• Title, Summary, Keyword: activated carbon

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Adsorption of Trichloroethylene in Water by Coconut Carbon and Coconut Activated Carbon (야자껍질 탄화탄과 야자껍질 활성탄에 의한 수중 Trichloroethylene의 흡착에 관한 연구)

  • 김영규;정문호
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 1993
  • Granular activated carbon is commonly used in fixed-bed adsorbers to remove organic chemicals. In this experiment organic chemical solutions were prepared by adding the reagent grade organic chemical to distilled water. Isotherm adsorption tests of volatile organic chemicals were conducted using bottle-point technique and column test. Organic chemicals after passing through the column were extracted with hexane and analyzed with gas chromatography (Hewlett-Packard 5890) to check the adsorption capacity and breakthrough curve. The result were as follows: 1. The BET surface area of coconut activated carbon was 658~1,010 m$^2$/g where as coconut shell carbon was 6.6 m$^2$/g. Coconut activated carbon increased the BET surface area and adsorption capacity in bottle-point isotherm. 2. The adsorption capacity of coconut activated carbon for trichloroethylene (TCE) was reduced in the presence of humic substance. 3. A decrease in particle size of activated carbon resulted in higher adsorption capacity and lower intraparticle diffusion coefficient. It is reflected not only as a decrease in Freudlich adsorption capacity value (K) but also as an increase in Freudlich exponenent value (1/n).

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Removal Efficiency of the Pollutants from Piggery Wastes with Activated Carbon Treated with Metal and Their Pilot Scale Design

  • Oh, Won-Chun;Park, Chong-Sung;Bae, Jang-Soon;Ko, Young-Shin
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.180-187
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    • 2006
  • The treatment of piggery wastes was carried out at pilot scale using a multilayered metal-activated carbon system followed by carbon bed filtration. The physicochemical properties were obtained from treated samples with aqueous solutions containing metallic ions such as $Ag^+$, $Cu^{2+}$, $Na^+$, $K^+$ and $Mn^{2+}$, which main obsevations are subjected to inspect surface properties, color removal properties by Uv/Vis and EDX. Multilayered metal-activated carbons were contacted with waste water to investigation of the simultaneous catalytic effect for the COD, BOD, T-N and T-P removal. The removal results for the piggery waste using multilayered metal-activated carbon bed was achieved the satisfactory removal performance under permitted values of Ministry of Environment of Korea. The high efficiency of the multilayered metal-activated carbon bed was determined by the performance of this material for trapping, catalytic effect and adsorption of organic solid particles.

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Column Removal of Trichloroethylene and Dichloromethane using Low Cost Activated Carbon

  • Radhika, M.;Lee, Young-Seak;Palanivelu, K.
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.13-21
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    • 2010
  • Coconut shell activated carbon (CSAC) was investigated for its ability in the removal of two neutral chlorinated organic compounds, namely trichloroethylene (TCE) and dichloromethane (DCM) from aqueous solution using a packed bed column. The efficiency of the prepared activated carbon was also compared with a commercial activated carbon (CAC). The important design parameters such as flow rate and bed height were studied. In all the cases the lowest flow rate (5 mL/min) and the highest bed height (25 cm) resulted in maximum uptake and per cent removal. The experimental data were analysed using bed depth service time model (BDST) and Thomas model. The regeneration experiments including about five adsorption-desorption cycles were conducted. The suitable elutant selected from batch regeneration experiments (25% isopropyl alcohol) was used to desorb the loaded activated carbon in each cycle.

Effect of Reactivation of Activated Carbon on Adsorption of Natural Organic Matter (활성탄 재생이 자연유기물질의 흡착에 미치는 영향)

  • Hong, Seongho;Choi, Jusol
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.323-329
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    • 2007
  • There is no certain definition about advanced drinking water treatment but it is generally known as activated carbon process, membrane process or ozone process which can remove non-conventional pollutants such as taste and odor compounds, and micro-pollutants. There are more than 20 processes related to activated carbon as adsorber or biological activated carbon in Korea. The saturated carbon by pollutants can be reused by reactivation. However, the effect of reactivation on activated carbon is not well-understood in terms of changing physical properties of carbon to adsorption capacity of natural organic matter (NOM). In this study, the effects of reactivation on physical properties of activated carbon were investigated by isotherm and breakthrough of NOM. Ash content was increased from 8% to 13.3%. Iodine number is commonly used as an indicator for performance of reactivation. The iodine number was decreased about 20% after reactivating twice. The degree of reactivation can be evaluated by not only iodine number but also apparent density.

Electrochemical Properties of EDLC Electrodes Prepared by Acid and Heat Treatment of Commercial Activated Carbons

  • Wu, Jin-Gyu;Hong, Ik-Pyo;Park, Sei-Min;Lee, Seong-Young;Kim, Myung-Soo
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.137-144
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    • 2008
  • The commercial activated carbons are typically prepared by activation from coconut shell char or coal char containing lots of inorganic impurities. They also have pore structure and pore size distribution depending on nanostructure of precursor materials. In this study, two types of commercial activated carbons were applied for EDLC electrode by removing impurities with acid treatments, and controlling pore size distribution and contents of functional group with heat treatment. The effect of the surface functional groups on electrochemical performance of the activated carbon electrodes was investigated. The initial gravimetric and volumetric capacitance of coconut based activated carbon electrode which was acid treated by $HNO_3$ and then heat treated at $800^{\circ}C$ were 90 F/g and 42 F/cc respectively showing 94% of charge-discharge efficiency. Such a good electrochemical performance can be possibly applied to the medium capacitance of EDLC.

A Development of High Power Activated Carbon Using the KOH Activation of Soft Carbon Series Cokes

  • Kim, Jung-Ae;Park, In-Soo;Seo, Ji-Hye;Lee, Jung-Joon
    • Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.81-86
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    • 2014
  • The process parameter in optimized KOH alkali activation of soft carbon series coke material in high purity was set with DOE experiments design. The activated carbon was produced by performing the activation process based on the set process parameters. The specific surface area was measured and pore size was analyzed by $N_2$ absorption method for the produced activated carbon. The surface functional group was analyzed by Boehm method and metal impurities were analyzed by XRF method. The specific surface area was increased over 2,000 $m^2/g$ as the mixing ratio of activation agent increased. The micro pores in $5{\sim}15{\AA}$ and surface functional group under 0.4 meq/g were obtained. The contents of the metal impurity in activated carbon which is the factor for reducing the electrochemical characteristics was reduced less than 100 ppm through the cleansing process optimization. The electrochemical characteristics of activated carbon in 38.5 F/g and 26.6 F/cc were checked through the impedance measuring with cyclic voltammetry scan rate in 50~300 mV/s and frequency in 10 mHz ~100 kHz. The activated carbon was made in the optimized activation process conditions of activation time in 40 minutes, mixing ratio of activation agent in 4.5 : 1.0 and heat treatment temperature over $650^{\circ}C$.

Influence of Pyrolysis Conditions and Type of Resin on the Porosity of Activated Carbon Obtained From Phenolic Resins

  • Agarwal, Damyanti;Lal, Darshan;TripathiN, V.S.;Mathur, G.N.
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.57-63
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    • 2003
  • In polymer precursor based activated carbon, the structure of starting material is likely to have profound effect on the surface properties of end product. To investigate this aspect phenolic resins of different types were prepared using phenol, mcresol and formaldehyde as reactants and $Et_3N$ and $NH_4OH$ as catalyst. Out of these resins two resol resins PFR1 and CFR1 (prepared in excess of formaldehyde using $Et_3N$ as catalyst in the basic pH range) were used as raw materials for the preparation of activated carbons by both chemical and physical activation methods. In chemical activation process both the resins gave activated carbons with high surface areas i.e. 2384 and 2895 $m^2/g$, but pore size distribution in PFR1 resin calculated from Horvath-Kawazoe method, contributes mainly in micropore range i.e. 84.1~88.7 volume percent of pores was covered by micropores. Whereas CFR1 resin when activated with KOH for 2h time, a considerable amount (32.8%) of mesopores was introduced in activated carbon prepared. Physical activation with $CO_2$ leads to the formation of activated carbon with a wide range of surface area (503~1119 $m^2/g$) with both of these resins. The maximum pore volume percentage was obtained in 3-20 ${\AA}$ region by physical activation method.

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Study on the Production of Activated Carbon using Chinese Cabbage (배추를 이용한 활성탄 제조에 관한 연구)

  • Lee,Seong-Heon;Lee,Bong-Hyeon;Park,Hong-Jae
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.373-380
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    • 2001
  • In recent years, the demand of activated carbon has been increasing steadily because of the environmental problems. Among them waste and water treatment and removal of poisonous gas were invorved. Therefore, in this study, activated carbon was made from the waste chinese cabbage and measured the iodine adsorption ability, carbonization yield, and activation yield of the produced activated carbon. The result showed that the carbonization yield was decreased when carbonization temperature was increaed and that the optimal carbonization temperature was $600{\circ}C$. The optimal concentration of NaOH for removing ash in the raw sample was 1~2N. The range of iodine adsorption number of activated carbon using chinese cabbage at $600{\circ}C$. carbonization was 610.82mg/g to 1019.58mg/g. The activation result of carbonization sample showed that the optimal activation condition was the carbonization at $400\circ}C$ and the activation at$700{\circ}C$. So the production of activated carbon using chinese cabbage was possible in the aspect of reuse of resource and decrease of environmental pollution compared to the commercial activated carbon.

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Application of activated carbon bugs to the dye tracer study in a Karst area

  • Hwang Hyeon-Tae;Lee Myeong-Jae;Choi Ye-Gwon;Mok Jong-Gu;Lee Jin-Yong;Kim Yong-Cheol;Yeom Byeong-U
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.407-410
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    • 2006
  • Studies were performed on evaluating the applicability of activated carbon bugs on dye tracer tests as tracer detectors by using its adsorption isotherm of the grained activated carbon. We preliminary conducted several standard adsorption and extraction tests and obtained the relationship between standard dye solution and detected concentrations from activated carbon samples in dry and wet conditions. the slopes of the regression line were 0.71 for wet condition and 0.74 for dried one. Field dye tracer tests were performed in a karst area, where several faults occur along a stream and pass the test area. We sampled water samples and activated carbon samples at three points in Hwangji Pond, where groundwater outflows from the karst conduit. According to the results of breakthrough curve analysis, the regional flow along the conduit, which is assumed to cause a karst conduit, was estimated as 0.18 m/day. The relationship between the concentrations of water sample and extracted activated carbon bugs shows the similar slopes with those from standard solution tests. This suggests that activated carbon could be useful as a dye tracer detector because the extraced concentration can be quantified.

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Adsorption Characteristics of Activated Carbon Prepared From Waste Citrus Peels by NaOH Activation (NaOH 활성화법으로 제조한 폐감귤박 활성탄의 흡착특성)

  • Kang, Kyung-Ho;Kam, Sang-Kyu;Lee, Song-Woo;Lee, Min-Gyu
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.1279-1285
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    • 2007
  • The activated carbon was prepared from waste citrus peels using NaOH. With the increase of NaOH ratio, iodine adsorptivity and specific surface area of the activated carbon prepared were increased, but activation yield was decreased. The optimal condition of activation was at 300% NaOH and $700^{\circ}C$ for 1.5 hr. For the activated carbon produced under optimal condition, iodine adsorptivity was 1,006 mg/g, specific surface area was $1,356 m^2/g$, and average pore diameter was $20{\sim}25{\AA}$. From the adsorption experiment for benzene vapor in fixed bed reactor, it was found that the adsorption capacity of activated carbon prepared from waste citrus peel was higher than that of activated carbon purchased from Calgon company. This result implied that the activated carbon prepared from waste citrus peel could be used for gas phase adsorption.