• Title, Summary, Keyword: advanced stage

Search Result 1,930, Processing Time 0.064 seconds

Effect of Hydronephrosis on Survival in Advanced Stage Cervical Cancer

  • Goklu, Mehmet Rifat;Seckin, Kerem Doga;Togrul, Cihan;Goklu, Yasemin;Tahaoglu, Ali Emre;Oz, Murat;Ertas, Ibrahim Egemen
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.16 no.10
    • /
    • pp.4219-4222
    • /
    • 2015
  • Background: Hydronephrosis is frequently encountered in advanced stage cervical cancers, and may be associated with mortality. In the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the effect of hydronephrosis on survival in patients with inoperable advanced stage cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: The study data were acquired by retrospective analysis of the patient records belonging to 165 women with FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage-IIIB or more advanced cervical cancer, which were not surgical candidates. Parameters including patient age, pathological diagnosis, disease stage, pelvic sidewall extension, presence of hydronephrosis and administration of chemoradiation were analyzed. Further, the effects of these variables on survival were assessed. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The distribution of the study patients according to disease stage was as follows: 131 (79.4%) had stage-IIIB, 18 (10.9%) had stage-IVB and 16 (% 9.7) patients had stage-IVA disease. Hydronephrosis was not evident in 91 (55.2%) of these patients, whereas 41 (24.8%) had unilateral and 33 (20%) patients had bilateral hydronephrosis. When compared to mean survival in patients who did not have hydronephrosis, survival was significantly shortened in patients who had bilateral and unilateral hydronephrosis (p<0.05). There was no significant survival difference between patients with unilateral and bilateral hydronephrosis (p>0.05). Although patient age, pathological type, pelvic involvement, and chemotherapy treatment rates were similar (p>0.05), radiotherapy requirement rate and disease stage were significantly different among the study groups (p<0.05). Conclusions: Hydronephrosis was found to be a significant predictor of poor survival in patients with advanced stage cervical cancer, irrespective of unilateral or bilateral involvement.While waiting for future studies with larger sample sizes, we believe that the FIGO stages in advanced cervical cancer could further be stratified into subgroups according to presence or absence of hydronephrosis.

Dynamic displacement estimation by fusing biased high-sampling rate acceleration and low-sampling rate displacement measurements using two-stage Kalman estimator

  • Kim, Kiyoung;Choi, Jaemook;Koo, Gunhee;Sohn, Hoon
    • Smart Structures and Systems
    • /
    • v.17 no.4
    • /
    • pp.647-667
    • /
    • 2016
  • In this paper, dynamic displacement is estimated with high accuracy by blending high-sampling rate acceleration data with low-sampling rate displacement measurement using a two-stage Kalman estimator. In Stage 1, the two-stage Kalman estimator first approximates dynamic displacement. Then, the estimator in Stage 2 estimates a bias with high accuracy and refines the displacement estimate from Stage 1. In the previous Kalman filter based displacement techniques, the estimation accuracy can deteriorate due to (1) the discontinuities produced when the estimate is adjusted by displacement measurement and (2) slow convergence at the beginning of estimation. To resolve these drawbacks, the previous techniques adopt smoothing techniques, which involve additional future measurements in the estimation. However, the smoothing techniques require more computational time and resources and hamper real-time estimation. The proposed technique addresses the drawbacks of the previous techniques without smoothing. The performance of the proposed technique is verified under various dynamic loading, sampling rate and noise level conditions via a series of numerical simulations and experiments. Its performance is also compared with those of the existing Kalman filter based techniques.

A study on fine actuating stage for autofocus by using flexure-hinge type lever mechanism (탄성 힌지 타입 레버 메커니즘을 이용한 자동 초점 조절 미세구동장치에 대한 연구)

  • Lee J.S.;Hong S.I.;Kim H.S.;Jang H.K.;Lee K.D.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.665-666
    • /
    • 2006
  • In precision laser microfabrication, focusing is essential to acquire good machining precision and uniform machining quality. If it does not perform, laser machining cannot be realized. So, confocal scanning method with high depth resolution is used for focus detection technique. This paper is concerned with a procedure for design, analysis and performance test of an autofocus fine actuating stage, which is composed of flexure-hinge type lever mechanism and piezoelectric actuator. Through series of analytical design, the stage is simplified as a rigid bodies(lever and main body) and springs(flexure hinges). The simplified model was applied to determine the dimension of flexure hinges and lever. After structural analysis confirmed design requirement, an actual stage was made and verified through an experiment on the static and dynamic characteristics(maximum stroke and 1st natural frequency). The fabricated stage was satisfied with the design requirement.

  • PDF

Lack of any Prognostic Relationship between Adiponectin Receptor (Adipo R1/R2) Expression for Early/Advanced Stage Gastric Cancer

  • Ayyildiz, Talat;Dolar, Enver;Ugras, Nesrin;Dizdar, Oguzhan Sitki;Adim, Saduman Balaban;Yerci, Omer
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.15 no.11
    • /
    • pp.4711-4716
    • /
    • 2014
  • Introduction: Adiponectin (ApN) is a complement C1q-related protein, mainly secreted from adipose tissue, that signals through ApN receptor1 (Adipo-R1) and ApN receptor 2 (Adipo-R2). Low serum ApN concentrations are associated with obesity-related malignancies. However, there are very few studies on any prognostic role of ApN receptors in gastric cancer. Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between AdipoR1/R2 expression and early/advanced stage gastric cancer in terms of clinicopathologic characteristics and survival. Materials and Methods: Eighteen patients with early and 39 with advanced stage gastric cancer who underwent surgical gastric resection were included in this study. Results: Adipo-R1 expression was low in 2 of the 18 patients with early stage gastric cancer (11.1%), while 4 had low Adipo-R2 expression (22.2%). In those with advanced stage gastric cancer, 7 of 39 had low Adipo-R1 expression (17.9%) and 16 had low Adipo-R2 expression (41%). Adipo-R2 expression was significantly higher (p=0.011) in moderately differentiated tumors when compared to well-differentiated tumors. While there was nearly a statistically significant relationship between TNM stage (T, tumor size; N, regional lymph node; M, whether distant metastases exist) and Adipo-R2 expression (p=0.054), there was no relationship between Adipo-R1/-R2 expression with tumor stage and survival. Conclusion: Adipo-R1/-R2 expression has no prognostic significance of in early/advanced stage gastric cancer.

Recovery of Lactic Acid from Fermentation Broth by the Two-Stage Process of Nanofiltration and Water-Splitting Electrodialysis

  • Lee, Eun-Gyo;Kang, Sang-Hyeon;Kim, Hyun-Han;Chang, Yong-Keun
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
    • /
    • v.11 no.4
    • /
    • pp.313-318
    • /
    • 2006
  • A two-stage process of nanofiltration and water-splitting electrodialysis was investigated for lactic acid recovery from fermentation broth. In this process, sodium lactate is isolated from fermentation broth in the first stage of nanofiltration by using an NTR-729HF membrane, and then is converted to lactic acid in the second stage by water-splitting electrodialysis. To determine the optimal operating conditions for nanofiltration, the effects of pressure, lactate concentration, pH, and known added impurities were studied. Lactate rejection was less than 5%, magnesium rejection approximated 45%, and calcium rejection was at 40%. In subsequent water-splitting electrodialysis, both the sodium lactate conversion to lactic acid and sodium hydroxide recovery, were about 95%, with a power requirement of $0.9{\sim}1.0\; kWh$ per kg of lactate.

A Modularized Two-Stage Charge Equalization Converter for Series Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Strings

  • Kim, Chol-Ho;Park, Hong-Sun;Moon, Gun-Woo
    • Proceedings of the KIPE Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.535-537
    • /
    • 2008
  • This paper proposes a modularized two-stage charge equalization converter for a series-connected lithium-ion battery string. In this paper, the series-connected battery sting is modularized into M modules, and each module has K cells in series. With this modularization, low voltage stress on the electronic devices can be achieved. A two-stage dc-dc converter with cell selection switches is employed. The first stage dc-dc converter steps down the high bus voltage to about 10 V. The second stage dc-dc converter integrated with selection switches equalizes the cell voltages. A prototype for 88 lithium-ion battery cells is optimally designed and implemented. Experimental results verify that the proposed equalization method has good cell balancing performance showing low voltage stress, small size, and low cost.

  • PDF

Real-time Human Behavior and Object Tracking for Interactive lighting System (상호작용 조명 시스템을 위한 실시간 인체 움직임 및 객체 추적)

  • Park, Wang-Bae;Seo, Yung-Ho;Jung, Da-Un;Doo, Kyoung-Soo;Choi, Jong-Soo
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.937-938
    • /
    • 2008
  • Spotlight system has been made use of art works on stage such as musical and performance etc. Currently, spotlight is controlled manually through the planned path in advance. Therefore, automatic control system is necessary for manipulating spotlight on stage. In this paper, we propose the system that detects to track the multiple objects and classifies those objects, also selects an object of those ones. The proposed method can be applied to the interactive stage spotlighting system(ISSS).

  • PDF

Expression of endoglin and podoplanin in early and advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma

  • Lee, Sang-Woon;Park, Young-Wook
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
    • /
    • v.38 no.3
    • /
    • pp.145-151
    • /
    • 2012
  • Objectives: Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are correlated with tumor growth and lymph node metastasis in cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Endoglin is one of the representative vascular endothelial cell markers. Podoplanin is also a representative marker used in order to detect lymphatic endothelial cells. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the expression of endoglin/podoplanin and clinical variables associated with OSCC progression. Materials and Methods: Paraffin embedded tissue specimens from 21 patients diagnosed with OSCC were used in this study. Ten patients were diagnosed with early clinical stage (I or II) and 11 patients with advanced clinical stage (III or IV) OSCC. Five patients had positive lymph node involvement. Primary antibodies for endoglin and podoplanin were used to perform the immunohistochemical detection of the vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells. The expression of endoglin and podoplanin was examined by an image analysis program in the three most highly expressed regions of each specimen. Results: The average endoglin expression was observed to be $1.691{\pm}0.920$ in the advanced stage (III, IV) specimens and $0.797{\pm}0.583$ in the early stage (I, II) specimens (P=0.020). The average expression of podoplanin was $0.286{\pm}0.228$ in the advance stage (III, IV) specimens and $0.374{\pm}0.157$ in the early stage (I, II) specimens (P>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the expression of endoglin and podoplanin, regardless of whether or not the lymph node was positive. Conclusion: The expression of endoglin was significantly higher in the advanced stage specimens than that in the early stage specimens. Therefore, we concluded that endoglin is a useful molecular marker for use in the evaluation of the progression of OSCC.

Gamma Irradiation Induced Transcriptional Repression of the Gibberellin Acid Regulating Genes in Arabidopsis Plants

  • Kim, Jin-Baek;Goh, Eun Jeong;Ha, Bo-Keun;Kim, Sang Hoon;Kang, Si-Yong;Jang, Cheol Seong;Kim, Dong Sub
    • Journal of Radiation Industry
    • /
    • v.6 no.3
    • /
    • pp.281-287
    • /
    • 2012
  • The model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana is the subject of an international genome research project. Massive doses of ionizing radiation have been shown to induce physiological changes in plants. The wild-type (Ler) Arabidopsis plants were irradiated with 100 Gy and 800 Gy of gamma-ray. Gibberellin (GA) affects developmental processes and responses according to the various environment conditions in diverse plant. The 13 GA isomers were analyzed at vegetative (VE) and reproductive (RE) stages by HPLC. Total GA contents were reduced with the increase in radiation doses at VE and RE stages. Specifically, levels of GA3, GA4, GA12, and GA34 were significantly reduced with the increase of radiation doses. Oligonucleotide microarrays analysis was performed with Arabidopsis plants at different developmental stages and doses of gamma-ray. Through the microarray data, we isolated 41 genes related to GA biosynthesis and signaling transduction. Expression of these genes was also decreased as the reduction of GA contents. Interestingly, in GA signaling related gene expression, gibberellin-responsive protein, putative (At2g18420) was down-regulated at VE and RE stages. Myb21 (At3g27810), Myb24 (At5g40350), and Myb57 (At3g01530) was down-regulated at RE stage. In GA biosynthesis related gene expression, YAP169 (At5g07200) and GA20ox2 (At5g51810) were down-regulated at 100 Gy treatment of VE stage and 800 Gy treatment of RE stage in cytoplasm, respectively. However, exceptively, GA3ox2 (At1g80340) was up-regulated at 100 Gy treatment of RE stage in cytoplasm. In this study, the wild type (Ler) Arabidopsis plants showed differences in response with development stage at the various doses of gamma-rays. GA contents change was reported in gamma irradiated plant.

Steam Turbine Technology for Advanced Steam Condition (증기조건 향상에 따른 증기터빈 기술 동향)

  • Nah, U.H.;Cho, S.I.;Shin, H.;Kim, Y.S.;Yang, S.H.
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.2174-2179
    • /
    • 2003
  • For many years, T/G Supplier has constructed a number of thermal power plants and researched to improve the performance and the reliability of steam turbine, which are achieved by advances in design and materials technology. In recent, interest is renewed in advanced steam condition as means of improving economy of thermal power plant and reducing environmental pollution. Improvements in the maximum power have been driven by the development of advanced rotor and bucket material and longer last stage bucket. Improvements in efficiency have been brought through advances in mechanical efficiency and thermodynamic efficiency. This paper describes a number of new steam path design features introduced to the steam turbine product. And also this paper describes new design technologies' development, new technologies' trend and technologies' development for ultra-super critical steam turbine.

  • PDF