• Title, Summary, Keyword: advanced glycation end products (AGEs)

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Advanced Glycation End Products and Diabetic Complications

  • Singh, Varun Parkash;Bali, Anjana;Singh, Nirmal;Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 2014
  • During long standing hyperglycaemic state in diabetes mellitus, glucose forms covalent adducts with the plasma proteins through a non-enzymatic process known as glycation. Protein glycation and formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications like retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, cardiomyopathy along with some other diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis and aging. Glycation of proteins interferes with their normal functions by disrupting molecular conformation, altering enzymatic activity, and interfering with receptor functioning. AGEs form intra- and extracellular cross linking not only with proteins, but with some other endogenous key molecules including lipids and nucleic acids to contribute in the development of diabetic complications. Recent studies suggest that AGEs interact with plasma membrane localized receptors for AGEs (RAGE) to alter intracellular signaling, gene expression, release of pro-inflammatory molecules and free radicals. The present review discusses the glycation of plasma proteins such as albumin, fibrinogen, globulins and collagen to form different types of AGEs. Furthermore, the role of AGEs in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications including retinopathy, cataract, neuropathy, nephropathy and cardiomyopathy is also discussed.

Naphthopyrone Glucosides from the Seeds of Cassia tora with Inhibitory Activity on Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) Formation

  • Lee, Ga-Young;Jang, Dae-Sik;Lee, Yun-Mi;Kim, Jong-Min;Kim, Jin-Sook
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.29 no.7
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    • pp.587-590
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    • 2006
  • Three naphthopyrone glucosides, cassiaside (1), $rubrofusarin-6-O-{\beta}-D-gentiobioside$ (2), and $toralactone-9-O-{\beta}-D-gentiobioside$ (3), were isolated from the BuOH-soluble extract of the seeds of Cassia tora as active constituents, using an in vitro bioassay based on the inhibition of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) to monitor chromatographic fractionation. The structures of 1-3 were determined by spectroscopic data interpretation, particularly by extensive 1D and 2D NMR studies. All the isolates (1-3) were evaluated for the inhibitory activity on AGEs formation in vitro.

Puerarol from the Roots of Pueraria lobata Inhibits the Formation of Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) in vitro

  • Kim, Jong-Min;Jang, Dae-Sik;Lee, Yun-Mi;Kim, Young-Sook;Kim, Jin-Sook
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.192-195
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    • 2008
  • Three known compounds, puerarol (1), pueroside B (2), and ononin (3), were isolated from an EtOAc-soluble fraction of the roots of Pueraria lobata. The isolates (1 - 3) were subjected to an in vitro bioassay to evaluate their inhibitory activity on the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Puerarol (1) exhibited a remarkable inhibitory activity on AGEs formation with $IC_{50}$ value of $2.05{\pm}0.32{\mu}M$ as compared with positive control, aminoguanidine ($IC_{50}$ value : $905.32{\pm}7.58{\mu}M$).

Inhibition of advanced glycation end product formation by burdock root extract (우엉 뿌리 추출물의 최종당화산물 형성 억제 효능)

  • Lee, Darye;Kim, Choon Young
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.233-240
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Diabetic complications are a major concern to manage progression of diabetes. Production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) due to high blood glucose is one of the mechanisms leading to diabetic complications. Multiple pharmacologic AGE inhibitory agents are currently under development, but clinical applications are still limited due to safety issues. Thus, it is necessary to identify a safe anti-glycation agent. It is known that burdock roots have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. The objective of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory role of burdock roots on the formation of high glucose-induced glycation of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Methods: In this study, glycation of BSA by glucose, galactose, or fructose at $37^{\circ}C$ for 3 weeks was assessed based on levels of ${\alpha}$-dicarbonyl compounds (early-stage glycation products), fructosamine (intermediate products of glycation), and fluorescent AGEs (late-stage glycation products). In order to compare the inhibitory actions of burdock root extract in AGE formation, aminoguanidine (AG), a pharmacological AGE inhibitor, was used as a positive control. Results: BSA glycation by glucose, fructose, and galatose was dose- and time-dependently produced. Burdock root extract at a concentration of 4 mg/mL almost completely inhibited glucose-induced BSA glycation. The results demonstrate that burdock root extract inhibited AGE formation with an $IC_{50}$ value of 1.534 mg/mL, and inhibitory activity was found to be more effective than the standard anti-glycation agent aminoguanidine. This study identified a novel function of burdock root as a potential anti-glycation agent. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that burdock root could be beneficial for preventing diabetic complications.

Screening of Herbal Medicines from China with Inhibitory Activity on Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) Formation (V) (중국산 약용식물의 최종당화산물 생성저해활성 검색 (V))

  • Kim, Young-Sook;Choi, Sung-Hoon;Kim, Joo-Hwan;Kim, Jin-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.46-53
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    • 2011
  • Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been postulated to play a central role in the development of diabetic complications. A variety of different agents that inhibit AGEs have been under investigation. In this study, 66 herbal medicines from China have been investigated with an in vitro evaluation system using AGEs formation inhibitory activity. Of these, 31 herbal medicines ($IC_{50}$ < $50\;{\mu}g/ml$) were found to have significant AGEs formation inhibitory activity. Particularly, 5 herbal medicines, Camptotheca acuminata (branches and leaves), Quercus franchetii (branches), Camellia pitardii (leaves, branches, and fruits), Antidesma bunius (whole plants), and Loranthus parasiticus (whole plants) showed more potent inhibitory activity (approximately 6-20 fold) than the positive control aminoguanidine ($IC_{50}=52.96\;{\mu}g/ml$).

Screening of Herbal Medicines from China with Inhibitory Activity on Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) Formation (X) (중국 약용식물의 최종당화산물 생성저해활성 검색 (X))

  • Kim, Young Sook;Lee, Yun Mi;Kim, Joo Hwan;Kim, Jin Sook
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.305-311
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    • 2013
  • Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been postulated to play a central role in the development of diabetic complications. A variety of different agents that inhibit AGEs have been under investigation. In this study, 54 herbal medicines from China have been investigated with an in vitro evaluation system using AGEs formation inhibitory activity. Of these, 6 herbal medicines ($IC_{50}&lt;5{\mu}g/ml$) were found to have significant AGEs formation inhibitory activity. Particularly, herbal medicines Punica granatum (peels), Terminalia chebula (fruits), Rheum palmatum (roots), Oxyria digyna (stems and leaves), Anisodus luridus (roots) and Quercus schottkyana(stems and leaves) showed more potent inhibitory activity (approximately 9-43 fold) than the positive control aminoguanidine ($IC_{50}=77.04{\mu}g/ml$).

Screening of Korea Traditional Herbal Medicines with Inhibitory Activity on Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) Formation (한약재의 최종당화산물 생성저해활성 검색)

  • Jang, Dae-Sik;Lee, Yun-Mi;Kim, Young-Sook;Kim, Jin-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.48-52
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    • 2006
  • Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are largely involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. As part of our ongoing project directed toward the discovery of preventive and/or delay agents for diabetic complications from natural sources, 92 Korean traditional herbal medicines have been investigated with an in vitro evaluation system using AGEs inhibitory activity. Of these, 17 herbal medicines exhibited a significant inhibitory activity against AGEs formation. Particularly, 9 herbal medicines, i.e., Cinnamomi Cortex, Artemisiae Argyi Herba, Ammoni Tsao-ko Fructus, Menthae Herba, Amomi Semen, Polygoni Avicularis Herba, Lycopi Herba, Salviae Radix, and Nelumbinis Semen showed more potent inhibitory activity (2-4 fold) than the positive control aminoguanidine.

Screening of Korean Herbal Medicines with Inhibitory Activity on Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) Formation (II) (한국약용식물의 최종당화산물 생성저해활성 검색 (II))

  • Lee, Yun-Mi;Kim, Young-Sook;Kim, Jong-Min;Jang, Dae-Sik;Kim, Joo-Hwan;Yoo, Jeong-Lim;Kim, Jin-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.223-227
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    • 2008
  • Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) contribute to the progression of micro and macrovsacular complication of diabetes and therefore present a promising target for therapeutic agents. In this study, 40 Korean herbal medicines have been investigated with an in vitro evaluation system using AGEs inhibitory activity. Of these, 21 herbal medicines $(IC_{50}<50{\mu}g/ml)$ exhibited an inhibitory activity against AGEs formation compared with anminoguanidine $(IC_{50}=72.12{\mu}g/ml)$. Particularly, 7 herbal medicines, Actinidia arguta (root and stem), Crataegus pinnatifida (twig), Camellia japonica (whole), Kalopanax pictus (bark), Lagerstroemia indica (leaf-stem), Reynoutria sachalinensis (root) showed more potent inhibitory activity (approximately 3-10 fold) than the positive control aminoguanidine.

Screening of Herbal Medicines from China with Inhibitory Activity on Advanced Glycation End Products Formation (XIII) (중국 약용식물의 최종당화산물 생성저해활성 검색(XIII))

  • Choi, So Jin;Kim, Young Sook;Kim, Joo Hwan;Hang, Sun;Kim, Jin Sook
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.260-267
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    • 2015
  • Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been postulated to play a central role in the development of diabetic complications. A variety of different agents that inhibit AGEs have been under investigation. In this study, 111 herbal medicines from China have been investigated with an in vitro evaluation system using AGEs formation inhibitory activity. Of these, 9 herbal medicines (IC50: <5 μg/ml) were found to have significant AGEs formation inhibitory activity. Particularly, herbal medicines Barleria cristata (leaves), Calotropis gigantea (stems), Ardisia virens (leaves), Dalbergia yunnanensis (leaves) Pittosporum runcatum (leaves), Ardisia japonica (leaves), Rhododendron racemosum (twigs), Oxyria sinensiss (aerial parts), Pyrrosia calvata (whole plants), showed more potent inhibitory activity (approximately 15-40 fold) than the positive control aminoguanidine (IC50: 76.47 μg/ml).

Constituents of the Roots of Pueraria Iobata Inhibit Formation of Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs)

  • Kim, Jong-Min;Lee, Yun-Mi;Lee, Ga-Young;Jang, Dae-Sik;Bae, Ki-Hwan;Kim, Jin-Sook
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.29 no.10
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    • pp.821-825
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    • 2006
  • Two isoflavone C-glucosides, puerarin (1) and PG-3 (2), a but-2-enolide, $({\pm})-puerol$ B (3), two isoflavone O-glucosides, daidzin (4) and genistin (5), and three pterocarpans, (-)-medicarpin (6), (-)-glycinol (7) and (-)-tuberosin (8), were isolated from a MeOH extract of the roots of Pueraria Iobata, using an in vitro bioassay based on the inhibition of the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) to monitor chromatographic fractionation. The structures of 1-8 were determined by spectroscopic data interpretation, particularly by 1D- and 2D-NMR studies, and by comparison of these data with values in the literature. All of the isolates (1-8) were evaluated for their inhibitory activity on AGEs formation in vitro. Of these, puerarin (1), PG-3 (2), and $({\pm})-puerol$ B (3) exhibited more potent inhibitory activity than the positive control aminoguanidine.