• Title, Summary, Keyword: advanced breast cancer

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Locally Advanced Breast Cancer in Jamaica: Prevalence, Disease Characteristics and Response to Preoperative Therapy

  • Chin, Sheray Nicole;Green, Cheryl May Antoinette;Gordon-Strachan, Georgiana Marie;Wharfe, Gilian Helen Frances
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.7
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    • pp.3323-3326
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    • 2014
  • Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Jamaican women. Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) is associated with aggressive biology and poor prognosis, and has a predilection for African-American women. In this retrospective review, we assessed the prevalence of LABC as a breast cancer presentation in a population of mainly Afro-centric ethnicity, and determined disease characteristics and response to pre-operative chemotherapy. LABC was prevalent (20%), and had a low pathological response rate to pre-operative chemotherapy, with a high risk of disease recurrence. Increased utilization of breast cancer screening may help detect cancer at less advanced stages, and optimizing pre-operative chemotherapy is recommended to improve response rates and ultimately survival.

Immediate Breast and Chest Wall Reconstruction for Advanced Breast Cancer (진행성 유방암에서 즉시 유방 및 흉벽 재건술)

  • Yang, Jung-Dug;Kim, Hak-Tae;Chung, Ho-Yun;Cho, Byung-Chae;Choi, Kang-Young;Lee, Jung-Hun;Lee, Jeong-Woo;Park, Ho-Yong;Jung, Jin-Hyang;Chae, Yee-Soo
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.627-635
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: Advanced breast cancer traditionally has been perceived as a contraindication to immediate breast reconstruction, because of concerns regarding adjuvant treatment delays and the cosmetic effects of radiotherapy to breast reconstruction, so delayed reconstruction is usually preferred in advanced breast cancer patients undergoing mastectomy. However, with the improved outcome using multimodality therapy, consisting of perioperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy, immediate breast reconstruction is now being performed as surgical option for selected advanced breast cancer patients. Additionally, advanced breast cancer patients may be needed soft tissue coverage of an extensive skin and soft tussue defect after mastectomy. Current authors have experienced several types of immediate breast and chest wall reconstruction for advanced breast cancer. Methods: From December of 2007 to June of 2009, 14 women performed for immediate breast and chest wall reconstruction for advanced breast cancer. They had been treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy followed by modified radical mastectomy or radical mastectomy. Four different techniques were used immediate breast and chest wall reconstruction, which are pedicled TRAM flap (4 cases), extended LD flap with STSG (3 cases), thoracoabdominal flap (4 cases) and thoracoepigastric flap (3 cases). Results: The mean age was 53 years and mean follow up period was 9 months. Patients' oncologic status ranged stage IIIa to stage IV. Two patients had major complications: partial flap necrosis of TRAM flap and one distal necrosis of thoracoabdominal flap. Three patients with stage IV disease died from metastases. Conclusion: The result of this study suggests that immediate breast and chest wall reconstruction can be considered as surgical option for advanced breast cancer. But we need long term follow up and large prospective studies for recurrence and survival.

Fulvestrant 250mg versus Anastrozole 1 mg in the Treatment of Advanced Breast Cancer: a Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

  • Gong, Dan-Dan;Man, Chang-Feng;Xu, Juan;Fan, Yu
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.2095-2100
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    • 2014
  • Objective: Most patients with advanced breast cancer experience resistance to endocrine treatment and eventual disease progression. This meta-analysis was designed to compare the efficacy and tolerability of fulvestrant 250mg with anastrozole 1mg in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer. Methods: Electronic literature databases (Cochrane Library, Medline, and Embase) were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published prior to August 2013. Only RCTs that compared fulvestrant 250mg to anastrozole 1mg in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer were selected. The main outcomes were time to treatment failure (TTF), time to progression (TTP), duration of response (DOR), clinical benefit rate, and tolerability. Results: Four RCTs covering 1,226 patients (fulvestrant, n=621; anastrozole, n=605) were included in the meta-analysis. Fulvestrant increased the DOR compared to anastrozole (HR =1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.51). There was no statistically significant difference between fulvestrant and anastrozole in terms of TTF (HR=1.02, 95%CI 0.89-1.17), complete response (RR=1.79, 95%CI, 0.93-3.43), and partial response (RR=0.91, 95%CI 0.69-1.21). As for safety, there was no statistical significance between the two groups for common adverse events. Conclusion: Fulvestrant 250mg is as effective and well-tolerated as anastrozole 1mg treatment for advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal women whose disease progressed after prior endocrine treatment. Thus, fulvestrant may serve as a reasonable alternative to anastrozole when resistance is experienced in breast cancer cases.

Trends of Breast Cancer and its Management in the Last Twenty Years in Aden and Adjacent Governorates, Yemen

  • Harhra, Nasser Aa;Basaleem, Huda O.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4347-4351
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    • 2012
  • Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer of women and the principal cause of death in middle aged women. The objective of this study was to describe the trend of breast cancer and its management in Aden and adjacent south-eastern governorates of Yemen during the last 20 years. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of previous studies on patients with breast cancer in Aden and adjacent south-eastern governorates, Yemen (January 1989 through December 2007). The studied variables were: sex, age, time and type of presentation, disease stage, pathological types and the performed surgical treatment. The sources of information were the treatment registry of Aden health office, archives of Al-Gamhouria teaching hospital; major referral and other public and private hospitals in Aden and Aden Cancer Registry. Results: The total number of patients was 476, 99% being females. The age range was 19-88 years. The most affected age was 30-50 years (60.5%), 95% presenting after one month of having breast symptoms. Forty-five percent presented with signs of advanced local disease, while 59.2% had palpable axillary lymph nodes on presentation. Early breast cancer (stages I-II) occurred in 47%, and late breast cancer (stages III-IV) in 51.5%. Invasive ductal carcinoma was the commonest pathology (89.3%). The main surgical treatment was mastectomy (modified radical mastectomy (50%). Conclusion: Breast cancer is predominantly a disease of young with late presentation and advanced disease. Improving health awareness and earlier diagnosis of the disease by health education, encouraging breast self-examination, and providing the mammography equipment and mammary clinics in hospitals are recommended. Establishment of oncology and radiotherapy centers in Aden is a necessity.

Eight Year Survival Analysis of Patients with Triple Negative Breast Cancer in India

  • Doval, Dinesh Chandra;Suresh, P;Sinha, Rupal;Azam, Saud;Batra, Ullas;Talwar, Vineet;Kumar, Kapil;Mehta, Anurag
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.2995-2999
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    • 2016
  • Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) often presents as an interval cancer with short survival upon metastasis and thus represents an important clinical challenge. The present study investigated the clinicopathologic characteristics and long term survival outcome of early and locally advanced TNBC. Materials and Methods: Medical records were reviewed retrospectively for 148 consecutive confirmed cases of TNBC treated in a single unit at our centre. Demographic profile, tumor type, histopathology details, treatment and follow-up information was recorded and immunohistochemistry was performed. Results: Age group >50 years was associated with tumors of clinical stage 3 (53.8%), pathological stage 3 (46.2%), pathological grade 3 (45.7%), presence of extracapsular extension (ECE, 48.5%) and lymphovascular invasion (LVI, 64.9%). Locally advanced breast cancers (LABCs) were characterized by pathological stage 3 (96.2%), presence of ECE (100%) and absence of LVI (46.7%) as compared to early breast cancers (EBCs) which had higher incidence of lower stage tumors (100%), absence of ECE (82%) and presence of LVI (91.9%; p-value <0.001. Better relapse free survival was observed in patients with no axillary involvement (69%; p-value <0.001) and absence of ECE (64%; p-value <0.001). Improved overall survival was seen in patients with EBC (90%; p-value 0.008), clear axilla (86%; p-value <0.001), absence of ECE (87%; p-value <0.001) and negative lymph nodes (90%; p-value 0.006). Conclusions: TNBCs are aggressive tumors which show poor long term survival. Patients with TNBC benefit from chemotherapy, thus better and less toxic treatment options are needed. Identification of newer targets and development of targeted therapies are the need of the hour.

Curcumin and Silibinin Inhibit Telomerase Expression in T47D Human Breast Cancer Cells

  • Nasiri, Marzieh;Zarghami, Nosratollah;Koshki, Kazem Nejati;Mollazadeh, Mahdieh;Moghaddam, Mohammad Pourhassan;Yamchi, Mohammad Rahmati;Esfahlan, Rana Jahanban;Barkhordari, Amin;Alibakhshi, Abbas
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.3449-3453
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    • 2013
  • Background: Telomerase has been considered as an attractive molecular target for breast cancer therapy. The main objective of this work is to assess the inhibitory effects of silibinin and curcumin, two herbal substances, on telomerase gene expression in breast cancer cells. Materials and Methods: For determination of cell viability tetrazolium-based assays were conducted after 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times and expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene was measured with real-time PCR. Results: Each compound exerted cytotoxic effects on T47D cells and inhibited telomerase gene expression, both in a time-and dose-dependent manner. The mixture of curcumin and silibinin showed relatively more inhibitory effect on growth of T47D cells and hTERT gene expression as compared with either agent alone. Conclusions: These findings suggest that cell viability along with hTERT gene expression in breast cancer cells could be reduced by curcumin and silibinin.

A Multicenter Phase II Trial of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy with Docetaxel and Gemcitabine in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

  • Jeon, Ye Won;Kim, Tae Hyun;Youn, Hyun Jo;Han, Sehwan;Jung, Yongsik;Gwak, Geumhee;Park, Young Sam;Kim, Jeong Soo;Suh, Young Jin
    • Journal of Breast Cancer
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.340-346
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: The current multicenter phase II study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combination of docetaxel and gemcitabine as neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for locally advanced breast cancer. Methods: A total of 98 patients with stage II-III breast cancer were enrolled. The primary endpoint was pathological complete response (pCR) rate of invasive cancer after the completion of the fourth cycle of NAC. The secondary endpoints included response rate (RR), rate of breast-conserving surgery, toxicity, and disease-free survival (DFS). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01352494). Results: pCR in the breast and the axillary lymph node was observed in seven of the 98 enrolled patients (7.1%). The overall clinical RR, including partial responses, was 65.3%. Breast-conserving surgery was performed in 75 of the 98 assessable patients (76.5%). Neutropenia was frequent and was observed in 92 of the 98 patients (93.9%), including grade 3 and 4 in 24 patients (24.5%) and 63 patients (64.3%), respectively. Dose reductions were required for 30 of the 92 patients (32.6%). After a median follow-up of 24 months, the overall DFS of the group was 86.7%. Conclusion: The combination of docetaxel and gemcitabine did not improve pCR. However, this regimen has shown potential as a NAC by producing a reasonable rate of breast-conserving surgery and favorable responses in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. The therapeutic efficacy of this regimen will be determined in additional trials to overcome the limitations of the current study.

Characteristics of Invasive Breast Ductal Carcinoma, NOS, Diagnosed in a Tertiary Institution in the East Coast of Malaysia with a Focus on Tumor Angiogenesis

  • Ch'ng, Ewe Seng;Sharif, Sharifah Emilia Tuan;Jaafar, Hasnan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4445-4452
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    • 2012
  • Background: Prognosis of breast cancer depends on classic pathological factors and also tumor angiogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological factors of breast cancer in a tertiary centre with a focus on the relationship between tumor angiogenesis and clinicopathological factors. Methods: Clinicopathological data were retrieved from the archived formal pathology reports for surgical specimens diagnosed as invasive ductal carcinoma, NOS. Microvessels were immunohistochemically stained with anti-CD34 antibody and quantified as microvessel density. Results: At least 50% of 94 cases of invasive breast ductal carcinoma in the study were advanced stage. The majority had poor prognosis factors such as tumor size larger than 50mm (48.9%), positive lymph node metastasis (60.6%), and tumor grade III (52.1%). Higher percentages of estrogen and progesterone receptor negative cases were recorded (46.8% and 46.8% respectively). Her-2 overexpression cases and triple negative breast cancers constituted 24.5% and 22.3% respectively. Significantly higher microvessel density was observed in the younger patient age group (p=0.012). There were no significant associations between microvessel density and other clinicopathological factors (p>0.05). Conclusions: Majority of the breast cancer patients of this institution had advanced stage disease with poorer prognostic factors as compared to other local and western studies. Breast cancer in younger patients might be more proangiogenic.

Clinicopathologic Profile of Breast Cancer Patients in Pakistan: Ten Years Data of a Local Cancer Hospital

  • Khokher, Samina;Qureshi, Muhammad Usman;Riaz, Masooma;Akhtar, Naseem;Saleem, Afaf
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.693-698
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    • 2012
  • Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer of women worldwide, with considerable geographic and racial/ethnic variation. Data are generally derived from population based cancer registries in the developed countries but hospital data are the most reliable source in the developing countries. Ten years data from 1st Jan 2000 to 31st Dec 2009 of a cancer hospital in Pakistan were here analyzed by descriptive statistics to evaluate the clinicopathologic profile of local breast cancer patients. Among 28,740 cancer patients, 6,718 were registered as breast cancer. The female to male ratio was 100:2. Breast cancer accounted for 23% of all and 41% of female cancers. Some 46% were residents of Lahore, with a mean age of $47{\pm}12$ years. Less than 1% were at Stage 0 and 10%, 32%, 35% and 23% were at Stage I, II, III and IV respectively. Histopathology was unknown in 4% while 91%, 2% and 1% had invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) and mucinous carcinoma respectively. Rare carcinomas accounted for the rest. Tumor grade 1, 2 and 3 was 11%, 55% and 34% among the known. Profile of breast cancer patients in Pakistan follows a pattern similar to that of other developing countries with earlier peak age and advanced disease stage at presentation. The male breast cancer accounts for higher proportion in the local population. Local women have higher frequency of IDC and lower frequency of ILC and DCIS, owing probably to a different risk profile. Use of hospital information systems and establishment of population based cancer registry is required to have accurate and detailed local data. Promotion of breast health awareness and better health care system is required to decrease the burden of advanced disease.