• Title, Summary, Keyword: acute toxicity

Search Result 1,162, Processing Time 0.053 seconds

Acute Toxicity Study on the Extract of Mori Fructus (상심자의 급성독성에 관한 연구)

  • Chang, Bo-Yoon;Kim, Seon-Beom;Lee, Mi-Kyeong;Kim, Sung-Yeon
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
    • /
    • v.43 no.2
    • /
    • pp.179-183
    • /
    • 2012
  • Acute toxicity on the water extract of Mori Fructus was examined in male and female mice. The water extract of Mori Fructus was orally administered at a dose of 5 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg and 2,000 mg/kg and had been observed for two weeks. No mortality and abnormal clinical signs were shown for the observation period. At the terminal sacrifice, there were no difference in net body weight gain, organ weight and gross pathological findings among the groups treated with different doses of the water extract of Mori Fructus. The results suggested that under the condition employed in this study $LD_{50}$ would be more than 2,000 mg/kg. All the data obtained the experiments lead to the water extract of Mori Fructus should have very low acute toxicity.

Cardiovascular Manifestations and Clinical Course after Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning (급성 일산화탄소 중독에 의한 심혈관계 독성의 임상 양상 및 경과)

  • Lee, In Soo;Jung, Yoon Seok;Min, Young Gi;Kim, Gi Woon;Choi, Sang Cheon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology
    • /
    • v.10 no.2
    • /
    • pp.103-110
    • /
    • 2012
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular manifestations and clinical course in patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted over a 36 month period on consecutive patients who visited an emergency medical center and were diagnosed with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. A standardized data extraction protocol was performed on the selected patients. Results: A total of 293 patients were selected during the study period. Cardiac manifestations were observed in 35.2% (n=103) of the patients: hypotension in 11 patients (3.8%), ECG abnormalities in 44 patients (15.0%) and cardiac enzyme abnormalities in 103 patients (35.2%). Echo cardiography was performed on 56 patients with cardiac toxicity: 12 patients had abnormal results (5 patients with global hypokinesia and 7 patients with regional wall akinesia). Five patients died within 3 hours after ED admission, and the remaining patients were discharged alive. At 3 months after discharge, none of these patients had died.The SOFA scores in the severe cardiac toxicity group and non-severe cardiac toxicity group at the time of arrival were $2.53{\pm}2.29$ and $2.19{\pm}2.12$, respectively (p=0.860). Conclusion: Cardiovascular manifestations occur after acute CO poisoning at arateof 35.2%. Even those with severe cardiovascular toxicity recovered well within 10 days after admission. Therefore, the importance of cardiac toxicity after acute CO poisoning is not significant in itself in the clinical course, and the short-term prognosis of cardiac toxicity is unlikely to be unfavorable in acute CO poisoning.

  • PDF

Application of simple and massive purification system of dsRNA in vivo for acute toxicity to Daphnia magna

  • CHOI, Wonkyun;LIM, Hye Song;KIM, Jin;RYU, Sung-Min;LEE, Jung Ro
    • Entomological research
    • /
    • v.48 no.6
    • /
    • pp.533-539
    • /
    • 2018
  • The RNA interference (RNAi) has been considered as an important genetic tool and applied to develop a new living modified (LM) crop trait which is an improvement of nutrient quality or pest management. The RNAi of DvSnf7 has been used for resistance to LM maize and the Western Corn Rootworm which is a major agricultural pest for the US Corn Belt. Most of the environmental risk assessments (ERA) of double strand RNA (dsRNA) have been performed using in vitro transcript products, and not in vivo expressed product. A large amount of dsRNA was required for the acute toxicity assay of water fleas. Therefore development of massive dsRNA purification techniques is critical. Daphnia, a freshwater microcrustacean, is a model organism for studying cellular and molecular mechanism involved in life history traits and ecotoxicology. In this study, we established the massive dsRNA purification method using Escherichia coli and implemented acute toxicity assays to Daphnia magna. As a result, the present RNase A and DNase I, dsRNA was efficiently purified without any special techniques or equipment. Even though purified dsRNA existed during the acute toxicity test, lethality or abnormal behavior were not observed in D. magna. These results indicated that GFP and DvSnf7 dsRNA were not significantly affected to D. magna due to their lack of sequence matching in its genome. The purification method of dsRNA and the acute toxicity assay of water fleas using purified dsRNA would be suitable for the toxicological studies of LMOs to aquatic non-target organisms.

Acute and subacute toxicity of folpet to fingerings of common carp, Cyprinus carpio and goldfish, Carassius auratus (잉어치어(稚魚)와 금붕어에 대한 folpet의 급성(急性) 및 아급성독성(亞急性毒性)에 관한 연구)

  • Heo, Gang-joon;Lee, Yong-soon;Lim, Yoon-kyu
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
    • /
    • v.34 no.2
    • /
    • pp.369-374
    • /
    • 1994
  • The acute and subacute toxicity of fungicide folpet was evaluated in fingerings of common carp, Cyprinus carpio and goldfish, Carrassius auratus. Dipping of fishes for acute toxicity was performed for a period of 24h, and the TLm value(median tolerance limit) was 1.52 ppm in common carp and 1.45 ppm in goldfish. Severe damages were observed in various organs and among them, clubbing of gill lamella, lytic degeneration and vacuolation of liver cells, and epithelial edema of renal tubules were relatively prominent. The most significant changes were hyperbasophilic foci of liver cells in subacute toxicity test and these can imply the possibility of hepatocarcinogenecity of folpet.

  • PDF

Acute Toxicity Study on Sipjeondaebo-tang in Rats (SD 랫드를 이용한 십전대보탕의 급성 독성 연구)

  • Ma, Jin-Yeul;Huang, Dae-Sun;Lee, Nam-Hun;Ha, Hye-Kyung;Yu, Young-Beob;Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
    • /
    • v.22 no.5
    • /
    • pp.1192-1195
    • /
    • 2008
  • Sipjeondaebo-tang has been traditionally prescribed a medicine as a restorative. In this study, we investigated the acute toxicity about water-extracted Sipjeondaebo-tang. Thirty rats completed 14 days of oral Sipjeondaebo-tang at the respective doses of 0(control group), 2000 and 5000 mg/kg. We observed survival rates, general toxicity, change of body weight and autopsy. To be confirmed the data for the toxicity and safety problems of oriental medicine prescription. Compared with the control group, we could not find any toxic alteration in all treated groups (2000 and 5000 mg/kg). LD50 of Sipjeondaebo-tang was over 5000 mg/kg and it is very safe to SD rats.

Acute Toxicity Study on Palmul-tang(Bawu-tang) in Mice (ICR마우스를 이용하여 팔물탕(八物湯)의 급성독성에 관한 연구)

  • Ma, Jin-Yeul;Huang, Dae-Sun;Yu, Young-Beob;Ha, Hye-Kyung;Shin, Hyun-Kyoo
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
    • /
    • v.22 no.2
    • /
    • pp.13-16
    • /
    • 2007
  • Objectives : Palmul-tang(Bawu-tang) has been traditionally prescribed a medicine as a restorative. Methods : In this study, we investigated the acute toxicity about water-extracted PalMul-tang(Bawu-tang). Twenty-five mice completed 14 days of oral Palmul-tang(Bawu-tang) at the respective doses of 0(control group), 2560, 3200, 4000 and 5000mg/kg. Results : We observed survival rates, general toxicity, change of body weight, and autopsy. Conclusions : To be confirmed the data for the toxicity and safety problems of oriental medicine prescription. Compared with the control group, we could not find any toxic alteration in all treated groups (2560, 3200, 4000 and 5000mg/kg). In conclusion, LD50 of Palmul-tang(Bawu-tang) was over 5000mg/kg and it is very safe to ICR mice.

  • PDF

In vivo dosimetry and acute toxicity in breast cancer patients undergoing intraoperative radiotherapy as boost

  • Lee, Jason Joon Bock;Choi, Jinhyun;Ahn, Sung Gwe;Jeong, Joon;Lee, Ik Jae;Park, Kwangwoo;Kim, Kangpyo;Kim, Jun Won
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
    • /
    • v.35 no.2
    • /
    • pp.121-128
    • /
    • 2017
  • Purpose: To report the results of a correlation analysis of skin dose assessed by in vivo dosimetry and the incidence of acute toxicity. This is a phase 2 trial evaluating the feasibility of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) as a boost for breast cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Eligible patients were treated with IORT of 20 Gy followed by whole breast irradiation (WBI) of 46 Gy. A total of 55 patients with a minimum follow-up of 1 month after WBI were evaluated. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSLD) detected radiation dose delivered to the skin during IORT. Acute toxicity was recorded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0. Clinical parameters were correlated with seroma formation and maximum skin dose. Results: Median follow-up after IORT was 25.9 weeks (range, 12.7 to 50.3 weeks). Prior to WBI, only one patient developed acute toxicity. Following WBI, 30 patients experienced grade 1 skin toxicity and three patients had grade 2 skin toxicity. Skin dose during IORT exceeded 5 Gy in two patients: with grade 2 complications around the surgical scar in one patient who received 8.42 Gy. Breast volume on preoperative images (p = 0.001), ratio of applicator diameter and breast volume (p = 0.002), and distance between skin and tumor (p = 0.003) showed significant correlations with maximum skin dose. Conclusions: IORT as a boost was well-tolerated among Korean women without severe acute complication. In vivo dosimetry with OSLD can help ensure safe delivery of IORT as a boost.

A Study on the Degradation and the Reduction of Acute Toxicity of Simazine Using Photolysis and Photocatalysis (광반응 및 광촉매 반응을 이용한 simazine의 분해 및 독서저감에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Moon-Kyung;Oh, Ji-Yoon;Son, Hyun-Seok;Zoh, Kyung-Duk
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
    • /
    • v.35 no.2
    • /
    • pp.124-129
    • /
    • 2009
  • The photocatalysis degradation of simazine, s-triazine type herbicide was carried out using circulating photo reactor systems. In order to search for the effective method to mineralize this compound into environmentally compatible products, this study compared the removal efficiencies of simazine by changing various parameters. First, under the photocatalytic condition, simazine was more effectively degraded than by photolysis and $TiO_2$ only condition. With photocatalysis, 5 mg/l simazine was degraded to approximately 90% within 30 min, and completely degraded after 150 min. Ionic byproducts such as ${NO_2}^-$, ${NO_3}^-$, and $Cl^-$ were detected from the photocatalysis of simazine, however, the recoveries were poor, indicating the presence of organic intermediates rather than the mineralization of simazine during photocatalysis. Two bioassays using V. fischeri and D. magna were employed to measure the toxicity reduction in the reaction solutions treated by both photocatalysis and photolysis. Simazine and its photocatalysis treated water did not exert any significant toxicity to V. fischeri, marine bacterium. However, the acute toxicity test using D. magna indicates that initial acute toxicity ($EC_{50}$ = 57.30%) was completely reduced ($EC_{50}$ = 100%) after 150 min under both photocatalysis and photoysis of simazine. This results indicates that photocatalysis and photolysis of simazine reduced the acute toxicity through mineralization.

The Acute and Chronic Toxicity Studies of Herbicide, Molinate to Waterfleas (Molinate의 물벼룩에 대한 급성 및 만성독성 연구)

  • Shin, On-Sup;Kim, Byung-Seok;Park, Yeon-Ki;Park, Kyung-Hoon;Lee, Je-Bong;Kyung, Kee-Sung;Ahn, Young-Joon
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
    • /
    • v.12 no.3
    • /
    • pp.215-221
    • /
    • 2008
  • To assess the impact of molinate on freshwater aquatic organisms, acute and chronic toxicity studies for waterfleas were conducted. In acute toxicity studies for Daphnia magna, and Moina macrocopa, the 48-h $EC_{50}$ values were 11.4 and 8.3 mg/L respectively. And in reproduction toxicity studies for the same species, the NOEC's were 2.5 and 2.0 mg/L respectively. These results suggest that waterfleas have simillar sensitivity to molinate. On the other hand, the NOEC for 3-generation toxicity of moina macrocopa 0.16 mg/L, was much lower than those of acute values. This studies concludes that molinate has minimal risk to waterfleas in river.