. 2) With respect to the fresh weight of garlic, the similar tendency to the growth rate was observed, but dry weight was did not. 3) The uptake of phosphorus was found to be increased in the imperfect condition. It could there be concluded that imperfect aerobic condition seems to be much favorable condition than the perfect aerobic condition to the development of garlic bulbs.

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Effect of Continual Application of Liquid Pig Manure on Malting Barley Growth and Soil Environment in Double Cropping System of Rice-Malting Barley (벼.맥주보리 작부체계에서 돈분액비 연용이 맥주보리 생육과 토양 환경에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Seong-Tae;Seo, Dong-Cheol;Kim, Eun-Seok;Song, Won-Doo;Lee, Won-Gyu;Heo, Jong-Soo;Lee, Young-Han
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.341-348
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    • 2010
  • To investigate the effect of continual pre-plant application of liquid pig manure (LPM) on malting barley growth, quality and soil environment in double cropping system of rice and malting barley, the liquid pig manure was applied after harvesting rice and malting barley for 3 years. Field experiment was designed with non-fertilizer, chemical fertilizer (CF) recommended by soil testing, rice (LPM 50%+CF 50%)+malting barley (CF 100%), rice (LPM 50%+CF 50%)+malting barley (LPM 50%+CF 50%), rice (LPM 100%)+malting barley (CF 100%) and rice (LPM 100%)+malting barley (LPM 100%). By continuous application of LPM 100%, the contents of available $P_2O_5$ and exchangeable K in the soil were increased. The available $P_2O_5$ increased from 243 to 350 mg $kg^{-1}$ and exchangeable K was changed 0.31 to 0.44 $cmol_{c}\;kg^{-1}$. However, the contents of available $P_2O_5$ and exchangeable K were not significant changes in rice (LPM 50%+CF 50%)+malting barley (LPM 50%+CF 50%) plot. Bulk density of soil was not affected by application of LPM. The microbial density was high in order of bacteria > actinomycetes > fungi. The population of aerobic bacteria in rice (LPM 100%)+malting barley (LPM 100%) plot was higher than other plots. The ratio of aerobic bacteria/fungi and biomass C content were the highest in rice (LPM 100%)+malting barley (LPM 100%) plot. The yield of malting barley was increased 22% by increasing culm length, panicle length, No. of panicle and 1,000 grains as 358 kg $10a^{-1}$ in rice (LPM 100%)+malting barley (LPM 100%) plot compared with 294 kg $10a^{-1}$ in rice (CF 100%)+malting barley (CF 100%) plot. The content of ${\beta}$-glucan was low by 4.5 and 4.4% in non-fertilizer and rice (CF 100%)+malting barley (CF 100%) plot, respectively. The content of crude protein was the lowest by 8.2% in non-fertilizer and rice (CF 100%)+malting barley (CF 100%) plot and the quality of malting barley was good as within 11%.

Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide by Pseudomonas carboxydohydrogena (Pseudomonas carboxydohydrogena에 의한 일산화탄소의 산화)

  • ;Hegeman, George
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.27-35
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    • 1983
  • The stoichiometry between the consumption of CO and $O_2$ and the production of $CO_2(2CO+O_2{\rightarrow}2CO_2)$) showed that Pseudomonas carboxydohydrogena grows as a typical aerobic CO oxidizer with CO. The optimal concentration of CO for growth was found to be 30% in gas mixture with air. The initial buffer concentration of the culture medium did not affect the growth of this bacterium. P. carboxydohydrogena is an obligate aerobe and dose not use nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor. The CO dehydrogenase is an inducible and soluble enzyme. The reaction rate and stability were maximal at pH7.5, and the Arrhenius plot revealed an activation energy of 37.7kJ/mol (9.0 Kcal/mol). The crude enzyme used methylene blue, thionin, and toluylene blue as electron acceptors for the oxidation of CO to $Co_2$ under anaerobic conditions. It was found that water must be the source of the second oxygen atom for CO oxidation.

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Effects of Applying Pig Slurry Fermented with Probiotics on Forage Crops Productivity and Chemical Changes in Soil (미생물 발효제 처리 돈분액비 시용이 사료작물 생산성 및 토양의 이화학적 성상에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwang, Kyung-Jun;Park, Hyung-Soo;Park, Nam-Gun;Ko, Moon-Suck;Kim, Moon-Chel;Song, Sang-Teak
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.293-300
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    • 2006
  • This study was carried out to determine the effect of chemical fertilizer and two fermented types of pig slurry on the dry matter(DM) yield of three crops and chemical properties. The experiment design was a split plot with three replications. Main plots consist of three crops : $sorghum{\times}sudangrass$ hybrid('SS405'), sudangrass('Jumbo'), corn('DK501'). Sub plots consist of three treatments : chemical fertilizer (CF N-200, P-150, K-150 kg/ha), aerobic fermented pig slurry (APS 200kg N/ha), and aerobic fermented pig slurry treated with probiotics (APS+P 200 kg N/ha). Plant heights with three crops per sudangrass (380.3cm) was the longest (p<0.01). Dry matter yield of aerobic fermented pig slurry treated with probiotics was the highest the other treatments (p<0.01). Crude protein (CP) content were highest in $sorghum{\times}sudangrass$ hybrid than in the other crops. Cupper content(%) were highest in aerobic fermented pig slurry treated with probiotics than in the other treatments.

The Properties of Livestock Waste Composts Tea Depending on Manufacturing Method and Their Effect on Chinese Cabbage Cultivation

  • Jang, Jae-Eun;Kang, Chang-Sung;Park, Jung-Soo;Kim, Sun-Jae;Kim, Hee-Dong
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.8-14
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    • 2015
  • Livestock waste compost tea is a liquid extract of compost obtained by mixing livestock compost. In this study, some chemical and microbiological characteristics of compost tea depending on the kind of raw materials used were examined, and several experiments to investigate the practical effects on Chinese cabbage cultivation were conducted. This experiment showed that livestock composts needed to be added into aerated water at the ratio between 1:100 and 1:10 (1 part compost to 10~100 parts water) to produce the high quality compost tea. Compost teas must be aerated more than 24 to 48 hours to be able to support aerobic organisms. In cultivation test with compost teas, swine manure compost teas were made by the extracting ratio of 50x, in the aerated condition for 24 hours in water and oil cake in the extracting ratio of 100x were added as supplements. Following the input of oil cake, the concentration of nitrogen and aerobic bacteria increased. Another experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different swine manure compost teas on plant growth and yield of Chinese cabbage. The fresh yield of Chinese cabbage was higher in the fertigated plots by compost tea with oil cake compared to those of N, $P_2O_5$, $K_2O$ fertilization plot with chemical fertilizer by soil test recommendation (Fert. NPK). The effect of compost tea on growth of Chinese cabbage was largely attributable to the increased number of microorganisms as well as nutrients.

Variation of Phosphorus Concentration and Redox Potential in a Paddy Field Plot During Growing Season (영농기 필지논에서의 인 (P) 농도와 산화환원전위 (Eh)의 변화 특성)

  • Kim, Young-Hyeon;Kim, Jin-Soo;Jang, Hoon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.52 no.5
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    • pp.47-52
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate characteristics of total phosphorus (TP) and phosphate phosphorous ($PO_4$-P) concentrations in ponded water and redox potential (Eh) in paddy soil during the growing season. The TP and $PO_4$-P concentrations showed twice peak values after basal dressing and tillering fertilization. The ratio of $PO_4$-P to TP showed low values (0.07~0.18), indicating that most of phosphorus is particlulate. The $PO_4$-P concentrations significantly decreased with dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. The Eh showed high values (179~636 mV) under non-ponded aerobic condition, but low values (74~112 mV) under ponded anaerobic condition The TP and $PO_4$-P concentrations in ponded water increased shortly after tillering fertilization even if phosphorus was not applied. This may be due to the release of dissolved phosphorus from the bottom sediment and its associated algal and water flea blooms under anaerobic condition. Therefore, proper water management should be needed shortly after tillering fertilization.