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The Impact of Service Level Management(SLM) Process Maturity on Information Systems Success in Total Outsourcing: An Analytical Case Study (토털 아웃소싱 환경 하에서 IT서비스 수준관리(Service Level Management) 프로세스 성숙도가 정보시스템 성공에 미치는 영향에 관한 분석적 사례연구)

  • Cho, Geun Su;An, Joon Mo;Min, Hyoung Jin
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.21-39
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    • 2013
  • As the utilization of information technology and the turbulence of technological change increase in organizations, the adoption of IT outsourcing also grows to manage IT resource more effectively and efficiently. In this new way of IT management technique, service level management(SLM) process becomes critical to derive success from the outsourcing in the view of end users in organization. Even though much of the research on service level management or agreement have been done during last decades, the performance of the service level management process have not been evaluated in terms of final objectives of the management efforts or success from the view of end-users. This study explores the relationship between SLM maturity and IT outsourcing success from the users' point of view by a analytical case study in four client organizations under an IT outsourcing vendor, which is a member company of a major Korean conglomerate. For setting up a model for the analysis, previous researches on service level management process maturity and information systems success are reviewed. In particular, information systems success from users' point of view are reviewed based the DeLone and McLean's study, which is argued and accepted as a comprehensively tested model of information systems success currently. The model proposed in this study argues that SLM process maturity influences information systems success, which is evaluated in terms of information quality, systems quality, service quality, and net effect proposed by DeLone and McLean. SLM process maturity can be measured in planning process, implementation process and operation and evaluation process. Instruments for measuring the factors in the proposed constructs of information systems success and SL management process maturity were collected from previous researches and evaluated for securing reliability and validity, utilizing appropriate statistical methods and pilot tests before exploring the case study. Four cases from four different companies under one vendor company were utilized for the analysis. All of the cases had been contracted in SLA(Service Level Agreement) and had implemented ITIL(IT Infrastructure Library), Six Sigma and BSC(Balanced Scored Card) methods since last several years, which means that all the client organizations pursued concerted efforts to acquire quality services from IT outsourcing from the organization and users' point of view. For comparing the differences among the four organizations in IT out-sourcing sucess, T-test and non-parametric analysis have been applied on the data set collected from the organization using survey instruments. The process maturities of planning and implementation phases of SLM are found not to influence on any dimensions of information systems success from users' point of view. It was found that the SLM maturity in the phase of operations and evaluation could influence systems quality only from users' view. This result seems to be quite against the arguments in IT outsourcing practices in the fields, which emphasize usually the importance of planning and implementation processes upfront in IT outsourcing projects. According to after-the-fact observation by an expert in an organization participating in the study, their needs and motivations for outsourcing contracts had been quite familiar already to the vendors as long-term partners under a same conglomerate, so that the maturity in the phases of planning and implementation seems not to be differentiating factors for the success of IT outsourcing. This study will be the foundation for the future research in the area of IT outsourcing management and success, in particular in the service level management. And also, it could guide managers in practice in IT outsourcing management to focus on service level management process in operation and evaluation stage especially for long-term outsourcing contracts under very unique context like Korean IT outsourcing projects. This study has some limitations in generalization because the sample size is small and the context itself is confined in an unique environment. For future exploration, survey based research could be designed and implemented.

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Effect of Different Light Emitting Diode (LED) Lights on the Growth Characteristics and the Phytochemical Production of Strawberry Fruits during Cultivation (파장별 LED광이 딸기의 생장 특성과 생리 활성 물질 형성에 미치는 효과)

  • Choi, Hyo Gil;Kwon, Joon Kook;Moon, Byoung Yong;Kang, Nam Jun;Park, Kyoung Sub;Cho, Myeong Whan;Kim, Young Cheol
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.56-64
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    • 2013
  • Recent unusual weather due to global warming causes shortage of daily sunlight and constitutes one of the primary reasons for agricultural damages. LED light sources are frequently utilized to compensate for the shortage of sunlight in greenhouse agriculture. The present study is aimed at evaluating formations of phytochemicals as well as growth characteristics of mature strawberry fruits ('Daewang' cultivar) during cultivation in a closed growth chamber equipped with artificial LED light as a sole light source. Each LED light of blue (448 nm), red (634 and 661 nm) or mixed blue plus red (blue:red = 3:7) was separately supplied and the intensity of each light was adjusted to $200{\pm}1{\mu}mol{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$ at plant level with a photoperiod consisted of 16 hours light and 8 hours darkness. Strawberries grown under mixed LED light of blue and red wavelengths showed a higher production of fruits than those grown under other LED treatments. Fructose, one of the free sugars, increased in mixed LED light-grown fruits. Anthocyanin contents were elevated remarkably in the mixed LED light-grown fruits compared with those in other LED treatments. Contrastingly, contents of total phenolics and flavonoids were not of much different from one another among the fruits treated with various LED lights. On the other hand, ripening of strawberry fruits was found to be faster when grown under blue LED light compared with other LED treatments. Moreover, antioxidant activities of blue or red LED light-grown fruits, respectively, were significantly higher than those of mixed LED light-grown fruits. We suggest that when daylight is in shortage during cultivation in a greenhouse, supplementation of sunlight with LED light, which is composed of blue and red wavelengths, could be useful for the enhancement of productivity as well as of free sugar content in strawberry fruits. In addition, for the strawberry culture in the plant factory, selective adoption of LED light wavelength would be required to accomplish the purpose of controlling fruit maturation time as well as of enhancing contents of sugars and antioxidants of fruits.

An Expert System for the Estimation of the Growth Curve Parameters of New Markets (신규시장 성장모형의 모수 추정을 위한 전문가 시스템)

  • Lee, Dongwon;Jung, Yeojin;Jung, Jaekwon;Park, Dohyung
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.17-35
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    • 2015
  • Demand forecasting is the activity of estimating the quantity of a product or service that consumers will purchase for a certain period of time. Developing precise forecasting models are considered important since corporates can make strategic decisions on new markets based on future demand estimated by the models. Many studies have developed market growth curve models, such as Bass, Logistic, Gompertz models, which estimate future demand when a market is in its early stage. Among the models, Bass model, which explains the demand from two types of adopters, innovators and imitators, has been widely used in forecasting. Such models require sufficient demand observations to ensure qualified results. In the beginning of a new market, however, observations are not sufficient for the models to precisely estimate the market's future demand. For this reason, as an alternative, demands guessed from those of most adjacent markets are often used as references in such cases. Reference markets can be those whose products are developed with the same categorical technologies. A market's demand may be expected to have the similar pattern with that of a reference market in case the adoption pattern of a product in the market is determined mainly by the technology related to the product. However, such processes may not always ensure pleasing results because the similarity between markets depends on intuition and/or experience. There are two major drawbacks that human experts cannot effectively handle in this approach. One is the abundance of candidate reference markets to consider, and the other is the difficulty in calculating the similarity between markets. First, there can be too many markets to consider in selecting reference markets. Mostly, markets in the same category in an industrial hierarchy can be reference markets because they are usually based on the similar technologies. However, markets can be classified into different categories even if they are based on the same generic technologies. Therefore, markets in other categories also need to be considered as potential candidates. Next, even domain experts cannot consistently calculate the similarity between markets with their own qualitative standards. The inconsistency implies missing adjacent reference markets, which may lead to the imprecise estimation of future demand. Even though there are no missing reference markets, the new market's parameters can be hardly estimated from the reference markets without quantitative standards. For this reason, this study proposes a case-based expert system that helps experts overcome the drawbacks in discovering referential markets. First, this study proposes the use of Euclidean distance measure to calculate the similarity between markets. Based on their similarities, markets are grouped into clusters. Then, missing markets with the characteristics of the cluster are searched for. Potential candidate reference markets are extracted and recommended to users. After the iteration of these steps, definite reference markets are determined according to the user's selection among those candidates. Then, finally, the new market's parameters are estimated from the reference markets. For this procedure, two techniques are used in the model. One is clustering data mining technique, and the other content-based filtering of recommender systems. The proposed system implemented with those techniques can determine the most adjacent markets based on whether a user accepts candidate markets. Experiments were conducted to validate the usefulness of the system with five ICT experts involved. In the experiments, the experts were given the list of 16 ICT markets whose parameters to be estimated. For each of the markets, the experts estimated its parameters of growth curve models with intuition at first, and then with the system. The comparison of the experiments results show that the estimated parameters are closer when they use the system in comparison with the results when they guessed them without the system.

Questionnaire Study on the Difficulties and Improvements of the 6th Industrialization Dairy Farm (설문을 통한 6차산업형 목장경영의 애로사항과 개선방안에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jin-Sung;Nam, Ki-Taeg;Park, Seong-Min;Son, Yong-Suk
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.255-262
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to investigate the difficulties of dairy farms in practicing 6th industrialization and methods for overcoming these difficulties. A qustionnaire survey was carried out to examine the present states of farms, recognition of the farmstead milk-processing market situation, possibility of farmstead milk processing for reducing the raw milk surplus, assessment of government policies, and difficulties dairy farmers confront in realizing the 6th industrialization. Farm sizes, types, and human resources organizations varied between farms. Most farmers were producing yogurt and/or fresh (string or barbecue) cheeses, which were marketed through 'Visit and Purchase' channel. Farmers who answered the questionnaire were relatively positive about the current situation of farmstead milk processing, expecting to be involved in the disposal of excess raw milk. Nevertheless, they responded negatively about current relevant policies, citing the main difficulties caused by 'excessive regulation'. Other barriers to successful '6th industrialization' are difficulties in marketing and lack of funds. Approximately 19% of dairy farms practicing the '6th industrialization' use automatic milking system (AMS) and 38.46% of dairy farmers whose milking depends on conventional milking system intend to introduce AMS in the future. Positive expectations of AMS adoption were mostly related to 'lack of time and labor', 'exhibiting for tourism', and 'succession of dairying'.

Variation in Heading States of Korean Winter Wheat under Winter Temperature Rise of Toluca in Mexico (멕시코 톨루카 지역의 겨울 기온상승에 따른 한국 밀 품종의 출수생태 변이)

  • Park, TaeIl;Chung, Uran
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.99-108
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    • 2016
  • The shuttle breeding of Korean winter wheat has been able to develop high-yielding and day-length-intensive varieties with a wide range of ecologic adoption. However, the phenology of winter wheat has been changed due to recent rises in the winter temperature of Toluca and increasing frequency of high temperatures. We defined two wheat groups (group II and III) with vernalization and evaluated the impact of cold exposure duration and heading ratio due to changes in sowing dates by measuring changes in cold exposure duration and corresponding heading states of each group. The wheat cultivars were sown on three dates in two years. The cold exposure requirement of wheat sown on 6 November 2013 was unfulfilled. The cold exposure requirement of wheat sown on 22 November and 6 December 2013 was fulfilled. However, in 2014, the cold exposure requirement of wheat sown on 5 and 20 November was fulfilled, but that of wheat sown on 5 December was unfulfilled. The differences for the two early November sowings were because winter temperature rises, which caused high temperatures in 2013, whereas early November 2014 saw normal temperatures for the area. The heading ratio of group II did not show a clear difference among the three sowing dates, while the heading ratio of group III was reduced by about half. This implies that the efficiency of shuttle breeding of group III will be high since it showed strong sensitivity to changes in sowing dates. We calculated future sowing dates of each group under near future climate scenarios; the future available sowing dates of group II were projected, but the dates of group III were never estimated in the temperature rise scenario in Toluca. Our findings suggest that change of sowing dates should be considered in the strategy for shuttle breeding of Korean winter wheat.

International Comparison Study on the Articulation of the Science Curriculum: Focus on the Concept of Photosynthesis (과학과 교육과정의 연계성 국제 비교: 광합성 개념 중심으로)

  • Lee, Hyonyong;Yeo, Chaeyeong
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.805-815
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    • 2015
  • The Korean education curriculum is making efforts to improve education to foster competencies that the future society demands through the 2007 and 2009 revised curriculum. The revised curricula focus on enhanced articulation for the quality curriculum. In this study, the curriculum is analyzed for vertical and horizontal articulation. In addition, the study found a problem in Korea's curriculum through international comparison and sought improvement. Furthermore, the study compared internationally articulation of the concept of photosynthesis, of which the results are as follows. First, our science curriculum focuses on vertical articulation and has relatively neglected the problem of horizontal articulation. To compensate for this problem, curriculum design should introduce aspects of 'nature' and 'environment' and should consider the interests and concerns of students, as countries with high horizontal articulation do. Second, the actual education field has a problem with the a lack of continuity and sequence because of concentration of concept in a specific grade or simply repeating the concept across multiple grades. These results have led to alternative proposals that should arrange basis of concept configuration such as 'Big Idea' and should establish the adoption of 'systems' frequently appearing in the other curricula. Finally, there may be mentioned a lack of research on students' learning progression, which can be a common standard of horizontal and vertical articulation. Research on learning progression has been a trend overseas, but there exists no study to fit Korea's situation, so education fields need to conduct the appropriate research on learning progression as part of the commitment to high-quality curriculum.

A Study on Food Service Franchise Location Factors and Quality of Service Factors, The Impact on Customer Satisfaction (외식 프랜차이즈 입지요건과 서비스 품질 요인이 고객만족에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jo In Seog;Cho, Kyu Youn;An, Sang
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.77-90
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    • 2016
  • This study is to examine the importance of site selection and service quality in franchise business as food service franchise became one of the fastest-growing service industries today. The chief finding of this study is as follows: First, a survey in locational and service quality factors affecting food service franchise shows that responders are more concerned with hygiene and visibility of the store than proximity and transportation advantages which reflects low statistical significance, thus the distance did not seem to be a big problem for the responders in the context that they mostly visit nearby food franchise. Second, the examination of the influence by the service quality factors and customer satisfaction shows significant positive relation with customer response, speed and accuracy, and accuracy factors which reveals that the responders prefer prompt response and swift judgment toward the customer's needs and expectations, professional knowledge services to the credibility factors in which little correlation with the customer satisfaction were found. Third, the examination of the influence by the service quality factors, locational factors, and re-visit reveals that customer response and specialty showed statistically significant correlation with intention of WOM (Word of Mouth) and revisit, which suggests that swift judgment and response toward the customer's needs and expectations, professional knowledge services is of great importance to both customer satisfaction and revisit. The study on the aspects of locational and service quality factors affecting franchise industry's customer satisfaction was conducted as above, an investigation in both factors' influence on the customer satisfaction was made, and based on the results of the analysis, this research seeks an optimal operation strategy of a franchise business. Food service franchise are relatively very competent to business adminstration and reaction capability to consumption changes due to the already established market, and there are stores springing up everywhere inspired by the founders who are too confident of their success in the franchise business. However, it is necessary for the franchise beginners to figure out a zone oriented, regular customer oriented business strategy than just complying with the head office manual. Owing to an increasing trend of opening medium to large sized stores and investments in the wake of converting to multiple business type Korean food franchise, there is growing need to set up new concept of store development and operational management strategy in order to overcome the excessive competition and limited sales volume of the old-fashioned small sized, small capital franchise stores. Furthermore, as most business category of food service franchise serve very similar menus, from a product differentiation point of view, it is required to map out flexible sales concept including the adoption of competitive and low-price strategy. In conclusion, as is shown in the analytical research, the customers' optimal choice fluctuate over their preferences like customer convenience and circumstances rather than insisting on specific brand, thus it will be necessary for the franchise stores to draw up aggressive strategy and planning in running food service franchise to maximize their profits.

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Oxidative Stress Induced Damage to Paternal Genome and Impact of Meditation and Yoga - Can it Reduce Incidence of Childhood Cancer?

  • Dada, Rima;Kumar, Shiv Basant;Chawla, Bhavna;Bisht, Shilpa;Khan, Saima
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.4517-4525
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    • 2016
  • Background: Sperm DNA damage is underlying aetiology of poor implantation and pregnancy rates but also affects health of offspring and may also result in denovo mutations in germ line and post fertilization. This may result in complex diseases, polygenic disorders and childhood cancers. Childhood cancer like retinoblastoma (RB) is more prevalent in developing countries and the incidence of RB has increased more than three fold in India in the last decade. Recent studies have documented increased incidence of cancers in children born to fathers who consume alcohol in excess and tobacco or who were conceived by assisted conception. The aetiology of childhood cancer and increased disease burden in these children is lin ked to oxidative stress (OS) and oxidative DNA damage( ODD) in sperm of their fathers. Though several antioxidants are in use to combat oxidative stress, the effect of majority of these formulations on DNA is not known. Yoga and meditation cause significant decline in OS and ODD and aid in regulating OS levels such that reactive oxygen speues meditated signal transduction, gene expression and several other physiological functions are not disrupted. Thus, this study aimed to analyze sperm ODD as a possible etiological factor in childhood cancer and role of simple life style interventions like yoga and meditation in significantly decreasing seminal oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage and thereby decreasing incidence of childhood cancers. Materials and Methods: A total of 131 fathers of children with RB (non-familial sporadic heritable) and 50 controls (fathers of healthy children) were recruited at a tertiary center in India. Sperm parameters as per WHO 2010 guidelines and reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA fragmentation index (DFI), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy guanosine (8-OHdG) and telomere length were estimated at day 0, and after 3 and 6 months of intervention. We also examined the compliance with yoga and meditation practice and smoking status at each follow-up. Results: The seminal mean ROS levels (p<0.05), sperm DFI (p<0.001), 8-OHdG (p<0.01) levels were significantly higher in fathers of children with RB, as compared to controls and the relative mean telomere length in the sperm was shorter. Levels of ROS were significantly reduced in tobacco users (p<0.05) as well as in alcoholics (p<0.05) after intervention. DFI reduced significantly (p<0.05) after 6 months of yoga and meditation practice in all groups. The levels of oxidative DNA damage marker 8-OHdG were reduced significantly after 3 months (p<0.05) and 6 months (p<0.05) of practice. Conclusions: Our results suggest that OS and ODD DNA may contribute to the development of childhood cancer. This may be due to accumulation of oxidized mutagenic base 8OHdG, and elevated MDA levels which results in MDA dimers which are also mutagenic, aberrant methylation pattern, altered gene expression which affect cell proliferation and survival through activation of transcription factors. Increased mt DNA mutations and aberrant repair of mt and nuclear DNA due to highly truncatred DNA repair mechanisms all contribute to sperm genome hypermutability and persistant oxidative DNA damage. Oxidative stress is also associated with genome wide hypomethylation, telomere shortening and mitochondrial dysfunction leading to genome hypermutability and instability. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report decline in OS and ODD and improvement in sperm DNA integrity following adoption of meditation and yoga based life style modification.This may reduce disease burden in next generation and reduce incidence of childhood cancers.

A Comparative Study on the Effect of Enterprise SNS on Job Performance - Focused on the Mediation Effect of Communication Level and Moderating Effect of Nationality - (기업용 SNS 이용이 업무성과에 미치는 영향의 국가 간 비교연구 - 커뮤니케이션 수준의 매개효과와 국적의 조절효과를 중심으로 -)

  • Chen, Jing-Yuan;Kwon, Sun-Dong
    • Management & Information Systems Review
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.137-157
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    • 2019
  • Companies are trying to use enterprise SNS for collaboration and speedy decision-making. This study verified the mediating effect of communication between enterprise SNS and job performance, and proved the moderating effect of nationality between enterprise SNS and communication. This study collected survey data of 81 Korean and 81 Chinese from employees who have used enterprise SNS in Korea and China. As results of data analysis, first, enterprise SNS improved job performance through speedy information sharing and error reduction. Second, communication mediated the effect of enterprise SNS on job performance. Third, enterprise SNS increased the level of organizational communication through decreasing the burden of offline face-to-face communication. Compared with Chinese corporate organizations, Korean corporate organizations have high power distances, centralized control, and high superior authority. Therefore, in the off-line communication situation, the subordinate feels the social pressure to follow the command of the superior. Thus communication is one-way and closed. In this Korean organizational situation, corporate SNS can be used as a means to bypass rigid offline communication. In the online communication environment of non face-to-face corporate SNS, anxiety and stress of face-to-face communication can be reduced, so communication between the upper and lower sides can flow more smoothly. The contribution of this paper is that it proved that enterprise SNS promotes communication and improve job performance by reducing the anxiety or stress of offline communication, while according to prior research successful adoption of many types of information systems requires the fit between an organization and its organizational culture.

A Preliminary Study on Domestic Embracement and Development Plan Regarding UNESCO World Heritage Programme (유네스코 세계유산 제도의 우리나라 문화재 정책에의 수용과 발전방안에 대한 시론적 연구)

  • Kang, Kyung Hwan;Kim, Chung Dong
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.56-85
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    • 2010
  • UNESCO World Heritage Programme was introduced following the adoption of Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage by the General Conference of UNESCO in 1972 in order to protect cultural and natural heritage with superb value for all mankind. Despite its short history of less than 40 years, it has been evaluated as one of the most successful of the cultural area projects of UNESCO with 890 world heritage registered worldwide. For systematic protection management of World Heritage, UNESCO, through systemization of registration, emphasis on the importance of preservation management plan, institutionalization of monitoring, and operation of World Heritage Fund, has utilized World Heritage Programme not just as a means of listing excellent cultural properties, but as a preservation planning tool, and accordingly, such policies have had a significant influence on the cultural heritage protection legislations of numerous nations. Korea has ratified World Heritage Convention in 1988, and with the registration of the Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty in 2009, it has 9 World Heritage Sites. Twenty years have passed since Korea joined the World Heritage Programme. While World Heritage registration contributed to publicity of the uniqueness and excellence of Korean cultural properties and improvement of Korea's national culture status, it is now time to devise various legislative/systematic improvement means to reconsider the World Heritage registration strategy and establish a systematic preservation management system. While up until now, the Cultural Properties Protection Law has been amended to arrange for basic rules regarding registration and protection of World Heritage Sites, and some local governments have founded bodies exclusive for World Heritage Site management, a more fundamental and macroscopic plan for World Heritage policy improvement must be sought. Projects and programs in each area for reinforcement of World Heritage policy capacity such as: 1) Enactment of a special law for World Heritage Site preservation management; 2) enactment of ordinances for protection of World Heritage Sites per each local government; 3) reinforcement of policies and management functionality of Cultural Heritage Administration and local governments; 4) dramatic increase in the finances of World Heritage Site protection; 5) requirement to establish plan for World Heritage Site preservation protection; 6) increased support for utilization of World Heritage Sites; 7) substantiation and diversification of World Heritage registration; 8) sharing of information and experiences of World Heritage Sites management among local governments; 9) installation of World Heritage Sites integral archive; 10) revitalization of citizen cooperation and resident participation; 11) training specialized resources for World Heritage Sites protection; 12) revitalization of sustainable World Heritage Sites tourism, must be selected and promoted systematically. Regarding how World Heritage Programme should be domestically accepted and developed, the methods for systemization, scientific approach, and specialization of World Heritage policies were suggested per type. In the future, in-depth and specialized researches and studies should follow.