• Title, Summary, Keyword: adverse influence

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Analysis of the Korea Food and Drug Administration Adverse Drug Reaction Reports (식품의약품안전청 약물유해반응 보고자료 분석)

  • Rhew, Ki-Yon;Lee, Suk-Hyang
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.138-144
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    • 2011
  • In order to minimize such adverse drug reactions, governments and international organs have been on the watch for them. Also in South Korea, a system has been established in order that adverse drug reactions may be reported to Korea Food and Drug Administration(KFDA). This study is to analyze drugs to cause adverse reactions, the adverse reactions and patients concerned on the authority of the data of Korea FDA, which is expected to be the preliminary data on preventable adverse reactions. This study was conducted on the 74,037 cases of adverse drug reactions reported to Korea FDA between January 2007 and June 2010. Fentanyl, iopromide and tramadol caused adverse reactions with high frequencies. Oseltamivir showed a high frequency between 2009 and 2010 due to the influence of the new influenza A. Also, OTC drugs accounted for approximately 5% of the adverse reactions. In 2009, adverse drug reactions remarkably increased (2,106 cases; 10.1%) in infants and children due to the new influenza-A(H1N1). The patients aged between 31 and 64 accounted for approximately 55% during the given period. There was no significant intergender difference. In relation to regions, the adverse reactions most frequently occurred in the gastrointestinal system and the integumentary system for three and half years. In addition to anticancer drugs and immunosuppressive drugs that are known to cause adverse reactions frequently, not a few of OTC drugs and external preparations caused such reactions. In particular, the drugs containing specific ingredients caused adverse reactions more frequently than others from 2007 until the first half of 2010. It is advisable for prescribers to acquaint themselves with such adverse reactions and to prescribe drugs other than them. They also have need to sensibly cope with adverse drug reactions just in case they have no substitute drugs. In addition, patients also need to be trained to understand possible adverse reactions in order that they can sensibly accommodate them or choose healthcare services. The results of this study are expected to be helpful to minimize adverse drug reactions.

Effect of bleaching on human teeth and reduced treatment on negative influence -Review (치아 미백제가 치아에 미치는 영향과 부작용 최소화를 위한 처치에 관한 고찰)

  • Choi, Jae-Yoon;Shim, Youn-Soo
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.481-493
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of the review article was to summarize and discuss the available information concerning the effect of bleaching on human teeth and reduced treatment on negative influence. Tooth bleaching effect was differ from extent of concentration and application period of a tooth bleaching agent, certainly full knowledge prior treatment about adverse effect possible appearance and follow clinical treatment for the least reduce. It remains unclear in how far those observation may result in significant adverse effect under clinical conditions. Nevertheless, further investigation are necessary to elucidate these aspect more precisely. The findings of the study were as follows : 1. It is recommended to delay placement of restorations after termination of bleaching therapy for at least 1-3 weeks. 2. Reduced negative influence that is clinical feasibility of catalase in protecting bleached surface against Oxygen radical. 3. The residual peroxide in tooth after bleaching seems to be removed by gradual diffusion and it may be possible to eliminate the adverse effect on tooth by using water displacement solution, ethylalcohol and aceton including it for effective removal of free radical oxygen.

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Case Study of Western-Oriental Medication Combination Treatment for Helicobacter pylori Infection (헬리코박터 파일로리 감염의 한.양약 병용치료 효과 및 안전성에 관한 증례 보고)

  • Bae, Su-Hyun;Park, Seon-Young;Jin, Myung-Ho;Park, Sang-Eun;Hong, Sang-Hoon
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.381-385
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    • 2012
  • We investigated the eradication rate and the adverse effects of combined treatment with western and oriental medication on Helicobacter pylori infected patients. We studied the eradication rate and the adverse effects of 1-week-triple therapy and 2-week-oriental medication(Banhasasimtang or Hyangsapeungeuysan) on Helicobacter pylori infected patients confirmed by urea breath test. Comparing 5 patients who took combined treatment with western and oriental medication, the results of this study showed that 4 patients got eradication effect of Helicobacter pylori with no influence on liver and kidney function. A patient had diarrhea and another patient had satiety after meals because of an adverse effect. Despite some possitive effect, the treatment did not make the Quality of Life improved. The findings of this study supports the adverse effects of combined treatment with western and oriental medication for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection.

Phasor Estimation Method Eliminating the Effect of the DC offsets (DC 옵셋의 영향을 제거한 페이저 연산 기법)

  • Lee, Dong-Gyu;Kim, Hyung-Kyu;Kwon, Young-Jin;Kang, Sang-Hee
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.203_204
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    • 2009
  • In this paper, we propose a Fourier transform-based modified phasor estimation method to eliminate the adverse influence of exponentially decaying DC offsets. Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is generally used to calculate the phasor of the fundamental frequency component in digital protective relays. However, the output of the DFT contains an error due to exponentially decaying DC offsets. Therefore, the decaying DC components should be taken into consideration when calculating the phasor of the fundamental frequency component of a relaying signal. In this paper, the error due to DC offsets in a DFT is calculated and eliminated using the outputs of quaternity DFT, so that the phasor of the fundamental component can be accurately estimated. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by using computer-simulated signals and EMTP-generated signals. A performance evaluation showed that the proposed algorithm was not affected by system and fault conditions. Thus, the proposed algorithm can effectively suppress the adverse influence of DC offsets in a relaying signal.

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Investigation of Affect on Composting process and plant growth of Salt concetration in food waste (음식물쓰레기 염분(NaCl)농도가 퇴비화 및 식물성장에 미치는 영향)

  • Phae, Chae-Gun;Chu, Yo-Sub;Park, Jeong-Soo
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.103-111
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate influence of NaCl precisely in recycling process of food waste and in places where food waste compost is used, because NaCl with food waste has caused concerns of adverse effects in the process of food waste recycling and in plates where final products is used. The influence of NaCl in composting was measured through temperature, concentration of carbon dioxide ($CO_2$) and pH. NaCl didn't cause bad effects until 1%(wet base) of NaCl concentration for composting, showed adverse effects gradually at 2% and 3% and affected composting deeply at 6%. The influence of NaCl in composting was insignificant until 3% of NaCl concentration but decomposing efficiency of organic compounds was interfered with more than 3%. NaCl concentration has to be maintained less than 1%(wet base) to minimize adverse effects of NaCl in composting however NaCl concentration with food waste used in real composting facilities is so lower than 1 %(wet base) that the bad influence in food waste composting is slight. Compost(final product) was collected from real food waste recycling facilities in A city, S city, K-Gu and S-Gu and controlled NaCl concentration artificially such as 0.5%, 0.8%, 1.2%, 1.6%, 2.0%, 2.5% and 3.0% to investigate influence of NaCl on growth of plants. In results of plant test and pot experiment, according to quality of compost sampled, the influence of NaCl is insufficient until 3% and bad effects appeared clearly more than 3%. The bad effects showed less than 3% because compost sampled was not stabilized fully.

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The Influence of Rear-seat Occupants on Front-seat Occupant Fatalities

  • Park, Seong-Il
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Industrial Engineers
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.25-36
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    • 1992
  • A possible adverse effect on the likelihood of front-seat occupant fatalities from unbelted rear-seat occupants in frontal crashes is investigated using Fatal Accident Reporting System data. Passenger cars which sustained frontal damage and which did not roll over are included in this analysis. Of the frontally damaged cars, only cars containing a driver and a right-front passenger are selected. Then, from these cars, the following three cases are considered: a) left-rear occupant present, b) right-rear occupant present, and c) no one else in the car. Cars belonging to a) or b) contain only three occupants, and those belonging to the last case contain only two occupants. In addition, all occupants are unbelted. To estimate the influence of rear-seat occupants on front-seat occupant fatalities, relative risks of driver and right-front passenger fatalities are compared pairwise across these three cases. The adverse influence of unbelted rear-seat occupants on the likelihood of unbelted front-seat occupant fatalities in frontal crashes is estimated to be 7.9% ${\pm}$ 45%(the error limits indicate one standard error). In other words, front-seat occupant fatalities are increased 7.9% in frontal crashes due to the loadings from unbelted rear-seat occupants. This suggests that the usage of safety belts by rear-seat occupants not only may extend their own lives but also helps in reducing the fatalities of front-seat occupants seated in front of them.

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How Does Technostress Influence Employees' Role and Performance in An Organization?: The Moderating Effect of Innovation Support (조직 내 기술스트레스가 역할과 성과에 미치는 영향: 혁신지원의 조절효과)

  • Kim, Geuna;Kim, Sanghyun
    • Information Systems Review
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.97-124
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    • 2014
  • This study applies the concepts of sociotechnical theory and role theory in order to verify the effects of stress (that is, technostress) created from information and computer technology (ICT) concerning role stress and performance. We suggest diverse perspectives concerning the elements leading to technostress along with the stress-creating process of ICT among organizational members. The following four major hypotheses are proposed: (1) Technostress is positively related to role stress (e.g., conflict and overload of roles), adverse psychological outcomes, and adverse IS use related outcomes, (2) Role conflict is positively related to adverse psychological outcomes and adverse IS use related outcomes, (3) Role overload is positively related to adverse psychological outcomes and adverse IS use related outcomes, and (4) Innovation support will play as a moderator between technostress, roles tress, adverse psychological outcomes and adverse IS use related outcomes. A partial least square (PLS) with data gathered data from ICT users of organizations was used to verify the proposed hypotheses. The results supported our claims excluding the hypothesis associated to the relationship between technostress and role stress. We suggest a theoretical implication based on the verification of technostress related to the current concept of stress experienced by individuals within organizations. We also propose that a practical implication concerning the opposite effect of technostress, can be utilized as a method of reducing role stress, and suggests a diagnostic tool for assessing the degree of technostress within organizations.

Genetic Variations of ABCC2 Gene Associated with Adverse Drug Reactions to Valproic Acid in Korean Epileptic Patients

  • Yi, Ji Hyun;Cho, Yang-Je;Kim, Won-Joo;Lee, Min Goo;Lee, Ji Hyun
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.254-262
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    • 2013
  • The multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2, ABCC2) gene may determine individual susceptibility to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the central nervous system (CNS) by limiting brain access of antiepileptic drugs, especially valproic acid (VPA). Our objective was to investigate the effect of ABCC2 polymorphisms on ADRs caused by VPA in Korean epileptic patients. We examined the association of ABCC2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotype frequencies with VPA related to adverse reactions. In addition, the association of the polymorphisms with the risk of VPA related to adverse reactions was estimated by logistic regression analysis. A total of 41 (24.4%) patients had shown VPA-related adverse reactions in CNS, and the most frequent symptom was tremor (78.0%). The patients with CNS ADRs were more likely to have the G allele (79.3% vs. 62.7%, p=0.0057) and the GG genotype (61.0% vs. 39.7%, p=0.019) at the g.-1774delG locus. The frequency of the haplotype containing g.-1774Gdel was significantly lower in the patients with CNS ADRs than without CNS ADRs (15.8% vs. 32.3%, p=0.0039). Lastly, in the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the presence of the GG genotype at the g.-1774delG locus was identified as a stronger risk factor for VPA related to ADRs (odds ratio, 8.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 70.17). We demonstrated that ABCC2 polymorphisms may influence VPA-related ADRs. The results above suggest the possible usefulness of ABCC2 gene polymorphisms as a marker for predicting response to VPA-related ADRs.

Influence of Adverse Childhood Experiences, Anxiety on Internet Addiction Risk of the Probation Youth (보호관찰 청소년의 성장기 부정적 경험과 불안이 인터넷중독 위험성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jaekyoung;Chung, Sulki;Kim, Jiseon;Lee, Kyeseong
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.103-115
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    • 2016
  • This study aims to examine the structural relationship between adverse childhood experience, anxiety, and internet addiction among youth probationers. The sample included 200 young probationers in Seoul probations office who were asked to fill out a self-administered survey questionnaire. Results from path analysis showed that adverse childhood experience positively influenced the risk for internet addiction (${\beta}=.396$, p<.05), and higher anxiety also predicted the internet addiction (${\beta}=.131$, p<.01). Mediating effect of anxiety between the adverse childhood experience and internet addiction was also confirmed. The study results indicated that prevention efforts for internet addiction is needed for this vulnerable population, and also implied the need to focus on dealing with childhood experience and anxiety in order to prevent problems related to internet addiction.

Distance Relaying Algorithm Using a DFT-based Modified Phasor Estimation Method (DFT 기반의 개선된 페이저 연산 기법을 적용한 거리계전 알고리즘)

  • Lee, Dong-Gyu;Kang, Sang-Hee
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.59 no.8
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    • pp.1360-1365
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    • 2010
  • In this paper, we propose a distance relaying algorithm using a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)-based modified phasor estimation method to eliminate the adverse influence of exponentially decaying DC offsets. Most distance relays are based on estimating phasors of the voltage and current signals. A DFT is generally used to calculate the phasor of the fundamental frequency component in digital protective relays. However, the output of the DFT contains an error due to exponentially decaying DC offsets. For this reason, distance relays have a tendency to over-reach or under-reach in the presence of DC offset components in a fault current. Therefore, the decaying DC components should be taken into consideration when calculating the phasor of the fundamental frequency component of a relaying signal. The error due to DC offsets in a DFT is calculated and eliminated using the outputs of an even-sample-set DFT and an odd-sample-set DFT, so that the phasor of the fundamental component can be accurately estimated. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated for a-phase to ground faults on a 345 kV, 50 km, simple overhead transmission line. The Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP) is used to generate fault signals. The evaluation results indicate that adopting the proposed algorithm in distance relays can effectively suppress the adverse influence of DC offsets.