• Title, Summary, Keyword: abundance

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Mineral Composition of the Sediment of Ulleung Basin, Korea (울릉분지 퇴적물의 광물조성)

  • Son, Byeong-Kook;Kim, Hag-Ju;Ahn, Gi-Oh
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.115-127
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    • 2009
  • Mineral quantification was performed on sediments of the Ulleung basin by X-ray powder diffraction and the computer software based on Rietveld quantification method. The sediments are dominated by amorphous opal-A with quartz, feldspars, micas, clays, calcite, and pyrite. The opal-A shows iterative variation in abundance with increasing burial depth. In addition, the relative abundance of opal-A is coincident with abundance of organic carbon contents, indicating that the Ulleung sediment consists mostly of amorphous silica derived from organism in the pelagic environment. Upward increase in the abundance of opal-A is markedly shown in the cores located in the slope region. On the other hand, there is a distinct tendency that the abundance of calcite is inversely proportional to that of opal-A. This indicates that the abundance of opal-A increases during the rise of sea level. Also, the fall of sea level lowers the abundance of opal-A.

Seasonal Fluctuations in Abundance and Species Composition of Fishes in Cheonsu Bay Using Trap Net Catches (小型定置網資料에 의한 淺水灣 魚類의 水質에 따른 種組成 및 量的 變動)

  • Lee, Tae-Won;Seok, Kyu-Jin
    • 한국해양학회지
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.217-227
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    • 1984
  • Fish samples were collected by a trap net during 1981∼82 at the mouth of Cheonsu Bay to determine seasonal fluctuations in abundance and species composition. Examination of a series of trap net catches indicated that trap net data could be used, at least, for a qualitative analyses of a fish community and for a quantitative study of some pelagic fishes of Cheonsu Bay. Of the 64 species collected, a few temporal components predominated in abundance because of great seasonal fluctuations of water temperature. The early spring catch showed a low abundance value, and two cold weather seasonals, juvenile Enedrias fangi and Ammodytes personatus predominated in number and in weight. The number of species, abundance value in number and in biomass showed a peak in late spring when fishes move into bay for spawning and feeding after over-winterinig in the sea. Three pelagic species or warm weather seasonals, Harengula zunasi , Ammodytes personatus and Konosirus punctatus, predominated in abundance values. In this period night catch was significantly larger than day catch in terms of number of species, abundance in number and in weight Summer data showed a marked reduction of the number of species and abundance due to the loss of spawners probably by mortality or wide dipersion after spawning. A slight increase in abundance was observed in autumn by recruitment of the young-of-the-years. This catch was predominated by three juvenile fishes, H. zunasi, E. japonica and K. punctatus, which were the same species as in spring. The autumn catch showed no significant difference between day and night compositions.

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THEORETICAL STUDY ON OBSERVED COLOR-MAGNITUDE DIAGRAMS

  • Lee, See-Woo
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.41-70
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    • 1979
  • From $B\ddot{o}hm$-Vitense's atmospheric model calculations, the relations, [$T_e$, (B-V)] and [B.C, (B-V)] with respect to heavy element abundance were obtained. Using these relations and evolutionary model calculations of Rood, and Sweigart and Gross, analytic expressions for some physical parameters relating to the C-M diagrams of globular clusters were derived, and they were applied to 21 globular clusters with observed transition periods of RR Lyrae variables. More than 20 different parameters were examined for each globular cluster. The derived ranges of some basic parameters are as follows; $Y=0.21{\sim}0.33,\;Z=1.5{\times}10^{-4}{\sim}4.5{\times}10^{-3},\;age,\;t=9.5{\sim}19{\times}10^9$ years, mass for red giants, $m_{RG}=0.74m_{\odot}{\sim}0.91m_{\odot}$, mass for RR Lyrae stars, $m_{RR}=0.59m_{\odot}{\sim}0.75m_{\odot}$, the visual magnitude difference between the turnoff point and the horizontal branch (HB), ${\Delta}V_{to}=3.1{\sim}3.4(<{\Delta}V_{to}>=3.32)$, the color of the blue edge of RR Lyrae gap, $(B-V)_{BE}=0.17{\sim}0.21=(<(B-V)_{BE}>=0.18),\;[\frac{m}{L}]_{RR}=-1.7{\sim}-1.9$, mass difference of $m_{RR}$ relative to $m_{RG},(m_{RG}-m_{RR})/m_{RG}=0.0{\sim}0.39$. It was found that the ranges of derived parameters agree reasonably well with the observed ones and those estimated by others. Some important results obtained herein can be summarized as follows; (i) There are considerable variations in the initial helium abundance and in age of globular clusters. (ii) The radial gradient of heavy element abundance does exist for globular clusters as shown by Janes for field stars and open clusters. (iii) The helium abundance seems to have been increased with age by massive star evolution after a considerable amount (Y>0.2) of helium had been attained by the Big-Bang nucleosynthesis, but there is not seen a radial gradient of helium abundance. (iv) A considerable amount of heavy elements ($Z{\sim}10{-3}$) might have been formed in the inner halo ($r_{GC}$<10 kpc) from the earliest galactic co1lapse, and then the heavy element abundance has been slowly enriched towards the galactic center and disk, establishing the radial gradient of heavy element abundance. (v) The final galactic disk formation might have taken much longer by about a half of the galactic age than the halo formation, supporting a slow, inhomogeneous co1lapse model of Larson. (vi) Of the three principal parameters controlling the morphology of C-M diagrams, it was found that the first parameter is heavy clement abundance, the second age and the third helium abundance. (vii) The globular clusters can be divided into three different groups, AI, BI and CII according to Z, Y an d age as well as Dickens' HB types. BI group clusters of HB types 4 and 5 like M 3 and NGC 7006 are the oldest and have the lowest helium abundance of the three groups. And also they appear in the inner halo. On the other hand, the youngest AI clusters have the highest Z and Y, and appear in the innermost halo region and in the disk. (viii) From the result of the clean separations of the clusters into three groups, a three dimensional classification with three parameters, Z, Y and age is prsented. (ix) The anomalous C-M diagrams can be expalined in terms of the three principal parameters. That is, the anomaly of NGC 362 and NGC 7006 is accounted for by the smaller age of the order of $1{\sim}2{\times}10^9$ years rather than by the helium abundance difference, compared with M 3. (x) The difference in two Oosterhoff types I and II can be explained in terms of the mean mass difference of RR Lyrae variables rather than in terms of the helium abundance difference as suggested by Stobie. The mean mass of the variables in Oosterhoff type I clusters is smaller by $0.074m_{\odot}$ which is exactly consistent with Rood's estimate. Since it was found that the mean mass of RR Lyrae stars increases with decreasing Z, the two Oosterhoff types can be explained substantially by the metal abundance difference; the type II has Z<$3.4{\times}10^{-4}$, and the type I has higher Z than the type II.

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SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY ON RED GIANTS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS (구상성단 거성들의 분광 연구)

  • LEE SANG-GAK
    • Publications of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.15 no.spc1
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    • pp.15-30
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    • 2000
  • A large scatter of the chemical abundances among globular cluster red giants has been observed. Especially the chemical elements C, N, O, Na, Mg, and Al vary form star to star within globular clusters. Except for $\omega$ Cen and M22, most globular clusters could be considered to be monometallic of their iron peak elements within error ranges. The variations in light elements among globuar cluster giants appear much more pronounced than in field halo giants of comparable Fe-peak metallicity. It has been found that in general the nitrogen abundance is anticorrelated with both carbon and oxygen, while it is correlated with Na and AI. These intracluster abundance inhomogeneities can be interpreted either by mixing of nucleosythesized material from the deep stellar interior during the red giant branch phase of evolution or by inhomogeneities of primordially processed material, from which the stars were formed. The simple way of distingushing between two senarios is to obtain the element abundances of main-sequence stars in globular clusters, which are too faint for high resolution spectroscopic studies until now. Both 'evolutionary' and 'primodial' origins are accepted for explanations of abundance variations among red giants and CN-CH anticorrelations among main-sequence stars in globular clusters. This paper reviews chemical abundances of light elements among globular cluster giants, with brief reviews of cannonical stellar evolution of low mass stars after main-sequence and deep mixing for abundance variations of cluster giants, and a possible connection between deep mixing and second parameter.

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The Barium Star HD204075: Iron Abundance and the Absence of Evidence for Accretion

  • Jeong, Yeuncheol;Yushchenko, Alexander;Gopka, Vira;Yushchenko, Volodymyr;Rittipruk, Pakakaew;Jeong, Kyung Sook;Demessinova, Aizat
    • Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.105-113
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    • 2019
  • Spectroscopic observations of barium star ${\zeta}$ Capricornus (HD204075) obtained at the 8.2 m telescope of the European Southern Observatory, with a spectral resolving power R = 80,000 and signal to noise ratio greater than 300, were used to refine the atmospheric parameters. We found new values for effective temperature ($T_{eff}=5,300{\pm}50K$), surface gravity ($log\;g=1.82{\pm}0.15$), micro-turbulent velocity ($v_{micro}=2.52{\pm}0.10km/s$), and iron abundance ($log\;N(Fe)=7.32{\pm}0.06$). Previously published abundances of chemical elements in the atmosphere of HD204075 were analyzed and no correlations of these abundances with the second ionization potentials of these elements were found. This excludes the possible influence of accretion of hydrogen and helium atoms from the interstellar or circumstellar environment to the atmosphere of this star. The accretion of nuclear processed matter from the evolved binary companion was primary cause of the abundance anomalies. The young age of HD204075 allows an estimation of the time-scale for the creation of the abundance anomalies arising from accretion of interstellar hydrogen and helium as is the case of stars with low magnetic fields; which we estimate should exceed $10^8$ years.

CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF THE GALAXY: RADIAL PROPERTIES

  • PARK BYEONG-GON;KANG YONG HEE;LEE SEE-WOO
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.63-73
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    • 1996
  • The previous study of chemical evolution of the Galaxy is extended to the radial properties of the Galactic disk. The present model includes radial dependency of the time-dependent bimodal IMF, radial flow of material in the disk, and the change of type I supernova explosion rate with radial distance from the disk center as model parameters and observed gas and stellar density distributions and metallicity abundance gradient as observational constraints. The results of two models in this study explain the observed gas and stellar density distributions well, with the slope of the gas density gradient in the region of 4.5 kpc$Y_1$ and -0.123dex/kpc in model $Y_2$, respectively, which fit well the observed gradient of -0.l1dex/kpc. The abundance gradient reproduced in model $Y_1$ is getting flatter with decreasing radius, while that in model $Y_2$ is getting steeper, which fits better the observed abundance gradient. This result shows the necessity of exponentially increasing type I supernova explosion rate with decreasing radius in order to explain the observed abundance gradient in the disk. The fitness of observed density distribution and star formation rate distribution justifies the reliability of time-dependent bimodal IMF as a compound quantitative chemical evolution model of the Galaxy. The temporal variations of metallicity gradients for carbon, nitrogen and oxygen are also shown.

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Correction of Nodule Abundance Using Image Analysis Technique on Manganese Nodule Deposits (영상처리 기법에 의한 심해저 망간단괴의 부존밀도 보정)

  • Park, Chan-Young;Chon, Hyo-Taek;Kang, Jung-Keuk
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.429-437
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    • 1996
  • The purpose of this study is to correct the nodule abundance of FFG (Free Fall Grab) sampler on KODOS (Korea Deep Ocean Study) area in North-East Pacific Ocean. The image analysis of sea-floor photography was carried out for correcting the abundance of nodules, and the image enhancement techniques and edge detection method were used to discriminate between nodules and sediments. The trace of nodules on sediments was detected to reduce the fractionation effect in calculating the coverage of nodules. The three methods, using the coverage of nodules, using the volume density, and using corrected volume density, were utilized for the correction of the nodule abundance. The method using the coverage of nodules was more convenient and available for the correction of nodule abundance than the other two methods. The method using the corrected volume density had the highest confidence level compared with the other methods.

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Summer Pattern of Phytoplankton Distribution at a Station in Jangmok Bay

  • Lee, Won-Je;Shin, Kyoung-Soon;Jang, Pung-Guk;Jang, Min-Chul;Park, Nam-Joo
    • Ocean Science Journal
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.109-117
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    • 2005
  • Daily changes in phytoplankton abundance and species composition were monitored from July to September 2003 (n=47) to understand which factors control the abundance at a station in Jangmok Bay. During the study, the phytoplankton community was mainly composed of small cell diatoms and dinoflagellates, and the dominant genera were Chaetoceros, Nitzschia, Skeletonema and Thalassionema. Phytoplankton abundance varied significantly from $6.40{\times}10^4$ to $1.22{\times}10^7$ cells/l. The initially high level of phytoplankton abundance was dominated by diatoms, but replacement by dinoflagellates started when the NIP ratio decreased to <5.0. On the basis of the N/P and Si/N ratios, the sampling periofd could be divided into two: an inorganic silicate limitation period (ISLP, $14^{th}$ $July-12^{th}$ of August) and an inorganic nitrogen limitation period (INLP, $13^{th}$ of August - the end of the study). Phosphate might not limit the growth of phytoplankton assemblages in the bay during the study period. This study suggests that phytoplankton abundance and species composition might be affected by the concentrations of inorganic nutrients (N and Si), and provides baseline information for further studies on plankton dynamics in Jangmok Bay.

Effects of the Applications of Chitin and Chitosan on Soil Organisms

  • Eo, Jinu;Kim, Myung-Hyun;Choi, Soon-Kun;Bang, Hea-Son;Park, Kee-Choon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.132-137
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    • 2015
  • Effects of chitin and chitosan treatments on soil microorganisms and the mesofauna were investigated in a microcosm and a fumigated field experiment. Responses of microorganisms were determined using microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, whereas responses of the mesofauna were measured in terms of the abundances of nematodes and microarthropods. Soil nitrate concentration increased on the application of chitin. Overall, chitin promoted bacterial and fungal abundance, leading to an increase in abundance of free-living soil nematodes that feed on decomposers. The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids was highest in the chitin-treated soil. Chitosan had a minimal effect on the abundance of microorganisms; however, it reduced the abundance of collembolans in the microcosm experiment. These results indicate that the application of chitin has beneficial effects on the supply of nutrients and promotion of the abundance of soil organisms.