• Title, Summary, Keyword: additive

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COMPOUND-COMMUTING ADDITIVE MAPS ON MATRIX SPACES

  • Chooi, Wai Leong
    • Journal of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.83-104
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    • 2011
  • In this note, compound-commuting additive maps on matrix spaces are studied. We show that compound-commuting additive maps send rank one matrices to matrices of rank less than or equal to one. By using the structural results of rank-one nonincreasing additive maps, we characterize compound-commuting additive maps on four types of matrices: triangular matrices, square matrices, symmetric matrices and Hermitian matrices.

SR-ADDITIVE CODES

  • Mahmoudi, Saadoun;Samei, Karim
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.56 no.5
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    • pp.1235-1255
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    • 2019
  • In this paper, we introduce SR-additive codes as a generalization of the classes of ${\mathbb{Z}}_{p^r}{\mathbb{Z}}_{p^s}$ and ${\mathbb{Z}}_2{\mathbb{Z}}_2[u]$-additive codes, where S is an R-algebra and an SR-additive code is an R-submodule of $S^{\alpha}{\times}R^{\beta}$. In particular, the definitions of bilinear forms, weight functions and Gray maps on the classes of ${\mathbb{Z}}_{p^r}{\mathbb{Z}}_{p^s}$ and ${\mathbb{Z}}_2{\mathbb{Z}}_2[u]$-additive codes are generalized to SR-additive codes. Also the singleton bound for SR-additive codes and some results on one weight SR-additive codes are given. Among other important results, we obtain the structure of SR-additive cyclic codes. As some results of the theory, the structure of cyclic ${\mathbb{Z}}_2{\mathbb{Z}}_4$, ${\mathbb{Z}}_{p^r}{\mathbb{Z}}_{p^s}$, ${\mathbb{Z}}_2{\mathbb{Z}}_2[u]$, $({\mathbb{Z}}_2)({\mathbb{Z}}_2+u{\mathbb{Z}}_2+u^2{\mathbb{Z}}_2)$, $({\mathbb{Z}}_2+u{\mathbb{Z}}_2)({\mathbb{Z}}_2+u{\mathbb{Z}}_2+u^2{\mathbb{Z}}_2)$, $({\mathbb{Z}}_2)({\mathbb{Z}}_2+u{\mathbb{Z}}_2+v{\mathbb{Z}}_2)$ and $({\mathbb{Z}}_2+u{\mathbb{Z}}_2)({\mathbb{Z}}_2+u{\mathbb{Z}}_2+v{\mathbb{Z}}_2)$-additive codes are presented.

A Study on Installation of Treatment Equipment of Malodorous Substances using the $O_3$ (오존($O_3$)을 이용한 악취물질 처리시설의 적용사례 연구)

  • 김석택
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.70-74
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    • 2000
  • The technology of malodorous substances treatment was classified physical separation and chemical destruction. This study was carried out to investigate the characteristics of malodorous substances treatment with the change of operating conditions from the ozone generator. The major results of this study were as follows : Removal efficiency by additive ozone rate was measured $NH_3$:95%(ozone additive rate : 2), $H_2S$ : 97%(ozone additive rate:4), $CH_3SH$ : 96%(ozone additive rate : 3), $(CH_3)_2S_2$ : 97%(ozone additive rate:5), $(CH_3)_3N$ : 95%(ozone additive rate : 1), $CH_3CHO$ : 95%(ozone additive rate : 2), $C_6H_5CHCH_2$ : 95%(ozone additive rate : 2).

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Effects of Thawing-Fermentation Condition of Frozen Dough on frozen Bread Quality (냉동생지의 해동.발효조건이 냉동 빵의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • 김교창;장성규;도대홍
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.287-294
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    • 1997
  • When bread making, the condition of thawing-fermentation for frozen dough were tested in variable temperature, and measured thawing-fermentation time and volume of frozen dough. L-Ascorbic acid (L-Aa) was added in frozen dough for the comparison test of develop volume in bread staling degree of baking bread were measured additive frozen dough which was stoppages in freezing, staling degrees were tested hardness with Rheometer. The test for comparison of thawing-fermentation time in variable temperature was shown the condition of dough conditioner at 3$0^{\circ}C$ was most effective for bread making, Because That condition was required very short time(74 min) But, in this comparison of volume in final products was shown the products in the condition of thawing-fermentation at 3$0^{\circ}C$ was smaller than the products at 5$^{\circ}C$(418 ml). The baking volume of L-Aa additive frozen dough which has under gone thawing-fermentation at 3$0^{\circ}C$, were shown baking volume of 420 ml in 2 weeks storage terms to 100 mg/kg L-Aa additive dough and shown baking volume of 454 ml in 4 weeks storage terms to dough of 200 mg/kg additive weight. Staling degrees of L-Aa additive frozen bread were measured with Rheometer. The hardness of 100 mg/kg L-Aa additive frozen bread was sown low level hardness in 1~2 weeks freezing term, 150 mg/kg L-Aa additive frozen bread was shown low level hardness in 3 weeks freezing term. In 4 weeks freezing term, 200 mg/kg L-Aa additive frozen bread was shown low level hardness compared with non-additive L-Aa frozen bread. In comparison of frozen bread quality, non-additive L-Aa products was better than additive L-Aa products in equality of baking shape and external apparence. But in total quality in external and internal apparence, additive L-Aa products was better than non-additive L-Aa products.

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THE NEARLY ADDITIVE MAPS

  • Ansari-Piri, Esmaeeil;Eghbali, Nasrin
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.199-207
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    • 2009
  • This note is a verification on the relations between almost linear and nearly additive maps; and the continuity of almost multiplicative nearly additive maps. Also we consider the stability of nearly additive and almost linear maps.

STABILITY OF ADDITIVE (n, 2)-MAPPINGS

  • Kang, Pyung-Lyun;Park, Chun-Gil
    • Journal of the Chungcheong Mathematical Society
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.19-27
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    • 2004
  • We define an additive (n, 2)-mapping, and prove the stability of additive (n, 2)-mappings.

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Organic Water Additive on Growth Performances, Hematological Parameters and Cost Effectiveness in Broiler Production

  • Saha, Munmun;Chowdhury, Sachidananda Das;Hossain, Md. Elias;Islam, Md. Kamrul;Roy, Bishwajit
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.53 no.6
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    • pp.517-523
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    • 2011
  • The experiment was conducted with 144 broiler chicks from day-old to 5 weeks of age to investigate the efficacy of a water additive in broiler production. The chicks were randomly distributed into four different treatments namely T1 (control), T2 (water additive as per recommendation level), T3 (25% less than recommendation) and T4 (25% more than recommendation). Body weight of control group was higher in 2nd week of age, but at the end of the experiment additive groups showed higher values compare to control (p<0.05). Body weight gain was increased and feed conversion ratio was improved in the additives groups during the finishing and total period, although feed intake was different among the additive groups (p<0.05). When the hematological parameters were evaluated, packed cell volume and total erythrocytes counts were increased in the additive group that received 25% more than recommendation, and hemoglobin in 25% less than recommendation group. Mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin of the additive groups showed lower (p<0.05) values compare to the control, but other parameters were not affected. Sales price and profit were significantly higher in the additive groups compare to the control, although total production cost was increased in the additive groups (p<0.05). All levels of water additive increased profit in comparison with the control but 25% less than recommendation level appeared to be most profitable and cost effective. It also suggests that any additive considered for poultry, must undergo trial for determining efficacy as well as its cost effectiveness for application.

Development and Performance Evaluation of Liquid-type Chemical Additive for Warm-Mix Asphalt (중온화 액상형 화학첨가제 개발과 이를 적용한 중온 아스팔트의 성능 평가)

  • Baek, Cheolmin;Yang, Sunglin;Hwang, Sungdo
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.107-116
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    • 2013
  • PURPOSES: The liquid-type chemical warm-mix asphalt (WMA) additive has been developed. This study evaluates the basic properties of the additive and the mechanical properties of WMA asphalt and mixture manufactured by using the newly developed chemical additive. METHODS: First, the newly developed WMA additive was applied to the original asphalt by various composition of additive components and dosage ratio of additive. These WMA asphalt binders were evaluated in terms of penetration, softening point, rotational viscosity, and PG grade. Based on the binder test results, one best candidate was chosen to apply to the mixture and then the mechanical properties of WMA mixture were evaluated for moisture susceptibility, dynamic modulus, and rutting and fatigue resistance. RESULTS : According to the binder test, WMA asphalt binders showed the similar properties to the original asphalt binder except the penetraion index of WMA additive was a little higher than original binder. From the Superpave mix design, the optimum asphalt content and volumetric properties of WMA mixture were almost the same with those of hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixture even though the production and compaction temperatures were $30^{\circ}C$ lower for the WMA mixture. From the first set of performance evaluation, it was found that the WMA mixture would have some problem in moisture susceptibility. The additive was modified to improve the resistance to moisture and the second set of performance evaluation showed that the WMA mixture with modified chemical additive would have the similar performance to HMA mixture. CONCLUSIONS : Based on the various laboratory tests, it was concluded that the newly developed chemical WMA additve could be successfully used to produce the WMA mixture with the comparable performance to the HMA mixture. These laboratory evaluations should be confirmed by applying this additive to the field and monitoring the long-term performance of the pavement, which are scheduled in the near future.

Effect of Lubricant Additives on the Surface Fatigue Performance of Gear Oils

  • Hong, Hyun-Soo;Huston, Michael E.;Stadnyk, Nicholas M.
    • Tribology and Lubricants
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.136-143
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    • 1995
  • The effect of additive chemistry on the serface fatigue of gears was investigated using the FZG gear tester and fluids based on an API GL-5 grade oil. Surface fatigue lives were determined as a function of load and additive chemistry. At 1.52 GPa, the removal of the primary extreme pressure additive (EP) from the fully formulated gear oil decreased the fatigue life of gears slightly (4%), however, the removal of the primary antiwear additive (AW) decreased the fatigue life of gears significantly (83%). At 1.86 GPa, the removal of the EP additive from the fully formulated gear oil decresed the gear fatigue life 27%, however, the removal of the primary AW additive decreased the fatigue life of gears significantly (75%). Micropitting was the dominant surface morphology in the dedendum of gears tested With two oils at load stage: one using the complete additive package, and a second where the EP additive has been removed. However, spalling is the primary failure mode of gears tested without an AW additive independent of whether an EP agent was present. Surface analysis of pinion gears showed the formation of a mixed phosphate/phosphite-oxide layer on the surface of gears tested with fluids containing an AW. Formation of this layer seems to be key to long fatigue life.