• Title, Summary, Keyword: activated carbon

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Effects of absorbents on growth performance, blood profiles and liver gene expression in broilers fed diets naturally contaminated with aflatoxin

  • Liu, J.B.;Yan, H.L.;Cao, S.C.;Hu, Y.D.;Zhang, H.F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.294-304
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    • 2020
  • Objective: The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the absorbent (a mixture of activated carbon and hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate) on growth performance, blood profiles and hepatic genes expression in broilers fed diets naturally contaminated with aflatoxin. Methods: A total of 1,200 one-day-old male chicks were randomly assigned to 6 treatments with 10 replicate cages per treatment. The dietary treatments were as follows: i) control (basal diets); ii) 50% contaminated corn; iii) 100% contaminated corn; iv) control+1% adsorbent; v) 50% contaminated corn+1% absorbent; vi) 100% contaminated corn+1% absorbent. Results: During d 1 to 21, feeding contaminated diets reduced (p<0.05) body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), and average daily feed intake (ADFI), but increased (p<0.05) feed-to-gain ratio (F/G). The absorbent supplementation increased (p<0.05) BW, ADG, and ADFI. There were interactions (p<0.05) in BW, ADG, and ADFI between contaminated corn and absorbent. Overall, birds fed 100% contaminated diets had lower (p<0.05) final BW and ADG, but higher (p<0.05) F/G compared to those fed control diets. The absorbent addition increased (p<0.05) serum albumin concentration on d 14 and 28 and total protein (TP) level on d 28, decreased (p<0.05) alanine transaminase activity on d 14 and activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase on d 28. Feeding contaminated diets reduced (p<0.05) hepatic TP content on d 28 and 42. The contaminated diets upregulated (p<0.05) expression of interleukin-6, catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), but downregulated (p<0.05) glutathione S-transferase (GST) expression in liver. The absorbent supplementation increased (p<0.05) interleukin-1β, CAT, SOD, cytochrome P450 1A1 and GST expression in liver. There were interactions (p<0.05) in the expression of hepatic CAT, SOD, and GST between contaminated corn and absorbent. Conclusion: The results suggest that the naturally aflatoxin-contaminated corn depressed growth performance, while the adsorbent could partially attenuate the adverse effects of aflatoxin on growth performance, blood profiles and hepatic genes expression in broilers.

Influence of denitrified biofloc water on the survival rate and physiological characteristics of Pacific white shrimp juveniles, Litopenaeus vannamei (바이오플락 탈질수가 어린 흰다리새우, Litopenaeus vannamei의 생존율 및 생리특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Su-Kyoung;Jang, Jin Woo;Jo, Yong Rok;Kim, Jun-Hwan;Kim, Su Kyoung
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.136-143
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    • 2019
  • This study investigates the effect of denitrified biofloc water on changes in the water quality parameters and the physiological characteristics of shrimps. Biofloc rearing water contains a large number of microorganisms and can rapidly stabilize the water quality and energy saving if reusable due to high water temperatures. Rearing water contain floating bacteria with both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Therefore, when the carbon source is added in limited air supply, the anaerobic state is activated and the denitrification process is possible. In this study, the denitrification water had the following properties: ammonia (6.9 mg L-1), nitrite (0.3 mg L-1), nitrate concentration (9.2 mg L-1), high pH (8.42) and alkalinity (590 mg L-1). The experimental group consisted of seawater (SW, control), a mixture of Seawater and denitrified biofloc water (DNW) in the ratio of 3:1, 1:1 and DNW only. All experiments were done in triplicate. As a result, the survival rate never changed even when 100% of the denitrification water was utilized. However, a body fluid analysis showed that creatine and BUN were increased due to index of stress and the tissue damage resulting from the high denitrified water content. Body fluid ions (Na+, K+, and Cl-) significantly decreased as the denitrified water content increased. It was recommended that the denitrification water be mixed with a certain ratio (less than 50%) in the future as it may affect the osmotic pressure control in shrimps.

Comparison of Antiplatelet Activities of Green Tea Catechins

  • Cho, Mi-Ra;Jin, Yong-Ri;Lee, Jung-Jin;Lim, Yong;Kim, Tack-Joong;Oh, Ki-Wan;Yoo, Hwan-Soo;Yun, Yeo-Pyo
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.223-230
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    • 2007
  • We have previously reported that green tea catechins(GTC) displayed potent antithrombotic effect, which was due to the antiplatelet activity. In the present study, the antiplatelet activity of each green tea catechin components was compared in vitro. Galloylated catechins including (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) and (-)-catechin gallate (CG), significantly inhibited collagen $(5{\mu}g/mL)-induced$ rabbit platelet aggregation with $IC_{50}$ values of 79.8, 63.0, 168.2 and $67.3{\mu}M$, respectively. EGCC GCG and CG also significantly inhibited arachidonic acid (AA, $100{\mu}M$)-induced rabbit platelet aggregation with $IC_{50}$ values of 98.9, 200.0 and $174.3{\mu}M$, respectively. However catechins without gallate moiety showed little inhibitory effects against rabbit platelet aggregation induced by collagen or AA compared with galloylated catechins. These observations suggest that the presence of gallate moiety at C-3 position may be essential to the antiplatelet activity of catechins and the presence of B ring galloyl structure may also contribute to the antiplatelet activity of GTC. In line with the inhibition of collagen-induced platelet aggregation, EGCG caused concentration-dependent decreases of cytosolic calcium mobilization, AA liberation and serotonin secretion. In contrast, epigallocatechin (EGC), a structural analogue of EGCG lacking a galloyl group in the 3' position, although slightly inhibited collagen-stimulated cytosolic calcium mobilization, failed to affect other signal transductions as EGCG in activated platelets. Taken together, these observations suggest that the antiplatelet activity of EGCG may be due to inhibition of arachidonic acid liberation and inhibition of $Ca^{2+}$ mobilization and that the antiplatelet of EGCG is enhanced by the presence of a gallate moiety esterified at carbon 3 on the C ring.

Effect of Advanced Treatment Process for Residual Chlorine Decay and THM Formation in Water Distribution System (고도처리공정이 관로 내 잔류염소 감소 및 THM 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Doo-Jin;Kim, Young-Il;Kim, Sung-Su;Lee, Kyung-Hyuk;Park, Hyun-A
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.419-424
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    • 2007
  • According to increase of consumer's desire for clean tap water, advanced treatment processes include with membrane, ozone, and granular activated carbon(GAC) were introduced. In order to evaluate the effect of advanced treatment processes for residual chlorine decay and trihalomethane(THM) formation in water distribution system, dissolved organic matter(DOC) removal of each advanced treatment process was investigated. The residual chlorine decay and THM formation using bottle tests were also evaluated. $UV_{254}$ removal in all advanced treatment was better than DOC removal. Especially, DOC by ozone treated was removed as 4% in contrast with sand filtered water, but $UV_{254}$ was removed about 17%. This result might be due to convert from hydrophobic DOC to hydrophilic DOC by ozonation. Ozone/GAC process was most effective process for DOC removal. The residual chlorine decay constants in treated water by sand filtration, ozonation, GAC adsorption, and ozone/GAC processes were 0.0230, 0.0307, 0.0117 and 0.0098 $hr^{-1}$, respectively. The sand filtered water was produced 81.8 ${\mu}g/L$ of THM after 190 hours of reaction time, as the treated water by ozone, GAC, and Ozone/GAC was less produced 6.0, 26.2, 30.3% in contrast with sand filtered water, respectively. Consequently, the durability of residual chlorine and reduction of THM formation were improved by advanced treatment processes.

The Treatment of Night Soil using Bacillus sp. (Bacillus sp.를 이용한 분뇨처리)

  • 염혜경;이은숙;이병헌;이민규;정일호;김중균
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.700-707
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    • 2002
  • To study the characteristics of organic and nutrient removal by Bacillus species at high COD concentration of influent, three lab-scale batch reactors(R1, R2, R3), each of which has different substrate composition, were operated. More than 95% of $NH_4^+$-N and $COD_{cr}$, concentrations were removed under an aerobic condition, and their removal efficiencies were found to be 22.6 and 90.5%(R1), 23.9 and 65.8%(R2), 30.2 and 86.4%(R3), respectively. The removal efficiency of $NH_4^+$-N was high when an enough amount of $NO_3^{-}$-N was supplied, and that of $COD_{cr}$. was low when a high concentration of initial $NO_2^{-}$-N was added. The amount of carbon utilized in denitrification was a little. In all reactors,$NO_3^{-}$-N was removed under an anoxic condition, but in the R3 reactor, 10% of $NO_3^{-}$-N could be removed even undo, an aerobic condition. The removal efficiencies of TN and TP were 41.8 and 49.5%(R1), 40.1 and 35.8%(R2), 47.0 and 57.6%(R3), respectively. Alkalinities destructed under an aerobic condition for each reactor were 4.96, 5.41 and 3.93 mg/L (as $CaCO_3$) per each gram of $NH_4^+$-N oxidized, respectively, while 3.06, 3.17 and 2.60 mg/L (as $CaCO_3$) of alkalinities were produced for each gram of ,$NO_3^{-}$-N reduced to $N_2$. The SOUR were found to be 38.5, 52.7 and 42.0 mg $O_2$/g MLSS/hr, which indicated that Bacillus sp. had a higher cell activity than activated sludge. The OLR and sludge production were estimated to be 0.69 and 0.28(Rl), 0.77 and 0.20(R2), 0.61 kg COD/$m^3$/day and 0.25 kg MLSS/kg COD(R3), respectively. From the N-balance, the highest percentage(40.9%) of nitrogen lost to $N_2$ was obtained in the R3 reactor. From all the results, the possibility of aerobic denitrification Bacillus sp. has been shown and the B3 process seemed to have two advantages: a little amount of carbon was required in denitrification and not much amount of alkalinity was destructed under an aerobic condition.

Sesquiterpenoids Bioconversion Analysis by Wood Rot Fungi

  • Lee, Su-Yeon;Ryu, Sun-Hwa;Choi, In-Gyu;Kim, Myungkil
    • 한국균학회소식:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.19-20
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    • 2016
  • Sesquiterpenoids are defined as $C_{15}$ compounds derived from farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), and their complex structures are found in the tissue of many diverse plants (Degenhardt et al. 2009). FPP's long chain length and additional double bond enables its conversion to a huge range of mono-, di-, and tri-cyclic structures. A number of cyclic sesquiterpenes with alcohol, aldehyde, and ketone derivatives have key biological and medicinal properties (Fraga 1999). Fungi, such as the wood-rotting Polyporus brumalis, are excellent sources of pharmaceutically interesting natural products such as sesquiterpenoids. In this study, we investigated the biosynthesis of P. brumalis sesquiterpenoids on modified medium. Fungal suspensions of 11 white rot species were inoculated in modified medium containing $C_6H_{12}O_6$, $C_4H_{12}N_2O_6$, $KH_2PO_4$, $MgSO_4$, and $CaCl_2$ for 20 days. Cultivation was stopped by solvent extraction via separation of the mycelium. The metabolites were identified as follows: propionic acid (1), mevalonic acid lactone (2), ${\beta}$-eudesmane (3), and ${\beta}$-eudesmol (4), respectively (Figure 1). The main peaks of ${\beta}$-eudesmane and ${\beta}$-eudesmol, which were indicative of sesquiterpene structures, were consistently detected for 5, 7, 12, and 15 days These results demonstrated the existence of terpene metabolism in the mycelium of P. brumalis. Polyporus spp. are known to generate flavor components such as methyl 2,4-dihydroxy-3,6-dimethyl benzoate; 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-6-methyl benzoic acid; 3-hydroxy-5-methyl phenol; and 3-methoxy-2,5-dimethyl phenol in submerged cultures (Hoffmann and Esser 1978). Drimanes of sesquiterpenes were reported as metabolites from P. arcularius and shown to exhibit antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (Fleck et al. 1996). The main metabolites of P. brumalis, ${\beta}$-Eudesmol and ${\beta}$-eudesmane, were categorized as eudesmane-type sesquiterpene structures. The eudesmane skeleton could be biosynthesized from FPP-derived IPP, and approximately 1,000 structures have been identified in plants as essential oils. The biosynthesis of eudesmol from P. brumalis may thus be an important tool for the production of useful natural compounds as presumed from its identified potent bioactivity in plants. Essential oils comprising eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids have been previously and extensively researched (Wu et al. 2006). ${\beta}$-Eudesmol is a well-known and important eudesmane alcohol with an anticholinergic effect in the vascular endothelium (Tsuneki et al. 2005). Additionally, recent studies demonstrated that ${\beta}$-eudesmol acts as a channel blocker for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, and it can inhibit angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo by blocking the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway (Seo et al. 2011). Variation of nutrients was conducted to determine an optimum condition for the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes by P. brumalis. Genes encoding terpene synthases, which are crucial to the terpene synthesis pathway, generally respond to environmental factors such as pH, temperature, and available nutrients (Hoffmeister and Keller 2007, Yu and Keller 2005). Calvo et al. described the effect of major nutrients, carbon and nitrogen, on the synthesis of secondary metabolites (Calvo et al. 2002). P. brumalis did not prefer to synthesize sesquiterpenes under all growth conditions. Results of differences in metabolites observed in P. brumalis grown in PDB and modified medium highlighted the potential effect inorganic sources such as $C_4H_{12}N_2O_6$, $KH_2PO_4$, $MgSO_4$, and $CaCl_2$ on sesquiterpene synthesis. ${\beta}$-eudesmol was apparent during cultivation except for when P. brumalis was grown on $MgSO_4$-free medium. These results demonstrated that $MgSO_4$ can specifically control the biosynthesis of ${\beta}$-eudesmol. Magnesium has been reported as a cofactor that binds to sesquiterpene synthase (Agger et al. 2008). Specifically, the $Mg^{2+}$ ions bind to two conserved metal-binding motifs. These metal ions complex to the substrate pyrophosphate, thereby promoting the ionization of the leaving groups of FPP and resulting in the generation of a highly reactive allylic cation. Effect of magnesium source on the sesquiterpene biosynthesis was also identified via analysis of the concentration of total carbohydrates. Our current study offered further insight that fungal sesquiterpene biosynthesis can be controlled by nutrients. To profile the metabolites of P. brumalis, the cultures were extracted based on the growth curve. Despite metabolites produced during mycelia growth, there was difficulty in detecting significant changes in metabolite production, especially those at low concentrations. These compounds may be of interest in understanding their synthetic mechanisms in P. brumalis. The synthesis of terpene compounds began during the growth phase at day 9. Sesquiterpene synthesis occurred after growth was complete. At day 9, drimenol, farnesol, and mevalonic lactone (or mevalonic acid lactone) were identified. Mevalonic acid lactone is the precursor of the mevalonic pathway, and particularly, it is a precursor for a number of biologically important lipids, including cholesterol hormones (Buckley et al. 2002). Farnesol is the precursor of sesquiterpenoids. Drimenol compounds, bi-cyclic-sesquiterpene alcohols, can be synthesized from trans-trans farnesol via cyclization and rearrangement (Polovinka et al. 1994). They have also been identified in the basidiomycota Lentinus lepideus as secondary metabolites. After 12 days in the growth phase, ${\beta}$-elemene caryophyllene, ${\delta}$-cadiene, and eudesmane were detected with ${\beta}$-eudesmol. The data showed the synthesis of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons with bi-cyclic structures. These compounds can be synthesized from FPP by cyclization. Cyclic terpenoids are synthesized through the formation of a carbon skeleton from linear precursors by terpene cyclase, which is followed by chemical modification by oxidation, reduction, methylation, etc. Sesquiterpene cyclase is a key branch-point enzyme that catalyzes the complex intermolecular cyclization of the linear prenyl diphosphate into cyclic hydrocarbons (Toyomasu et al. 2007). After 20 days in stationary phase, the oxygenated structures eudesmol, elemol, and caryophyllene oxide were detected. Thus, after growth, sesquiterpenes were identified. Per these results, we showed that terpene metabolism in wood-rotting fungi occurs in the stationary phase. We also showed that such metabolism can be controlled by magnesium supplementation in the growth medium. In conclusion, we identified P. brumalis as a wood-rotting fungus that can produce sesquiterpenes. To mechanistically understand eudesmane-type sesquiterpene biosynthesis in P. brumalis, further research into the genes regulating the dynamics of such biosynthesis is warranted.

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Treatment of Malodorous Waste Air Containing Ammonia Using Biofilter System (바이오필터시스템을 이용한 암모니아 함유 악취폐가스 처리)

  • Lee, Eun Ju;Park, Sang Won;Nam, Dao Vinh;Chung, Chan Hong;Lim, Kwang-Hee
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.391-396
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    • 2010
  • In this research the characteristics of ammonia removal from malodorous waste-air were investigated under various operating condition of biofiilter packed with equal volume of rubber media and compost for the efficient removal of ammonia, representative source of malodor frequently generated at compost manufacturing factory and publicly owned facilities. Then the optimum conditions were constructed to treat waste-air containing ammonia with biofilter. Biofilter was run for 30 days(experimental frequency of 2 times/day makes 60 experimental times.) with the ammonia loading from $2.18g-N/m^3/h$ to $70g-N/m^3/h$ at $30^{\circ}C$. The ammonia removal efficiency reached almost 100% for I through IV stage of run to degrade up to the ammonia loading of $17g-N/m^3/h$. However the removal efficiency dropped to 80% when ammonia loading increased to $35g-N/m^3/h$, which makes the elimination capacity of ammonia $28g-N/m^3/h$ for V stage of run. However, the removal efficiency remained 80% and the maximum elimination capacity reached $55g-N/m^3/h$ when ammonia loading was doubled $70g-N/m^3/h$ for VI stage of run. Thus the maximum elimination capacity exceeded $1,200g-N/m^3/day$(i.e., $50g-N/m^3/h$) of the experiment of biofilter packed with rock wool inoculated with night soil sludge by Kim et al.. However, the critical loading did not exceed $810g-N/m^3/day$ (i.e., $33.75g-N/m^3/h$) of the biofilter experiment by Kim et al.. The reason to exceed the maximum elimination capacity of Kim et al. may be attributed to that the rubber media used as biofilter packing material provide the better environment for the fixation of nitrifying and denitrification bacteria to its surface coated with coconut based-activated carbon powder and well-developed inner-pores, respectively.

Effects of the Recirculation Port Location on Treatment Efficiency of an Anaerobic Hybrid Reactor Consisted of a Fluidized Bed and a Packed Bed (유동상과 충전상이 결합된 혐기성 혼성 반응조에서 순환수의 인출지점이 처리효율에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Seong-Yong;Park, Soo-Young;Cho, Kwang-Myeung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.22 no.11
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    • pp.1935-1944
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    • 2000
  • This research was performed to investigate the effects of the location of recirculation port on the wastewater treatment efficiency of an anaerobic hybrid reactor consisted of a fluidized bed and a packed bed. The recirculation port was located either at the top of the packed bed (Reactor 2) or above the fluidized bed (Reactor 1). Media for the fluidized bed and the packed bed were granular activated carbon and Pall ring-type plastic media. respectively. At organic loading rates(OLR) up to $6.2kg\;COD/m^3-day$. Reactor 2 showed somewhat better performance than Reactor 1 with COD removal efficiencies of 85.0-95.2%. The COD removal efficiencies of the reactors drastically deteriorated at OLRs above $6.2kg\;COD/m^3-day$, and the tendency was more severe for Reactor 1 than for Reactor 2. Eventhough the two reactors showed similar effluent SS concentrations at OLRs below $3.6kg\;COD/m^3-day$, Reactor 2 showed higher effluent SS concentrations than Reactor 1 at OLRs above $5.3kg\;COD/m^3-day$. Reactor 2 was stabler than Reactor 1 with a methane production rate of $5.5kg\;COD/m^3$-day at the OLR of $13.3kg\;COD/m^3-day$. An abrupt increase in effluent volatile acid concentration was observed at the OLR of $6.2kg\;COD/m^3-day$ for Reactor 1 and $7.1kg\;COD/m^3-day$ for Reactor 2. and the increase was greater in Reactor 1. In conclusion. the range of OLR for adequate treatment in the hybrid reactor was determined according to the location of the internal recirculation port. It is more desirable for higher OLRs to locate the recirculation port at the top of the packed bed in order to utilize the whole volume of the reactor.

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The Study for the Relationship of Weight Loss with Plasma Leptin and TNF-α Level in Patients with Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema (만성기관지염과 폐기종 환자에서 체중감소와 혈중 Leptin 및 TNF-α와의 관계에 대한 연구)

  • Pack, Jong Hae;Park, Ji Young;Park, Hye Jeong;Baek, Suk Hwan;Shin, Kyeong Cheol;Chung, Jin Hong;Lee, Kwan Ho
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.199-209
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    • 2003
  • Background : Unexplained weight loss, which commonly occurs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD), is important because weight loss is an independent risk factor of mortality and morbidity in these patients. Leptin is known to play an important role in regulating body weight. In addition, the tumor necrosis factor($TNF-{\alpha}$) might also play a potential role in the weight loss experienced in chronic wasting disease. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of plasma leptin and the circulating $TNF-{\alpha}$ system to the difference in the body compositions in patients with COPD. Methods : Spirometry, body composition analysis and the plasma concentrations of leptin, $TNF-{\alpha}$ and a soluble TNF receptor (STNF-R55, -R75) were measured in 31 patients with chronic bronchitis and 10 patients with emphysema. The COPD subtype was classified by the transfer coefficient of carbon monoxide, DLco/VA. Results : The circulating levels of leptin were significantly lower in those patients with emphysema($108.5{\pm}39.37pg/ml$) than those with chronic bronchitis($180.9{\pm}57.7pg/ml$). The circulating levels of sTNF-R55 were significantly higher in the emphysema patients($920.4{\pm}116.4pg/ml$) than in those with chronic bronchitis($803.2{\pm}80.8pg/ml$). There was no relationship between the circulating leptin levels and the activated TNF system in patients with chronic bronchitis and emphysema. However, the circulating leptin levels correlated well with the BMI and fat mass in both patient groups. Conclusion : These results suggest that the weight loss noted in emphysema patients may be associated with the activation of the $TNF-{\alpha}$ system rather than the plasma leptin level.

Mushroom Production Technology with Crop Residues (농산부산물(農産副産物)을 이용(利用)한 식용(食用)버섯 재배(栽培))

  • Cha, Dong-Yeul;Park, Jeong-Sik
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.27
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    • pp.47-55
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    • 1984
  • The results of series studies on the ratio of supplements, out-door composting and out-door fermentation induced by using the rice straw as a main substrates at the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus, and the cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus using the rice straw bundles on its compost are as follows; When rice straw for cultivation of A. bisporus was used as the main substrates in synthetic compost as a carbon source, yields were remarkably high. Fermentation was more rapid than that of barley straw or wheat straw and the total nitrogen content was high in rice straw compost. Use of barley straw compost for cultivation of A. bisporus was shown of low yield compared with rice straw, but when a 50% barley straw and 50% rice straw mixture was used, the yield was almost the same as that using only rice straw. The total organic nitrogen on the compost were shown the positive relation to the yield of A. bisporus, but the ammonium nitrogen negative relation to the mycelial growth and yield of A. bisporus. When rice straw was used as the main substrate for compost media, urea was the most suitable source of nitrogen. Poor results were obtained with calcium cyanamide and ammonium sulfate. When urea was applied three separate times, nitrogen loss during composting was decreased and the total nitrogen content of compost was increased. The supplementation of organic nutrient activated compost fermentation and increased yield of A. bisporus. The best sources of organic nutrients selected were as follows: perilla meal, sesame meal, wheat bran and poultry manure, etc. Soybean meal, tobacco powder and glutamic acid fermentation byproducts which were industrial wastes, could be substituted for perilla meal, sesame meal and wheat bran as organic nutrient sources for compost media. During out door composing of rice straw for cultivation of A. bisporus, using of tuner, composter and tunnel system increased up to 13% of its yield, and also cut down 34% of production Cost. The cultivation of P. ostreatus and utilizing of rice straw and wheat straw was established and its yield was high on the rice straw pots. When the substrates 'Rice straw' was heated by steam at $60^{\circ}C$ for 6 hr. mycelial growth of P. ostreatus was moderately rapid and its yield was high.

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