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A study on the figurative art expression reflected on the relationship with the animal companion and the inner self - Focusing on works by Lee Heeyeong -

  • Lee, Hee-Young;Cho, Myung-Shik
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.293-313
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    • 2016
  • The target stimulating human's sensitivity can include several things; the first is human like us including beautiful women and cute babies. The next ranking is the dog animal that established itself as a human's companion. It is the 3B law(beauty, baby, beast - much used in the ad or election due to the positive image) that is widely used in the advertising. This relationship is being expressed in the art history for a long time. Dogs that have lived a history more than 10 thousand years with humans hunted, protected flock of sheep, and kept the farmer's house and property. They have been human's assistants and companion who entered into the modern urban culture. Like this, dogs have adapted to several situations endlessly such as the nomadic life, farming, country life, and urban life. This paper will explore the close relationship of humans and companion animals through various icons of dogs and pups that appeared through a number of artists' skills. The companion animal means an animal that lives with people, which means the relationship of round-trip rather than the one-way relation those each other gives a help. Therefore, there artist tries to examine the figure of great hunter for survival, highly evaluated figure as the royal dignity, and the mascot-like figure delivering the daily happiness to modern people as presenting joy through a discussion of the 'countenance', a visual signal of the dogs and pups. They have been influenced by screen and popular media in 20C. Snoopy, a main character of and the movie <101 Dalmatians> made a success on the theater and television when Beagle and Dalmatian were prevalent. These main characters make audience feel happy involuntarily. Like this, the continuous and old friendship of the human and dogs will be confirmed again through the icon of dogs and pups consisting of the communication of artists and readers in the modern shape art, and it is hoped to be a psychological stabilizing effect to modern people living in the intense modern society. Therefore, it is expected this study paper will be reborn as a new text and be expanded as an effective communication in the journey of dogs and human in the future in investigating the communion of dogs and human.

A Study on the Online Newspaper Archive : Focusing on Domestic and International Case Studies (온라인 신문 아카이브 연구 국내외 구축 사례를 중심으로)

  • Song, Zoo Hyung
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
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    • no.48
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    • pp.93-139
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    • 2016
  • Aside from serving as a body that monitors and criticizes the government through reviews and comments on public issues, newspapers can also form and spread public opinion. Metadata contains certain picture records and, in the case of local newspapers, the former is an important means of obtaining locality. Furthermore, advertising in newspapers and the way of editing in newspapers can be viewed as a representation of the times. For the value of archiving in newspapers when a documentation strategy is established, the newspaper is considered as a top priority that should be collected. A newspaper archive that will handle preservation and management carries huge significance in many ways. Journalists use them to write articles while scholars can use a newspaper archive for academic purposes. Also, the NIE is a type of a practical usage of such an archive. In the digital age, the newspaper archive has an important position because it is located in the core of MAM, which integrates and manages the media asset. With this, there are prospects that an online archive will perform a new role in the production of newspapers and the management of publishing companies. Korea Integrated News Database System (KINDS), an integrated article database, began its service in 1991, whereas Naver operates an online newspaper archive called "News Library." Initially, KINDS received an enthusiastic response, but nowadays, the utilization ratio continues to decrease because of the omission of some major newspapers, such as Chosun Ilbo and JoongAng Ilbo, and the numerous user interface problems it poses. Despite these, however, the system still presents several advantages. For example, it is easy to access freely because there is a set budget for the public, and accessibility to local papers is simple. A national library consistently carries out the digitalization of time-honored newspapers. In addition, individual newspaper companies have also started the service, but it is not enough for such to be labeled an archive. In the United States (US), "Chronicling America"-led by the Library of Congress with funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities-is in the process of digitalizing historic newspapers. The universities of each state and historical association provide funds to their public library for the digitalization of local papers. In the United Kingdom, the British Library is constructing an online newspaper archive called "The British Newspaper Archive," but unlike the one in the US, this service charges a usage fee. The Joint Information Systems Committee has also invested in "The British Newspaper Archive," and its construction is still ongoing. ProQuest Archiver and Gale NewsVault are the representative platforms because of their efficiency and how they have established the standardization of newspapers. Now, it is time to change the way we understand things, and a drastic investment is required to improve the domestic and international online newspaper archive.

The Relationship between Internet Search Volumes and Stock Price Changes: An Empirical Study on KOSDAQ Market (개별 기업에 대한 인터넷 검색량과 주가변동성의 관계: 국내 코스닥시장에서의 산업별 실증분석)

  • Jeon, Saemi;Chung, Yeojin;Lee, Dongyoup
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.81-96
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    • 2016
  • As the internet has become widespread and easy to access everywhere, it is common for people to search information via online search engines such as Google and Naver in everyday life. Recent studies have used online search volume of specific keyword as a measure of the internet users' attention in order to predict disease outbreaks such as flu and cancer, an unemployment rate, and an index of a nation's economic condition, and etc. For stock traders, web search is also one of major information resources to obtain data about individual stock items. Therefore, search volume of a stock item can reflect the amount of investors' attention on it. The investor attention has been regarded as a crucial factor influencing on stock price but it has been measured by indirect proxies such as market capitalization, trading volume, advertising expense, and etc. It has been theoretically and empirically proved that an increase of investors' attention on a stock item brings temporary increase of the stock price and the price recovers in the long run. Recent development of internet environment enables to measure the investor attention directly by the internet search volume of individual stock item, which has been used to show the attention-induced price pressure. Previous studies focus mainly on Dow Jones and NASDAQ market in the United States. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between the individual investors' attention measured by the internet search volumes and stock price changes of individual stock items in the KOSDAQ market in Korea, where the proportion of the trades by individual investors are about 90% of the total. In addition, we examine the difference between industries in the influence of investors' attention on stock return. The internet search volume of stocks were gathered from "Naver Trend" service weekly between January 2007 and June 2015. The regression model with the error term with AR(1) covariance structure is used to analyze the data since the weekly prices in a stock item are systematically correlated. The market capitalization, trading volume, the increment of trading volume, and the month in which each trade occurs are included in the model as control variables. The fitted model shows that an abnormal increase of search volume of a stock item has a positive influence on the stock return and the amount of the influence varies among the industry. The stock items in IT software, construction, and distribution industries have shown to be more influenced by the abnormally large internet search volume than the average across the industries. On the other hand, the stock items in IT hardware, manufacturing, entertainment, finance, and communication industries are less influenced by the abnormal search volume than the average. In order to verify price pressure caused by investors' attention in KOSDAQ, the stock return of the current week is modelled using the abnormal search volume observed one to four weeks ahead. On average, the abnormally large increment of the search volume increased the stock return of the current week and one week later, and it decreased the stock return in two and three weeks later. There is no significant relationship with the stock return after 4 weeks. This relationship differs among the industries. An abnormal search volume brings particularly severe price reversal on the stocks in the IT software industry, which are often to be targets of irrational investments by individual investors. An abnormal search volume caused less severe price reversal on the stocks in the manufacturing and IT hardware industries than on average across the industries. The price reversal was not observed in the communication, finance, entertainment, and transportation industries, which are known to be influenced largely by macro-economic factors such as oil price and currency exchange rate. The result of this study can be utilized to construct an intelligent trading system based on the big data gathered from web search engines, social network services, and internet communities. Particularly, the difference of price reversal effect between industries may provide useful information to make a portfolio and build an investment strategy.

A Study on the Management of Manhwa Contents Records and Archives (만화기록 관리 방안 연구)

  • Kim, Seon Mi;Kim, Ik Han
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
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    • no.28
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    • pp.35-81
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    • 2011
  • Manhwa is a mass media (to expose all faces of an era such as politics, society, cultures, etc with the methodology of irony, parody, etc). Since the Manhwa records is primary culture infrastructure, it can create the high value-added industry by connecting with fancy, character, game, movie, drama, theme park, advertising business. However, due to lack of active and systematic aquisition system, as precious Manhwa manuscript is being lost every year and the contents hard to preserve such as Manhwa content in the form of electronic records are increasing, the countermeasure of Manhwa contents management is needed desperately. In this study, based on these perceptions, the need of Manhwa records management is examined, and the characteristics and the components of Manhwa records were analyzed. And at the same time, the functions of record management process reflecting the characteristics of Manhwa records were extracted by analyzing various cases of overseas Cartoon Archives. And then, the framework of record-keeping regime was segmented into each of acquisition management service areas and the general Manhwa records archiving strategy, which manages the Manhwa contents records, was established and suggested. The acquired Manhwa content records will secure the context among records and warrant the preservation of records and provide diverse access points by reflecting multi classification and multi-level descriptive element. The Manhwa records completed the intellectual arrangement will be preserved after the conservation in an environment equipped with preservation facilities or preserved using digital format in case of electronic records or when there is potential risk of damaging the records. Since the purpose of the Manhwa records is to use them, the information may be provided to diverse classes of users through the exhibition, the distribution, and the development of archival information content. Since the term of "Manhwa records" is unfamiliar yet and almost no study has been conducted in the perspective of records management, it will be the limit of this study only presenting acquisition strategy, management and service strategy of Manhwa contents and suggesting simple examples. However, if Manhwa records management strategy are possibly introduced practically to Manhwa manuscript repositories through archival approach, it will allow systematic acquisition, preservation, arrangement of Manhwa records and will contribute greatly to form a foundation for future Korean culture contents management.

The Formation and Types of Business Archives m Germany (독일 경제아카이브즈의 형성과 유형)

  • Kim, Young-Ae
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
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    • no.8
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    • pp.137-180
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    • 2003
  • The term 'Business Archives' is not familiar with us in our society. Some cases can be found that materials are collected for publishing the history of a firm on commemoration of some decades of its foundation. However, the appropriate management of these collected materials doesn't seem to be followed in most of companies. The Records and archives management is inevitable in order to maximize the utility of Information and knowledge in the business world. The interest in records management has been grown, especially in the fields of business management and information technology. However, the importance of business archives hasn't been conceived yet. And also no attention has been paid to the business archives as social resources and the responsibility of the society as a whole for their preservation. The company archives doesn't have a long history in Germany although the archives of the nation, the aristocracy, communes and churches have a long tradition. However the company archives of Krupps which was established in 1905, is regarded as the first business archives in the world, It means that Germany has taken a key role to lead the culture of business archives. This paper focuses on the process of the establishment of business archives in Germany and its characteristics. The business archives in Germany can be categorized in three types: company archives, regional business archives and branch archives. It must be noted here that each type of these was generated in the context of the accumulation of the social resources and its effective use. A company archives is established by an individual company for the preservation of and use of the archives that originated in the company. The holdings in the company archives can be used as materials for decision making of policies, reporting, advertising, training of employees etc. They function not only as sources inside the company, but also as raw sources for the scholars, contributing to the study of the social-economic history. Some archives of German companies are known as a center of research. A regional business archives manages materials which originated m commerce chambers, associations and companies in a certain region. There are 6 regional business archives in Germany. They collect business archives which aren't kept in a proper way or are under pressure of damage in the region for which they are responsible. They are also open to the public offering the sources for the study of economic history, social history like company archives, so that they also play a central role as a research center. Branch business archives appeared relatively late in Germany. The first one is established in Bochum in 1969. Its general duties and goals are almost similar with ones of other two types of archives. It has differences in two aspects. One is that the responsibility of the branch business archives covers all the country, while regional business archives collects archives in a particular region. The other is that a branch business archives collects materials from a single industry. For example, the holdings of Bochum archives are related with the mining industry. The mining industry-specialized Bochum archives is run as an organization in combination with a museum, which is called as German mine museum, so that it plays a role as a cultural center with the functions of exhibition and research. The three types of German business archives have their own functions but they are also closely related each other under the German Association of Business Archivists. They are sharing aims to preserve primary materials with historical values in the field of economy and also contribute to keeping the archives as a social resources by having feed back with the public, which leads the archives to be a center of information and research. The German case shows that business archives in a society should be preserved not only for the interest of the companies, but also for the utilities of social resources. It also shows us how business archives could be preserved as a social resource. It is expected that some studies which approach more deeply on this topic will be followed based on the considerations from the German case.

The Feminine Factor of the Therapeutic Landscape by Water from a Perspective of the Japanese Hot Spring (일본 온천을 중심으로 본 물을 매개로 하는 치유의 경관에서의 여성적 요소)

  • Park, Sookyung
    • Journal of the Korean association of regional geographers
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.529-552
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the matter as to how the meaning of the physical therapeutic landscape by water, which is associated with physical, cultural, spatial, and economical aspects, appears in the space centering on women and is to look into the feminine factors in term of a rest area, consideration, and imagery for women. From a perspective of a rest area for women, the meaning of a physical aspect is remarkable and is materialized in thermal waters and bathing, atmosphere, subsidiary facilities and safe nightlife. According to these phenomena, female visitors are able to feel freedom, power, which can return themselves to the best condition by thermal waters, therapeutic equipments provided in a watering place continuously, safe protection and exchange with strangers with an open mind. And the cultural aspect of the therapeutic landscape by water is discovered in consideration for women. It is the fact that joins the Japanese culture based on consideration towards others to the traditional culture of hot springs by itself. For example, women can feel various pleasure, experience the protection or the support by someone and pursuit not only physical beauty but also mental or spiritual one through welcome bus, service of Okami san and Nakai san, decorations, funny installments and secure of private space. Lastly, the imagery of women can be identified in cultural, spatial, and economical aspects extensively somewhat and is embodied by advertising mediums, signs of hot springs, shrines, objets and products variously. It is made into healthiness, relaxation, comfort, familiarity and image that are realized to love or are connected to a happy marriage life. To sum up the results, the healing or therapeutic elements for women appearing in hot springs are gathered to some abstraction such as freedom, safe, effect beyond the body, pleasure, durability of healing or therapy, beauty and hope; furthermore, if these abstraction are combined each other closely, the effect of healing or therapy, which transforms anxiety into a stable condition, can be exposed externally.

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Types of Scenic Sites of State-Designated Cultural Property and Relationship between Pal-Kyung and Doncheon-Gugok (국가 지정 문화재 '명승'의 유형과 팔경(八景), 동천구곡(洞天九曲)과의 연관성)

  • Rho, Jae Hyun;Shin, Sang Sup
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.128-159
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    • 2010
  • In this study, the progress of domestic cultural properties designation, the changes and problems in classification were examined, and the relationship among Traditional Pal-kyung, Dongcheon-gukok, and Modern Pal-kyung were investigated targeting total of 68 cases of state-designated cultural properties of scenic sites in order to show that the traditional significance and value are being inherited today. The major results of this study are as follows. First, increase in scenic site designations with historical, cultural, and scenic characteristics can be viewed as an active intent to embrace the concepts such as cultural utilities, historical characteristics, literary value, and ideological backgrounds, which were specified as the basis for designation in the early Cultural Property Protection Law. Accordingly, it is very encouraging that the concept of cultural attractions such as traditional gardens and observatory points are regarded as an important standard for designation of scenic sites. Second, as for the classification of scenic sites per type, it was found that 'places with excellent natural scenery' were 44.16%(30 cases), followed by 'famous buildings or gardens and places with important legend' occupying 30.9%(21 cases), 'places with famous scenery' occupying 13.2%(9 cases), 'places with outstanding historical cultural and scenic value' that occupying 10.3%(7 cases), and 'animal and vegetation habitat with beautiful scenery' (1 case). Third, according to the current classification standards for scenic sites, there were only 7 cases which could be classified into Pal-kyungs(Famous 8 Sceneries) and 3 cases classified into Dongcheon(beautiful scenery surrounded by mountains and rivers), but there was no Gugok(beautiful valleys). Consequently, in terms of external appearance, the scenic sites among the total scenic sites that could be classified into Palkyung and Gugok were only 14.7%(10 cases). Fourth, the traditional scenic sites based on literal references and Internet analysis occupied 67.7%(46 cases), which were found to be scenic sites related to the traditional Pal-kyung among which 38 cases(55.9% of 46 cases) were included based on the scenery and 8 cases(11.8% of 46 cases) were included due to the scenery at the time. Fifth, there were 8(11.8%) scenic sites which were related to Dongcheon, and 4 cases(5.9%) related to Gugok. Also, it was found that total of 40(48.9%) scenic sites designated as modern scenic sites were playing the role of local scenic sites, and they were used as the tourism advertising contents. Sixth, it was identified that there were 62 cases(91.2%) of scenic sites in total related to traditional and modern Pal-kyung or Dongcheon-gugok, and unlike explicit classifications, most of the designated scenic sites were found to be deeply connected with the historical and cultural significance contained in the scenaries.

Review of 2019 Major Medical Decisions (2019년 주요 의료판결 분석)

  • Yoo, Hyun Jung;Park, Noh Min;Jeong, Hye Seung;Lee, Dong Pil;Lee, Jung Sun;Park, Tae Shin
    • The Korean Society of Law and Medicine
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.107-152
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    • 2020
  • During the main ruling in 2019, a number of rulings that were of interest or meaningful were handed down, such as just because the complication of medical practice has occurred, there is no presumption of negligence, a case involving a fall accident in which a lot of culpability has recently been made. the death of a well-known singer that caused a sensation, a case about damages caused by MERS in 2015, which is more meaningful in connection with damages caused by COVID-19, an infectious disease that has recently hit the world, including Korea. In preaching the principles of the law, just because there has been a complication caused by medical practice, there is no presumption of negligence, 'The scope of the complication without presumption of negligence' was determined differently by the court, the court was not able to specify the criteria. Specific circumstances were presented to limit the responsibility of the medical institution while acknowledging the malpractice of the medical institution in relation to the fall accident. In relation to the scope of damages, judgment was made on issues related to the calculation of lost profits of medical malpractice; criteria for determining celebrities' daily income, criteria for determining daily income in case of receiving survivor's pension due to medical accident, an incident in which the daily income is denied if the labor capacity is already lost at the time of a medical accident. But, it seems that judgments should be made based on clearer and more reasonable standards. Related to Medical Advertise, specific logic of judgment was presented as to whether it was interpreted as being in accordance with the specific prohibition listed in Article 27 paragraph 3 of the Medical Law, which is the criterion for violation of the Medical Law, or if it constitutes a significant harm to the order of the medical market. In response to the prohibition of operating the multiple medical institutions, the Constitutional Court decided that it was constitutional because it did not violate the regulations on excessive funding, and rationally limited the scope of the prohibited 'redundant operation'. The Supreme Court ruled for the first time that even a medical institution established and operated in violation of the Medical Service Act did not make it impossible to receive all medical care benefits implemented by a medical institution under the National Health Insurance Act. Significant rulings were finalized that recognized the existence of specific protection obligations for the people of the country in the management of infectious diseases.

The Effect of College students' Perceived Marketing Communication, Value and Consumption Emotion on Store Loyalty in Discount Store (대학생들이 지각하는 종합슈퍼마켓의 마케팅 커뮤니케이션, 가치, 소비감정이 점포충성도에 미치는 영향)

  • Yang, Hoe-Chang;Ju, Yoon-Hwang
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.19-28
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    • 2012
  • Rapidly growing sales amount and the number of discount stores caused many side effects and sensitive issues in Korea. Because these severe competition due to more expensive cost just like excessive increase in advertising and location selection, and these caused completely ruined small merchants as well as passed on to the consumer. This Study focused on competitiveness of discount store in Korea to the perspective of college students, as explored the relationships between marketing communication and store loyalty. And, examined for two moderating effect, 1) consumers' value separated by hedonic value and utilitarian value between marketing communication and store loyalty, and 2) consumers' value separated by hedonic value and utilitarian value between marketing communication and consumption emotion. Finally, this study examined for mediating effect of consumption emotion between marketing communication and store loyalty. In order to verify the relationship, moderating and mediating effects, data were collected from 130 college students in Whasung, Gyeonggi Province to test theoretical model and its hypotheses. Findings are as followed : First, analysis showed that factors such as advertisement(β =.221, p<.05), publicity(β =.513, p<.01), sales promotion(β =.234, p<.01), word of mouth(β =.627, p<.01) and physical environment(β =.339, p<.01) for marketing communication in the discount store have statistically significant positive effect on store loyalty. But the result of regression analysis for which factors are more impact in marketing communication between store loyalty showed that word of mouth(β =.53, p<.01) is only statistically significant. Second, publicity(β =-.895, p<.05), the sub-dimension of marketing communication shows only statistically significant negative moderating effect on store loyalty. But, the results of the moderating effect of value between marketing communication and consumption emotion verified that utilitarian value show statistically significant, specifically advertisement(β =.294, p<.01), physical environment(β =.418, p<.01), sales promotion(β =.245, p<.01), word of mouth(β =.414, p<.01) and publicity(β =1.137, p<.05), respectively. And hedonic value show statistically significant, specifically advertisement(β =.286, p<.01), physical environment (β =.418, p<.01), sales promotion(β =.236, p<.01) and word of mouth(β =.420, p<.01), respectively. But publicity(β =.145, p=.119) is not statistically significant. Finally, the results verified mediating effect for consumption emotion between all factors for marketing communication and store loyalty showed that factors such as advertisement, publicity, word of mouth and physical environment for marketing communication except sales promotion were statistically significant fully mediated in advertisement, and partially mediated in publicity, word of mouth and physical environment. This testified that the consumption emotion had the most important factor to enhance store loyalty to the perspective of College students. These results can provide important implications and invaluable tips for planning marketing strategies and gaining access to new potential customers. Implications and future research directions are also discussed.

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A Study on Public Interest-based Technology Valuation Models in Water Resources Field (수자원 분야 공익형 기술가치평가 시스템에 대한 연구)

  • Ryu, Seung-Mi;Sung, Tae-Eung
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.177-198
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    • 2018
  • Recently, as economic property it has become necessary to acquire and utilize the framework for water resource measurement and performance management as the property of water resources changes to hold "public property". To date, the evaluation of water technology has been carried out by feasibility study analysis or technology assessment based on net present value (NPV) or benefit-to-cost (B/C) effect, however it is not yet systemized in terms of valuation models to objectively assess an economic value of technology-based business to receive diffusion and feedback of research outcomes. Therefore, K-water (known as a government-supported public company in Korea) company feels the necessity to establish a technology valuation framework suitable for technical characteristics of water resources fields in charge and verify an exemplified case applied to the technology. The K-water evaluation technology applied to this study, as a public interest goods, can be used as a tool to measure the value and achievement contributed to society and to manage them. Therefore, by calculating the value in which the subject technology contributed to the entire society as a public resource, we make use of it as a basis information for the advertising medium of performance on the influence effect of the benefits or the necessity of cost input, and then secure the legitimacy for large-scale R&D cost input in terms of the characteristics of public technology. Hence, K-water company, one of the public corporation in Korea which deals with public goods of 'water resources', will be able to establish a commercialization strategy for business operation and prepare for a basis for the performance calculation of input R&D cost. In this study, K-water has developed a web-based technology valuation model for public interest type water resources based on the technology evaluation system that is suitable for the characteristics of a technology in water resources fields. In particular, by utilizing the evaluation methodology of the Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in Japan to match the expense items to the expense accounts based on the related benefit items, we proposed the so-called 'K-water's proprietary model' which involves the 'cost-benefit' approach and the FCF (Free Cash Flow), and ultimately led to build a pipeline on the K-water research performance management system and then verify the practical case of a technology related to "desalination". We analyze the embedded design logic and evaluation process of web-based valuation system that reflects characteristics of water resources technology, reference information and database(D/B)-associated logic for each model to calculate public interest-based and profit-based technology values in technology integrated management system. We review the hybrid evaluation module that reflects the quantitative index of the qualitative evaluation indices reflecting the unique characteristics of water resources and the visualized user-interface (UI) of the actual web-based evaluation, which both are appended for calculating the business value based on financial data to the existing web-based technology valuation systems in other fields. K-water's technology valuation model is evaluated by distinguishing between public-interest type and profitable-type water technology. First, evaluation modules in profit-type technology valuation model are designed based on 'profitability of technology'. For example, the technology inventory K-water holds has a number of profit-oriented technologies such as water treatment membranes. On the other hand, the public interest-type technology valuation is designed to evaluate the public-interest oriented technology such as the dam, which reflects the characteristics of public benefits and costs. In order to examine the appropriateness of the cost-benefit based public utility valuation model (i.e. K-water specific technology valuation model) presented in this study, we applied to practical cases from calculation of benefit-to-cost analysis on water resource technology with 20 years of lifetime. In future we will additionally conduct verifying the K-water public utility-based valuation model by each business model which reflects various business environmental characteristics.