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Chemoradiation Related Acute Morbidity in Carcinoma Cervix and Correlation with Hematologic Toxicity: A South Indian Prospective Study

  • Kumaran, Aswathy;Guruvare, Shyamala;Sharan, Krishna;Rai, Lavanya;Hebbar, Shripad
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.4483-4486
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: To assess chemoradiation related acute morbidity in women with carcinoma cervix and to find and correlation between hematologic toxicity and organ system specific damage. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out between August 2012 and July 2013 enrolling 79 women with cancer cervix receiving chemo-radiotherapy. Weekly assessment of acute morbidity was done using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI CTCAE) version 4 and the toxicities were graded. Results: Anemia [77 (97.5%)], vomiting [75 (94.8%)] and diarrhea [72 (91.1%)], leukopenia [11 (13.9%)], cystitis [28 (35.4%], dermatitis [19 (24.1%)] and fatigue [29 (36.71%)] were the acute toxicities noted. The toxicities were most severe in $3^{rd}$ and $5^{th}$ week. All women could complete radiotherapy except two due to causes unrelated to radiation morbidity; seven (8.86%) had to discontinue chemotherapy due to leukopenia and intractable diarrhea. Though there was no correlation between anemia and other toxicities, it was found that all with leukopenia had diarrhea. Conclusions: Chemoradiation for cancer cervix is on the whole well tolerated. Leukopenia and severe diarrhea were the acute toxicities that compelled discontinuation of chemotherapy in two women. Though anemia had no correlation with gastrointestinal toxicity, all of those with leukopenia had diarrhea.

The Study on Acute Subacute Toxicity and Anti-cancer Effect of K-herbal-acupuncture (K-약침(藥鍼)의 급성(急性) 아급성(亞急性) 독성실험(毒性實驗) 및 항암효과(항암효과)에 관(關)한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Kwang-Ho;Kwon, Ki-Rok
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.76-94
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    • 2003
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate Acute$\cdot$Subacute Toxicity and Anti-cancer Effect of K-Herbal-acupuncture in mice and rats. Methods : Balb/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with K-herbal-acupuncture for $LD_{50}$ and acute toxicity test. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with K-herbal-acupuncture for subacute toxicity test. K-Herbal-acupuncture was injected on abdomen of mice with S-180 cancer cell line. Result : 1. $LD_{50}$ of K-Herbal-acupuncture was limited $4{\times}10^{-3}$ml/kg~$2{\times}10^{-3}$ml/kg by the test. 2. In acute toxicity test, all of mice were down to the moving reflex, but the weight of mice was increased in treatment group, compared with the normal group. (P<0.05) 3. In acute toxicity test of serum biochemical values of mice, glucose was increased in treatment II group, total cholesterol was increased both treatments.(P<0.05) 4. In subacute toxicity test, the clinical signs of toxication was down to the moving reflex, but it is not severe like acute toxicity test, and observed weight loss at the treatments. 5. In subacute toxicity test, liver weight was decreased compared with the normal group. (P<0.05) 6. In subacute toxicity test of complete blood count test (CBC) of rat, HCT was decreased in treatments, compared with the normal group.(P<0.05) 7. In subacute toxicity test of serum biochemical values of rat, uric acid and triglyceride were decreased, and glucose was increased in treatment groups compared with the control group. (P<0.05) 8. Median survival time was increased about $45\%$ in treatment groups compared with the control group.(P<0.05) 9. Natural killer cell activity was increased in B16F10 lung cancer model, but it was not in sarcoma-180 abdomen cancer. 10. In interleukin-2 productivity test, treatment groups didn't show significant change in lung cancer and abdomen cancer, compared with the normal group.(P<0.005) 11. In making an examination of metastatic cancer with the naked eye, melanoma metastasized in the Lung of C57BL/6 mice. The treated group showed more Melanoma than the control in the numbers and volume. Conclusion : According to the result, K-herbal-acupuncture need further study to know the function and effect in cancer.

The Study on Acute and Subacute Toxicity and Sarcoma-180 Anti-cancer Effects of Vermilionum (영사(靈砂)의 급성(急性).아급성(亞急性) 독성(毒性) 및 Sarcoma-180 항암효과(抗癌效果)에 관(關)한 문헌적(文獻的) 연구(硏究))

  • Kwon, Ki-Rok
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.39-47
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    • 2003
  • Background & Methods : In order to measure the acute and subacute toxicity of Vermilionum and it's anti-cancer effects, Sarcoma-180 abdominal cancer cells were injected intravenously. The following results were obtained after measuring the survival rate, toxicity of the NK cells, and IL- 2 productivity. Results : 1. It was impossible to measure $LD_{50}$ value in the acute toxicity test and no toxic effects were witnessed in the clinical observation. 2. No significant differences were shown in the weight changes between the experiment groups and the control group in the acute toxicity test. 3. No peculiar toxic effects were shown in the subacute toxicity test and the weight changes were insignificant between the experiment groups and the control group. 4. In measuring the survival rate after inducing abdominal cancer by Sarcoma-180, the experiment groups showed increased of 9.52% compared to the control group. 5. In measuring the activity of NK cells, no significant changes were shown between the experiment groups and the control group. 6. In measuring the productivity of IL-2, significant reduction was shown in the experiment groups compared to the normal group, but no significance was witnessed compared to the control group.

The Study on Acute and Subacute Toxicity and Sarcoma-180 Anti-cancer Effects of Armeniacae amarum semen Herbal-Acupuncture(Haeng-In) (행인약침(杏仁藥鍼)의 급성(急性) 아급성(亞急性) 독성실험(毒性實驗) 및 Sarcoma-180 항암효과(抗癌效果)에 관(關)한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Ok;Kwon, Ki-Rok
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.61-79
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    • 2002
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate acute and subacute toxicity and sarcoma-180 anti-cancer effects of Herbal acupuncture with Anneniacae amarum semen (Haeng-in) in mice and rats. Method: Balble mice were injected intraperitoneany with Haeng-In extract for $LD_{50}$ and acute toxicity test. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with Haeng-In extract for subacute toxicity test. TheAnneniacae amarum semen Herbal-Acupuncture was injected on Chung-wan (CV12) of mice with Sarcoma-180 cancer cell line. Results: 1. $LD_{50}$ was uncountable as none of the subjects expired from the treatment groups during the test. 2. The clinical signs and the body weight of mice treated with 0.1cc and 0.2cc Haeng-In extract were not affected during the acute toxicity test. 3. In acute toxicity test of serum biochemical values of mice, total protein and albumin were decreased in treatment group Ⅰ. Glucose was increased, and total cholesterol was decreased in treatment groups. GPT was increased in treatment group Ⅰ. 4. In subacute toxicity test, toxic symptoms were not detected in the treatment groups. 5. In subacute toxicity test, the body weight was increased in treatment groups on 14th and 21st day. 6. In subacute toxicity test. liver weight was increased in treatment group Ⅱ, and spleen weight was increased in treatment group Ⅱ. Lung weight was increased in an the treatment groups.(p<0.05) 7. In subacute toxicity test, severe tissue injury was found in lung and liver, especially treatment group Ⅰshowed more significant lung damage compared to treatment group l. 8. In subacute toxicity test, WBC. MCH and MCHC were increased in an the treatment groups, RBC, HGB and HCT were decreased in treatment group H(p<0.05). 9. In subacute toxicity test of serum biochemical values of rats, triglyceride was decreased in all the treatment groups. ALP was decreased in treatment group Ⅰ. and creatinine was decreased in treatment group Ⅱ. BUN/CR was increased in treatment group Ⅱ(p<0.05). 10. Median survival time of Sarcoma-180 cancer cell treated with Haeng-In was increased in all the treatment groups by twenty percent, compared to the control group(p<0.05). 11. Natural killer cell activity about the Sarcoma-180 cell was decreased at the ratio of 100:1 but was increased at the ratio of 10:1. In treatment group Ⅱ, increase was found at the ratio of 100:1 and 50:1 (p<0.05). 12. Interleukin-2 productivity of the Sarcoma-180 cell was decreased in treatment group I, but was increased in treatment group Ⅱ(p<0.05). Conclusion: According to the results, we can conclude Herbal-acupuncture with Anneniacae amarum semen caused toxicity, and had effects in Sarcoma-180 cancer cell.

Assessment of Korean Water Quality Standards for Effluent Discharged from the Dye Industry Based on Acute Aquatic Toxicity Tests Using Microbes and Macroinvertebrates (염색폐수의 수질독성시험을 이용한 한국의 수질배출허용기준 평가연구)

  • Kim, Young-Hee;Lee, Min-Jung;Choi, Kyung-Ho;Eo, Soo-Mi;Lee, Hong-Keun
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.185-190
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    • 2004
  • Acute aquatic toxicity of effluents discharged from five dyeing plants in Gyeong-gi province were evaluated to assess whether the current Korean water quality standards(KWQS) could protect aquatic life. Chemical analyses of all parameters regulated under KWQS, except for E-coli, were also carried out to determine regulation compliance of the samples. All the effluent samples were satisfied with KWQS except for the color in only one sample. In acute Daphnia magna toxicity tests, significant mortality was observed in one of five samples and EC50 was 12.1%(95% confidence interval 9.1-16.2), which was in compliance with KWQS. The result of the Microtox assay indicated that acute microbial toxicity existed in effluents from three out of five plants, two of which were in compliance with KWQS. The agreement between regulation compliance of chemical concentrations of effluent and observed toxicity from various biological toxicity tests was very poor to fair (kappa = 0.194~0.250). The data presented suggest that exposure to dyeing wastewater which were in compliance with Korean water quality standards may not be safe to aquatic biota, and multiple tropical levels should be considered in aquatic toxicity monitoring of dyeing industry.

The Study on Acute and Subacute Toxicity and Anti-Cancer Effects of cultivated wild ginseng Herbal acupuncture (정맥주입용(靜脈注入用) 산양산삼(山養山蔘) 증류약침(蒸溜藥鍼)의 급성(急性).아급성(亞急性) 독성실험(毒性實驗) 및 Sarcoma-180 항암효과(抗癌效果)에 관(關)한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究))

  • Kwon, Ki-Rok;Cho, A-La;Lee, Sun-Gu
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.7-27
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    • 2003
  • Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate acute and subacute toxicity and sarcoma-180 anti-cancer effects of herbal acupuncture with cultivated wild ginseng (distilled) in mice and rats. Method : Balb/c mice were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for $LD_{50}$ and acute toxicity test. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for subacute toxicity test. The cultivated wild ginseng herbal-acupuncture was injected at the tail vein of mice. Results : 1. In acute $LD_{50}$ toxicity test, there was no mortality thus unable to attain the value. 2. Examining the toxic response in the acute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication. 3. In acute toxic test, running biochemical serum test couldn't yield any differences between the control and experiment groups. 4. In subacute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication in the experimental groups and didn't show any changes in weight compared to the normal group. 5. In subacute toxicity test, biochemical serum test showed significant increase of Total albumin, Albumin, and Glucose in the experimental group I compared with the control group. Significant decrease of GOT, ALP, GPT, and Triglyceride were shown. In experiment group II, only Glucose showed significant increase compared with the control group. 6. Measuring survival rate for anti-cancer effects of Sarcoma-180 cancer cell line, all the experimental groups showed significant increase in survival rate. 7. Measuring NK cell activity rate, no significant difference was shown throughout the groups. 8. Measuring Interleukin-2 productivity rate, all the experimental groups didn't show significant difference. 9. For manifestation of cytokine mRNA, significant decrease of interleukin-10 was witnessed in the experimental group compared to the control group. Conclusion : According to the results, we can conclude cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture caused negligible toxicity, and had anti-tumor effects in mice.

Acute Oral Toxicity of Adventitious Roots Extract Derived from Wild Ginseng in Beagle Dogs (산삼배양추출물의 비글견을 이용한 단회 경구투여 독성시험)

  • Song Si-Whan;Yang Deok Chun;Choung Se Young
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.51-55
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    • 2005
  • To investigate the acute toxicity of adventitious roots extract derived from wild ginseng, it was orally administered to beagle dogs with a single dose. In acute toxicity test, three groups (9 beagle dogs of male) were administered with different dosages of adventitious roots extract (prepared by Biopia Corp.) 500 mg/kg (G2), 1,000 mg/kg (G3), 2,000 mg/kg (G4) and one group (G1, 2 beagle dogs of male) were received by only capsule without the extract according to the Regulation on Korea Food and Drug Administration (1999. 12. 22). There were vomitus for a time and mucous stool at the day, and anorexia and mucous stool at the first day in the group of 2,000 mg/kg administration. There were mucous stool in one and anorexia for a while in two beagle dogs at the first day in the 1,000 mg/kg administration. But no death or abnormal clinical sign was observed through the study period. Therefore, the adventitious roots extract derived from wild ginseng is considered not to have the acute toxicity in the beagle dogs. These results suggest that LD/sub 50/ value of the test substance was considered to be more than 2,000 mg/kg in the beagle dogs.

In vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo acute toxicity of selected polysaccharide hydrogels as pharmaceutical excipients

  • Kulkarni GT;Gowthanarajan K;Raghu C;Ashok G;Vijayan P
    • Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.29-36
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    • 2005
  • Polysaccharide hydrogels constitute a structurally diverse class of biological macromolecules with a wide range of physicochemical properties. They also constitute important members of the family of industrial water-soluble polymers. They find application in Pharmacy as binders, disintegrants, suspending, emulsifying and sustaining agents. According to the International Pharmaceutical Excipients Council (IPEC), an excipient must have an established safety profile. Hence, in the present study, in vitro cytotoxicity on Vero and HEp-2 cell lines, and in vivo acute toxicity in rats were carried out to establish the safety of polysaccharide hydrogels from the seeds of Plantago ovata and Ocimum basilicum. The in vitro cytotoxicity was determined by MTT and SRB assays. In the in vivo acute toxicity, the effects of three different doses of hydrogels (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) on food and water intake, body weight, biochemical and hematological parameters were studied. The results of in vitro did not show any cytotoxicity on both the cell lines used. In the in vivo acute toxicity, the hydrogels did not show any toxic symptoms in all three dose levels. This establishes the safety of the selected hydrogels. Hence, they can be used as excipients in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

Acute Toxicity Study on Oryeong-san in Mice (오령산 열수추출물의 단회투여 급성독성 연구)

  • Park, Hwayong;Hwang, Youn-Hwan;Ha, Jeong-Ho;Jung, Kiyoun;Ma, Jin Yeul
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.111-118
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    • 2013
  • Objectives : Traditional medicine Oryeong-san (ORS) has been prescribed for a long time to treat light fever, thirst, dysuria, and accompanying edema. However, the acute toxicity and safety were not reported. In this study, we evaluated the potent acute toxicity and safety of ORS. Methods : ICR mice were used to evaluate acute toxicity and safety by oral administration of 0, 500, 1,000, 2,000mg/kg of ORS. Mortality, body weight, and clinical symptoms were observed, and organ weight and blood biochemical parameters were analyzed after necropsy. Results : We found no mortality and no toxic or abnormal clinical symptoms by administration of ORS. Comparing with control group, no significant alterations in organ weight and blood biochemical parameters were observed. Conclusions : ORS recognized as safe and non-toxic medicinal material, and median lethal dose considered to be over 2,000 mg/kg in both male and female ICR mice.

Toxicity and Antitumor Activities of Korean Medicinal Plants (I) (한국산 생약의 독성 및 항암 작용 (제1보))

  • Chang, Il-Moo;Chi, Hyung-Joon
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.125-130
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    • 1981
  • Thirty species of Korean medicinal plants which have been frequently used in Oriental herb prescriptions were evaluated on their acute toxicity and potential antitumor activities against P-388 lymphocytic leukemia. The criteria for toxicity evaluation of measuring weight loss, toxicity day survivors and computing log cell kill indicated that 11 species possessed acute toxicity according to the doses administered. No significant antitumor activities were observed while the root of Angelica gigas Nakai (Umbelliferae) exhibited only 24% increased life span.

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