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Outcome of Febrile Neutropenic Patients on Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor in a Tertiary Care Hospital

  • Osmani, Asif Husain;Ansari, Tayyaba Zehra;Masood, Nehal;Ahmed, Bilal
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.2523-2526
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    • 2012
  • Introduction: Febrile neutropenia is a relatively frequent event in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and improvement in absolute neutrophil count (ANC) has been linked directly to improved outcome. Evaluation of granulocyte colony stimulating factors (GCSFs) for treatment has shown reduced incidences of episodes of prolonged neutropenia and protracted hospitalization. To determine absolute neutrophil counts with GCSF in febrile neutropenic cancer patients admitted to a tertiary care centre and to co-relate the improvement in ANC with mortality and hospital discharge. Methods: A prospective cross sectional study was carried at an oncology ward at Aga Khan University hospital from January 2010 to June 2011. All adult patients who were admitted and treated with GCSF for chemotherapy induced febrile neutropenia were included. Multivariable regression was conducted to identify the factors related with poor outcomes. Results: A total of 131 patients with febrile neutropenia were identified with mean age of 43.2 (18-85) years, 79 (60%) being ${\leq}50$. Seventy-five (57%) had solid tumors and 56 (43%) hematological malignancies, including lymphoma. Fifty seven (43.5%) had an ANC less 100 cells/$mm^3$, 34 (26%) one between 100-300 cells/$mm^3$ and 40 (31%) an ANC greater than 300 cells/$mm^3$. Thirty (23%) patients showed ANC recovery in 1-3 days, and 74(56%) within 4-7 days. Thirteen (10%) patients showed no recovery. The overall mortality was 18 (13.7%) patients. The mean time for ANC recovery seen in hematological malignancies was 6.34 days whereas for solid tumors it was 4.88 days. Patients with ANC <100 cells/$mm^3$ were more likely to die than patients with ANC >300 cells/$mm^3$ by a factor of 4.3. Similarly patients >50 years of age were 2.7 times more likely to die than younger patients. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that use of GCSF, in addition to intravenous antibiotics, in treatment of patients with chemotherapy induced febrile neutropenia accelerates neutrophil recovery, and shortens antibiotic therapy and hospitalization. We propose to risk classify the patients at the time of admission to evaluate the cost effectiveness of this approach in a resource constrained setup.

Analysis of Medical Expenses Structure for Patients on Percutaneous Coronary Intervention by Medical Security Type (의료보장형태에 따른 관상동맥중재술 환자의 진료비 구조분석)

  • Son, Mi-Kyung;Lee, Sok-Goo
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.195-208
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze whether there are differences in medical expenses according to medical security type in the use of medical services with high disease burden such as coronary intervention. Methods: Chi-square test and covariance analysis(ANCOVA) were conducted to identify the differences in the characteristics and costs according to medical security type of 1,904 patients who underwent coronary intervention in a university hospital from 2011 to 2012. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to determine whether the cost affects medical expenses. Results: In the medical aid group, the proportion of women, those without a job, those without a spouse, and those who received hemodialysis was high, length of stay was high, patients using the emergency room and those who died was high. The medical aid patients were significantly higher in the non-benefit medical expenses, optional medical expenses, physician and admission, meals, medications and injections. National health insurance patients were significantly higher in procedure. The medical security type was found to be significant as a variable affecting the medical expenses. Conclusions: Provision of medical expenses should be managed in advance by providing prevention and education services for the vulnerable, and care services in the region should be provided to suppress the occurrence of medical expenses due to the increase in the number of days spent. In addition, it is necessary to support medical expenses to prevent unsatisfactory medical services from occurring for non-benefit and optional care.

The analysis of medical care behaviors influencing New Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRG) based payment - focused on hospitalized patients with medical illness (신포괄수가에 영향을 미치는 의료행태 요인 분석 - 내과 입원환자 중심으로)

  • Lee, Kyunghee;Wi, Seung Bum;Kim, Suk Il;Choi, Byoong Yong
    • Korea Journal of Hospital Management
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.45-56
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate medical care behaviors influencing accuracy of the payment based New diagnosis-related groups (DRG) compared to fee for service (FFS) in hospitalized patients with medical illness. Methodology: In order to estimate the difference in medical costs between New DRG and FFS depending on medical care behaviors, medical records and hospital claims data (n=4,232) were utilized, which were collected from a single public hospital during the first-half of 2018. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, chi-square test, and multivariate binary logistic regression. Findings: The average difference in medical costs between New DRG and FFS were KRW 506,711±13,945 with incentives and KRW -51,506±12,979 without incentives, respectively. Forty-four point two percent (44.2%, n=1,872) of total subjects were shown to have negative compensation in overall medical costs with New DRG compared to the costs with FFS. Medical care behaviors that affected on the negative compensation were the presence of severe bed sores on admission, medical consultations, death, operations, medications and laboratory or imaging tests with unit price over KRW 100,000, hospital-acquired complications or underlying comorbidities, elderly patients (≧65 years), and hospitalized for more than average inpatient days defined by New DRG (p<0.001). The difference in average medical cost between New DRG and FFS for a group with mild illness was KRW -11,900±10,544, whereas it was KRW -196,800±46,364 for a group with severe illness (p<0.0001). Practical Implications: These findings suggest that New DRG payment model without incentives may incompletely cover the variation of medical costs in real clinical practice. Therefore, policy makers need to consider that the current New DRG reimbursement should be focused and refined to improve accuracy of payment on medical care resources utilized in severe and complex medical conditions.

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Clinical Study of Children Using Home Mechanical Ventilation (가정용 인공 호흡기를 사용하는 소아의 임상적 고찰)

  • Ahn, Young Joon;Lee, Seung Hyeon;Kim, Hyo-Bin;Park, Seong Jong;Ko, Tae Sung;Hong, Soo Jong
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.401-405
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : The use of mechanically-assisted ventilators at home reduces morbidity and improves the quality of life in children with chronic respiratory failure. But in Korea there is no clinical data of children with home mechanical ventilation. We investigated ventilator types, duration, the causes of failure or death, and the cost needed for care. Methods : We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 21 children who were admitted and who applied for home mechanical ventilation at the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in Asan Medical Center. Phone interviews took place after discharge. and interviewed by phone after discharge. Results : The median age was 31 months; the median duration with ventilator was 25 months. Underlying diseases were 16 neuromuscular diseases, one metabolic disease and four chronic respiratory diseases. The types of ventilator were pressure and volume type(16 and five patients, respectively). The frequency of ventilation failure was once per 19 months. Weaning could be performed in three cases. Frequencies of admission after receiving ventilators were 1.7 times per year; the most common cause was pneumonia. Nine patients(43%) died; four of them died because of endotracheal tube obstruction. The costs for medical care were about 1,110,000 won per month. Conclusion : There is an increment in the numbers of individuals who need mechanical ventilation support. The most common cause of death was endotracheal tube obstruction. The most important problem for the patients was medical cost. There needs to be more interest in patients with ventilator and social welfare systems to support their families need to be prepared.

Effects of Private Insurance on Medical Expenditure (민간의료보험 가입이 의료이용에 미치는 영향)

  • Yun, Hee Suk
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.99-128
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    • 2008
  • Nearly all Koreans are insured through National Health Insurance(NHI). While NHI coverage is nearly universal, it is not complete. Coverage is largely limited to minimal level of hospital and physician expenses, and copayments are required in each case. As a result, Korea's public insurance system covers roughly 50% of overall individual health expenditures, and the remaining 50% consists of copayments for basic services, spending on services that are either not covered or poorly covered by the public system. In response to these gaps in the public system, 64% of the Korean population has supplemental private health insurance. Expansion of private health insurance raises negative externality issue. Like public financing schemes in other countries, the Korean system imposes cost-sharing on patients as a strategy for controlling utilization. Because most insurance policies reimburse patients for their out-of-pocket payments, supplemental insurance is likely to negate the impact of the policy, raising both total and public sector health spending. So far, most empirical analysis of supplemental health insurance to date has focused on the US Medigap programme. It is found that those with supplements apparently consume more health care. Two reasons for higher health care consumption by those with supplements suggest themselves. One is the moral hazard effect: by eliminating copayments and deductibles, supplements reduce the marginal price of care and induce additional consumption. The other explanation is that supplements are purchased by those who anticipate high health expenditures - adverse effect. The main issue addressed has been the separation of the moral hazard effect from the adverse selection one. The general conclusion is that the evidence on adverse selection based on observable variables is mixed. This article investigates the extent to which private supplementary insurance affect use of health care services by public health insurance enrollees, using Korean administrative data and private supplements related data collected through all relevant private insurance companies. I applied a multivariate two-part model to analyze the effects of various types of supplements on the likelihood and level of public health insurance spending and estimated marginal effects of supplements. Separate models were estimated for inpatients and outpatients in public insurance spending. The first part of the model estimated the likelihood of positive spending using probit regression, and the second part estimated the log of spending for those with positive spending. Use of a detailed information of individuals' public health insurance from administration data and of private insurance status from insurance companies made it possible to control for health status, the types of supplemental insurance owned by theses individuals, and other factors that explain spending variations across supplemental insurance categories in isolating the effects of supplemental insurance. Data from 2004 to 2006 were used, and this study found that private insurance increased the probability of a physician visit by less than 1 percent and a hospital admission by about 1 percent. However, supplemental insurance was not found to be associated with a bigger health care service utilization. Two-part models of health care utilization and expenditures showed that those without supplemental insurance had higher inpatient and outpatient expenditures than those with supplements, even after controlling for observable differences.

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Clinical Presentation of the Patients with Non-traumatic Chest Pain in Emergency Department (응급의료센터에 내원한 비외상성 흉통환자의 임상 양상)

  • Chung, Jun-Young;Lee, Sam-Beom;Do, Byung-Soo;Park, Jong-Seon;Shin, Dong-Gu;Kim, Young-Jo
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.283-295
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    • 1999
  • Background: Patients with acute non-traumatic chest pain are among the most challenging patients for care by emergency physicians, so the correct diagnosis and triage of patients with chest pain in the emergency department(ED) becomes important. To avoid discharging patients with acute myocardial infarction(AMI) without medical care, most emergency physicians attempt to admit almost all patients with acute chest pain and order many laboratory tests for the patients. But in practice, many patients with non-cardiac pain can be discharged with simple tests and treatment. These patients occupy expensive intensive care beds, substantially increasing financial cost and time of stay at ED for the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial ischemia and AMI. Despite vigorous efforts to identify patients with ischemic heart disease, approximately 2% to 5% of patients presented to the ED with AMI and chest pain are inadvertently discharged. If the cause for the chest pain is known, rapid and accurate diagnosis can be implemented, preventing wastes in time and money and inadvertent discharge. Methods and Results: The medical records of 488 patients from Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 1997 were reviewed. There were 320(angina pectoris 140, AMI 128) cases of cardiac diseases, and 168(atypical chest pain 56, pneumothorax 47) cases of non-cardiac diseases. The number of associated symptoms were $1.1{\pm}0.9$ in non-cardiac diseases, $1.4{\pm}1.1$ in cardiac diseases and $1.7{\pm}1.1$ in AMI(p<0.05). In laboratory finding the sensitivity of electrocardiography(EKG) was 96.1%, while the sensitivity of myoglobin test ranked 45.1%. Admission rate was 71.6% in for cardiac diseases and 50.6% for non-cardiac diseases(p<0.01). Mortality rate was 8.8% in all cases, 13.8% in cardiac diseases, 0.6% in non-cardiac diseases, and 28.1% especially in AMI. Conclusion: In conclusion, all emergency physicians should have thorough knowledge of the clinical characteristics of the diseases which cause non-traumatic chest pain, because a patient with any of these life-threatening diseases would require immediate treatment. Detailed history on the patient should be taken and physical examination performed. Then, the most simple diagnostic approach should be used to make an early diagnosis and to provide treatment.

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