• Title, Summary, Keyword: acute toxicity

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Acute Toxicity Study of DA-5018, A Non-narcotic Analgesic Agent (비 마약성 진통제 DA-5018의 급성독성시험)

  • 강경구;김동환;백남기;김원배;양주익
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.12-22
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    • 1997
  • Intravenous and oral acute toxicity tests in ICR mice and SD rats and percutaneous acute toxicity tests in SD rats and NZW rabbits were conducted to evaluate the toxicity of DA-5018 and DA-5018 cream, respectively Clinical signs observed in mice and rats after the administration of DA-5018 were similar regardless of administration route. The observed clinical signs were jumping, wild running, lacrimation, ataxia, reddening of extremities and ears, ventral or lateral recumbency, respiratory distress, cyanosis, convulsion and death. Pulmonary enlargement and hemorrhage were observed in the animals died immediately after the dosing of DA-5018. At terminal necropsy, pulmonary enlargement and hemorrhage, corneal opacity and focal scabbing and depilation around nose were seen. LD$_{50}$ Values of DA-5018 are 11.5 mg/kg (mice, male), 12.6 mg/kg (mice, female), 88.3 mg/kg (rat, male) and 73.2 mg/kg (rat, female) in oral toxicity tests and 11.0 mg/kg (mice, male), 18.7 mg/kg (mice, female), 0.12 mg/kg (rat, male) and 0.32 mg/kg (rat, female) in i.v. toxicity tests. In the percutaneous acute toxicity tests of DA-5018 cream, no deaths occured in all the tested groups during 14-day observation period. There were also no abnormalities in the general conditions, body weight changes and on necropsy findings in all groups. LD$_{50}$ values of 0.1 ~0.9% DA-5018 creams in male and female rats and rabbits are >2000 mg/kg./kg.

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Acute Hepatotoxicity and Toxicokinetics of Acetaminophen in Mice (마우스에서 아세트아미노펜의 급성간독성과 독물동태학)

  • 서경원;류정상;김효정
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.237-245
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    • 1997
  • As the development of a pharmaceutical product is a dynamic process which involves continuousfeed-back between non-clinical and clinical studies, the integration of pharmacokinetics into toxicity testing became increasingly important in recent years. Toxicokinetic measurements in the toxicity studies is considered to be an important scientific approach in the interpretation of the toxicology findings and the promotion of rational study design development. Primarily this research project was conducted to determine the systemic exposure achieved in acute toxicity test and its relationship to dose level and the time course of the toxicity study. Acute hepatotoxicity study and its relevant toxicokinetic study in mice were performed using acetarninophen (AA) as a model compound. The correlation between acute hepatotoxicity indices and toxicokinetic parameters following intraperitoneally administration of various dosages of AA in mice was evaluated and discussed minutely in the text. Based on these studies, single-dose toxicity testing of AA including kinetic studies was evaluated in ICR mice for 7 days and interpreted in the text. Our results from the integration of toxicokinetic monitoring into single-dose toxicity study enable to elucidate the relation of the exposure achieved in toxicity study to toxicological findings and assist in the selection of appropriate dose levels for use in repeated-dose toxicity or later studies.

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Acute Toxicity Study on Sagunja-tang(Sijunzi-tang) in ICR Mice (ICR 마우스를 이용하여 사군자탕(四君子湯)의 급성 독성에 관한 연구)

  • Ma, Jin-Yeul;Huang, Dae-Sun;Yu, Young-Beob;Ha, Hye-Kyung;Shin, Hyun-Kyoo
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.200-204
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    • 2007
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate acute toxicity of orally-treated Sagunja-tang(Sijunzi-tang) in ICR mice. Methods : In this study, we investigated the acute toxicity of water-extracted Sagunja-tang(Sijunzi-tang). Twenty-five mice completed 14 days of oral Sagunja-tang(Sijunzi-tang) at respective doses of 0 (control group), 2560, 3200, 4000 and 5000 mg/kg. Results : We observed survival rates, clinical signs of male ICR mice with acute toxicity, change of body weight and autopsy. Conclusions : Compared with the control group, we could not find any toxic alteration in anytreated groups (2560, 3200, 4000 and 5000mg/kg). LD50 of Sagunja-tang(Sijunzi-tang) was over 5000 mg/kg and it is very safe for ICR mice.

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Investigation of the Guidance Levels for Protecting Populations from Chemical Exposure and the Estimation of the Level of Concern Using Acute Toxicity Data (화학사고 시 수용체 보호를 위한 독성끝점 농도와 급성독성 자료를 활용한 우려농도 예측값 조사)

  • Lee, Jiyun;Kim, Sunshin;Yang, Wonho;Yoon, Junheon;Ryu, Jisung;Kim, Jungkon;Ji, Kyunghee
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.44-54
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: To protect individuals working at the site as well as the surrounding general population from a chemical accident, several emergency exposure guidance levels have been used to set a level of concern for certain chemicals. However, a level of concern has not been established for many substances that are frequently used or produced in large quantities in Korean workplaces. In the present study, we investigated the guidance levels for protecting populations from chemical exposure and the estimation of level of concern using acute inhalation and oral toxicity data. Methods: The number of chemicals to which emergency exposure guidance levels (e.g., ERPG-2, AEGL-2, PAC-2, and IDLH) can be applied were determined among 822 hazardous chemicals according to the 'Technical Guidelines for the Selection of Accident Scenarios (revised December 2016)'. The ERPG and AEGL values were compared across all three tiers for the 31 substances that appeared on both lists. We examined the degree of difference between the emergency exposure guidance levels and the estimates of level of concern calculated from acute inhalation or acute oral toxicity data. Results: Among the 822 hazardous chemicals, emergency exposure guidance levels can be applied to 359 substances, suggesting that the estimates of level of concern should be calculated using acute toxicity data for 56.3% of the hazardous chemicals. When comparing the concordance rates of ERPG and AEGL for 31 substances, the difference between the two criteria was generally small. However, about 40% of the substances have values diverging by more than three-fold in at least one tier. Such discrepancies may cause interpretation and communication problems in risk management. The emergency exposure guidance levels were similar to the estimates of level of concern calculated using acute inhalation toxicity data, but the differences were significant when using acute oral toxicity data. These results indicate that the level of concern derived from acute oral toxicity data may be insufficient to protect the population in some cases. Conclusion: Our study suggests that the development of standardized guidance values for emergency chemical exposure in the Korean population should be encouraged. It is also necessary to analyze acute toxicity data and fill the information gaps for substances that are important in Korean workplace situations.

Evaluation of Acute Toxicity of the Herbicide Methiozolin (제초제 Methiozolin의 급성독성평가)

  • Koo, Suk-Jin;Kwon, Min;Park, Cheol-Beom
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.383-388
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    • 2011
  • We investigated methiozolin acute toxicity using with Sprague-Dawley rats. The results of acute oral toxicity using rats showed $LD_{50}$ value of over 2,000 mg/kg bw for methiozolin. The calculate acute dermal $LD_{50}$ value of methiozolin was over 4,000 mg/kg. The skin irritation test showed moderately irritation and weak response of eye irritation test was observed in this experimental condition. According to these results, We concluded that methiozolin was Category IV in GHS chemical classification for acute toxicity. Future, we need more chronic toxicity test for safety.

Comparative Study on Acute Toxicity of Treated Effluent Containing Salt using Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri (염 함유 폐수처리수에 대한 Daphnia magna 및 Vibrio fischeri 급성독성 비교연구)

  • Kim, Jongmin;Shin, Kisik;Yu, Soonju;Lee, Jungseo;Kim, Woongki
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.453-459
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    • 2015
  • This paper aims to evaluate the results of acute toxicity testing with Daphnia mag$Na^+$ and Vibrio fischeri and characteristics of ionic substance of treated effluent which contained salt. Acute toxicity with Daphnia mag$Na^+$ and Vibrio fischeri and salinity of 19 samples (4 business categories) were a$Na^+$lysed. Salinity of effluent could explain the fluctuation of toxicity with D. mag$Na^+$ about 66% ~ 91% ($r^2=0.66{\sim}0.91$). The results of acute toxicity testing with V. fischeri of treated effluent (aggregate manufacture facilities) did not indicate toxicity (TU = 0), whereas that of chemical manufacture facilities indicated toxicity. V. fischeri, a candidate test organism, seemed suitable test organism for acute toxicity testing of effluent except high salinity (above 65‰ ~ 70‰) in aggregate manufacture facilities (nonmetalic minerals facilities). The performance of ion composition about treated effluent of surveyed facilities indicated that ion concentration of $Na^+$ (5,740 mg/L) and $Cl^-$ (9,727 mg/L) showed high level among 6 major ions ($Na^+$, $K^+$, $Ca^{2+}$, $Mg^{2+}$, $SO_4{^{2-}}$, $Cl^-$) in effluent of nonmetalic minerals facilities. In addition, Clion seemed to influence the D. magna survival rather than $Na^+$ ion.

The Experimental Study on Toxicity Effects of Pinus Densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini Herbal-acupuncture (송엽약침액(松葉藥鍼液)의 독성시험에 관한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Dae-Hyun;Soh, Kyung-Sun
    • Journal of Society of Preventive Korean Medicine
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.123-140
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    • 2006
  • This experiment was carried out to study on the safety assessment of Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini for Hebal-acupuncture. SD rats and ICR mice were used for acute toxicity test, the results were summerized as follows; 1. In rats and mice, $LD_{50}$ value could not be measured. 2. There were no abnormal finding in acute toxicity test treated Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini for Hebal-acupuncture.

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Acute and Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity of n-Octane in Rats

  • Sung, Jae-Hyuck;Choi, Byung-Gil;Kim, Hyeon-Yeong;Baek, Min-Won;Ryu, Hyun-Youl;Kim, Yong-Soon;Choi, Young-Kuk;Yu, Il-Je;Song, Kyung-Seuk
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.192-200
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    • 2010
  • Objectives: We have investigated the toxic effects of the inhalation of subchronic and acute levels of n-octane. Methods: The rats were exposed to n-octane of 0, 2.34, 11.68 and 23.36 mg/L (n = 5 rats/group/gender) in an acute inhalation test (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) TG 403), or to 0, 0.93, 2.62 and 7.48 mg/L (n = 10 rats/group/gender) for a subchronic inhalation test (OECE TG 413), to establish a national chemical management system consistent with the Globally Harmonized Classification System (GHS). Results: Acutely-exposed rats became lethargic but recovered following discontinuation of inhalation. Other clinical symptoms such as change of body weight and autopsy finds were absent. The LC50 for the acute inhalation toxicity of n-octane was determined to exceed 23.36 mg/L and the GHS category was 'not grouping'. Subchronically-treated rats displayed no significant clinical and histopathological differences from untreated controls; also, target organs were affected hematologically, biochemically and pathologically. Therefore, the no observable adverse effect level was indicated as exceeding 7.48 mg/L and the GHS category was 'not grouping' for the specific target organ toxicity upon repeated exposure. Conclusion: However, n-octane exposure should be controlled to be below the American Conference of Industrial Hygienists recommendation (300 ppm) to prevent inhalation-related adverse health effects of workers.

Protective effect of Jageum-Jung on chlorpyrifos-induced acute toxicity in ICR mice

  • Yim, Nam-Hui;Ma, Jin Yeul
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.61 no.4
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    • pp.411-416
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    • 2018
  • Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the most heavily used organophosphate pesticides and is useful as an insecticide drug. However, CPF also causes toxic effects in nontarget organisms, including humans and animals. Jageum-Jung (JGJ) is a traditional oriental medicine, composed of five specific herbs with antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties, used for detoxification. In the present study, highly concentrated CPF was orally administrated to male Institute of Cancer Research mice to produce acute toxicity, and the protective effects of JGJ administration were investigated through statistical analysis of changes in body and organ weights and serum biochemical parameters. JGJ caused body and organ weights to recover and reduced the levels of serum biochemical parameters indicative of liver damage, such as glutamic oxalate transaminase, glutamic pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase, urea, glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride, that had been increased by CPF treatment. Our results demonstrated that JGJ ameliorates the effects of acute chlorpyrifos-induced toxicity. Therefore, JGJ has the potential to be used as a traditional medicine to alleviate insecticide toxicity.

ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY OF HEPACCINE-B(HEPATITIS B VACCINE)

  • Lee, Yong-Soon;Cho, Jung-Silk;Kim, Sun-Chul
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.23-30
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    • 1986
  • Acute toxicity study was conducted on a Hepatitis B vaccine (Hepaccine-B-inj.) with mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits, in accordance with the norms suggested by the F.D.A. in U.S.A. Dose ranges were 2 doses/mouse, 5 doses/guinea pig, 10 doses/rabbit. They received the vaccine subcutaneously and intraperitoneally. Thereafter, all animals injected were observed of general signsdaily, and of body weight for two weeks. At the end of the observation period (or at the time of death), all animals received the highest dose group were autopsied and gross observation was made on various organs and tissues. No significant toxicity was noted.

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