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A Study on the "Holing-Bowl(받침그릇, 承盤) for the Jung-Byoung(정병, 淨甁)" or The Sacred Water-pot (정병 받침그릇(淨甁 承盤) 살핌 -고려불화(佛畵)-수월관음그림(水月觀音圖)으로 -)

  • Ghang, soon-hyoung
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.34
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    • pp.124-136
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    • 2001
  • Among many different types of wares, we have amazing Sacred Water-pot(따르개, 注子) from Goryo-period(고리, 高麗, 918-1392). The stylistic peculiarity of Jung-Byoung(정병, 淨甁) is described in "Goryo-Dhogyoung, 고리도경, 高麗圖經", the classical design canon. It is said, "A sharpened mouth with narrow and prolonged neck is attached upon the broad mouth with thicker and even longer neck of the pot whose body intimates to the shape of melon." One could find this Jung-Byoung similar to the Indian drinking water jar, Kundika, which has been. even today, an everyday article in houses as well as in temples. In the early Buddhist cult, the object had been adopted as personal belonging of the Bodhisattvas(보살, 菩薩), especially of the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara(관세음보살,觀世音菩薩). In short, the purifying character of water is met by the sacred ware to deliver the refreshing Sweet-Water(Holy-Water, 깨맑물, 단물, 단이슬물, 정수, 감로, 감로수, 성수, 淨水, 甘露, 甘露水, 聖水): For the holy purpose of fulfilling the thirst of people, of symbolozing the virtuous dharma. Thus, Ggamslkh-Byoung(깨맑병,淨水), the literal Korean name, denotes purifying and clarifying and clarifying water-pot to us. Among many other Asian countries, India, China, Korea, and Japan have a profound cult of the sacred water-pot(Ggamalkh-Byoung, Jung-Byoung, 깨맑병, 정병, 정수병, 감로병, 감로수병, 淨甁, 淨水甁, 甘露甁, 甘露水甁). Therefore, this charming holy object drew much attention not only from master artisans to shape and deliver them to people but also from painters and sculptors for their endowment of the sacred images dedicated to Buddha(부처,佛,佛陀). In China, the sacred water pot emerged in the period of Tang(당, 唐, 618~907)-Period and underwent much sophistication later on, I. e., from earthenware, ceramic-porcelain, bronze, and silver. However, the following represents a challenge to the well-known Goryo-Thangka(고리불화, 高麗佛畵) Painting of Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara to our speculation on the Sacred Water-pot(정병, 淨甁). The image suggests, when examined closely, that the Sacred Water-pot has been accompanied by, or placed in, a transparent glasswere(유리그릇) or crystalbowl(수정그릇)! We have no other physical proof of the existence of such a Holding-Bowl(받침그릇, 承盤), except for in this particular painting. This Holding-Bowl would have not been a mere elaboration on the practicality of controling the drips from the mouth of the pot. As in the chapter on Tang-ho(탕호, 湯壺), or thermal bowl, in the "Goryo-Dhogyoung" it advises readers that this style of bowl is to be filled with hot water, and thus function as a preserver of heat in the water inside the pot. As an offering to the Buddha, the Sacred Water-pot could have been used for serving him hot tea. Hence the sacred bottle is to contain the refreshing water, the water transcends to nectar, and the nectar is prepared as a nectar tea to offer the Buddha. For both the Holding-Bowl of Ggamalkh-Byoung(Jung-Byoung)and the Celestial-Robe(날개옷, 天衣) of the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, whose specified character is the Water-Moon(수월, 水月) in this particular Thangka(불화, 佛畵) painting, the transparency is essential. This is to refer to the purity and the lucid clarity of Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara and at a deeper level, to refer to the world of Buddhas-the Tushita(Paradise, Heaven, Eden, 극락, 불세계, 極樂, 佛世界). Howerver, without the discovery of an actual Holding-Bowl, accompanied by a Sacred Water-pot, such speculation will necessarily remain hypothetical. Nevertheless, there is an abundance of evidence of our ancient craftsmanship in jade and ctystal, dating back to the Bronze Age(1000~2B.C.) in Korea. By the time of the Three Kingdom-Period(삼국시대, 三國時代, 57B.C.~935A.D.), and especially the Silla(신라, 新羅, 57B.C.~935A.D.)-Empire, the jade and crystal ornamentation had become very intricate indeed. By the Goryo-Period(918~1392) and Chosun-Period(조선, 朝鮮,1392~1910),crystal-ware and jade art were popular in houses and Buddhist temples, whose master artsanship was heightened in the numerous Sarira-Cases(사리그릇, 舍利器), containing relics and placed inside Stupas(탑, 투, 搭)! Therefore, discovering a tiny part of the crystal or jade Holding-Bowl for the Sacred Water-pot and casting full light on this subject, would not be totally impossible. Lastly the present article shares the tiny hope for a sudden emergence of such a Holding-Bowl.

Research on effect that market directivity gets in real estate transaction result (시장지향성이 부동산거래 성과에 미치는 영향 : 부동산 중개업소 중심으로)

  • Lee, Sang-Gyu;Kim, Seok-Gon;Hwang, Hwa-Cheol
    • The Journal of Industrial Distribution & Business
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.23-31
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    • 2010
  • In this study, market orientation affects the real estate transaction and about the various parameters examined, the real estate transactions, market orientation and intensity of competition in the market upheaval and the impact was seen on the results can be summarized as follows. First, market orientation and about the relationship between real estate transactions were examined. Each variable of customer satisfaction information generation, information dissemination, information was used for the reaction. Among them, the dissemination of information, information about the reaction produces a lot better the customer satisfaction was the result. In other words, the dissemination of information and availability of information to real estate transactions, the more you can improve customer satisfaction. While the information does not appear to be generated as a result of the impact of market orientation when the first phase of the creation of market information and the customer's needs and preferences of current and future information and external factors affecting them to gather information about It is difficult to assess realistically can be seen. This is both our customers and dealers in real estate purchase or trade items for the exact targets, but the general approach the start of trading because by necessity. Therefore, a clear standard for real estate deals in and nine minutes to all sellers of real estate purchases through a process of communication to enable effective approach should be. Second, market orientation and about the relationship between real estate transactions were examined. The information for each variable in re-creating transactions, information dissemination, information was used for the reaction. Variable affects all the information creation, dissemination of information, information about the reaction the better the deal re-done show that two can be frequent. In other words, information generation, information dissemination and utilization of information to real estate transactions, the more customers the added responsibilities of the re-trade can be seen. Third, the relationship between market orientation and in the real estate market upheaval of environmental factors on the relationship between gender were examined. Each variable of customer satisfaction information generation, information dissemination, information was used for the reaction. Among them, the dissemination of information, information about the reaction produces a lot better the customer satisfaction was the result. In other words, the dissemination of information, depending on the market upheaval and the availability of information to raise the real estate can increase customer satisfaction. Fourth, market orientation and environmental factors in the relationship between real estate transactions and about the relationship between competition intensity was investigated. The information for each variable in re-creating transactions, information dissemination, information was used for the reaction. Variable affects all the information creation, dissemination of information, information about the reaction the better the deal re-done show that two can be frequent. In other words, information generation, information dissemination and utilization of information and the higher intensity of competition or unyounghameusseo ttaemaewoo active real estate transactions to provide our customers the added responsibilities of the re-trade can be seen. If more comprehensive, market orientation, according to real estate transactions and environmental factors affecting the performance was also different. Abundance of information about the current real estate it is true that the accuracy and reliability, and real estate, and are unsure about the expected benefits. So you want to trade to provide accurate information to customers and markets change rapidly and competition is severe, with more information if you have reliable information to the customer must supply can increase trading performance. Guarantee of future customer transactions and can provide valuable information and research needs to be differentiated based on the provision of real estate information should be done to achieve profitability will be a cow brokerage.

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Estimating Radial Growth Response of Major Tree Species using Climatic and Topographic Condition in South Korea (기후와 지형 조건을 반영한 우리나라 주요 수종의 반경 생장 반응 예측)

  • Choi, Komi;Kim, Moonil;Lee, Woo-Kyun;Gang, Hyeon-u;Chung, Dong-Jun;Ko, Eun-jin;Yun, Byung-Hyun;Kim, Chan-Hoe
    • Journal of Climate Change Research
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.127-137
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    • 2014
  • The main purpose of this study is to estimate tradial growth response and to predict the potential spatial distribution of major tree species(Pinus densiflora, Quercus mongolica, Quercus spp., Castanea crenata and Larix kaempferi) in South Korea, considering climate and topographic factors. To estimate radial growth response, $5^{th}$ National Forest Inventory data, Topographic Wetness Index (TWI) and climatic data such as temperature and precipitation were used. Also, to predict the potential spatial distribution of major tree species, RCP 8.5 Scenario was applied. By our analysis, it was found that the rising temperature would have negative impacts on radial growth of Pinus densiflora, Castanea crenata and Larix kaempferi, and positive impacts on that of Quercus mongolica, Quercus spp.. Incremental precipitation would have positive effects on radial growth of Pinus densiflora and Quercus mongolica. When radial growth response considered by RCP 8.5 scenario, it was found that the radial growth of Pinus densiflora, Castanea crenata and Larix kaempferi would be more vulnerable than that of Quercus mongolica and Quercus spp. to temperature. According to the climate change scenario, Quercus spp. including Quercus mongolica would be expected to have greater abundance than its present status in South Korea. The result of this study would be helpful for understanding the impact of climatic factors on tree growth and for predicting the distribution of major tree species by climate change in South Korea.

The Study on the Structure and Meaning of UlsanSoeburisoree (울산쇠부리소리의 민속연행적 구조와 의미 연구)

  • Sim, Sang-Gyo
    • (The) Research of the performance art and culture
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    • no.37
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    • pp.127-155
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    • 2018
  • This paper considers the structure and meaning of the folktale accompaniment of the sound of UlsanSoeburisoree. The review process examined the meaning of each structure of the UlsanSoeburisoree in the preparation process while preparing the main elements of the structural features along with the historical background of the structure. UlsanSoeburisoree is Poongcheol ritual ceremony which means prayer ceremony for the production of iron. The sound of UlsanSoeburisoree is 1-Gilnori 2-Gosa 3-The sound of blowing smelting process 4-The sound of process of iron smelting 5-The sound of tabooline 6-The sound of blowing smelting process 7-The sound of blowing matches 8-The After-party. This structure is in line with the structure of folk play called Gilnory-Gosa-Performance-After-party. This is similar to the basic structure of folk beliefs Cheongsin(請神)-Osin(娛神)-Songsin(送神). Thus, the sound of UlsanSoeburisoree was formulated in a sequential parallel structure. The sound of UlsanSoeburisoree resemble the sacrifice of heaven ceremony since the time of the SamHan dynasty. The sound of the birth of life by physical sacrifice also plays the role of the song of creation of new life. The sound of UlsanSoeburisoree can be seen not only in Korea 's folk culture but also in folk culture of GyeongnamDo area. There are many festivals to pray for the abundance of life for UlsanSoeburisoree. Soil plays an absolute role in the process of producing iron. For those who soak it, the earth is a religious object. Among the folk tales handed down in the Yeongnam area, there are a lot of performances that are passed down through the blending of the people 's affection to overcome the harshness of life. In the case of the sound of UlsanSoeburisoree, it can be said that it was made and mixed with the wind that wanted to go beyond the harshness of life and the spirit of art.

Vegetation Structure and Soil Conditions of Viburnum erosum Habitats in the Southern Region of Korea (한국남부지역 덜꿩나무 자생지의 식생구조 및 토양특성)

  • Ha, Hyeon woo;Lim, Hyo In
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.57-67
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    • 2017
  • We conducted this study to investigate vegetation structure and soil conditions of six Viburnum erosum Thunb.(V. erosum) populations which showed high dominance. A total of 68 woody plants were observed to distribute: 13 in tree layer; 38 in subtree layer; and 48 in shrub layer. Based on the Mean Importance Value(MIV), the dominant tree species in the V. erosum populations were as follows in order of: Acer pseudosieboldianum(Pax) Kom., Callicarpa japonica Thunb., Indigofera kirilowii Maxim. ex Palib., Lindera obtusiloba Blume, Prunus sargentii Rehder, Quercus variabilis Blume, Rhododendron mucronulatum Turcz. and Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. In paticular, the species observed in all of the study sites were Quercus serrata Murray and Styrax japonicus Siebold & Zucc. It was found that the presence of V. erosum was positively correlated with that of Albizia julibrissin Durazz. and Symplocos chinensis f. pilosa (Nakai) Ohwi, while negatively correlated with that of Platycarya strobilacea Siebold & Zucc. According to the result, means of species diversity(H'), maxim species diversity(H' max), evenness(J') and dominance(1-J') were measured at 0.887, 1.102, 0.803, and 0.196, respectively. The soil conditions properties of pH value, organic matter content, total nitrogen content, and the amount of available phosphorous indices in the study sites were 4.3, 10.6%, 0.34% and $0.68mg{\cdot}kg^{-1}$, respectively. Meanwhile, the total amount of exchangeable cations of $Ca^{2+}$, $K^+$, and $Mg^{2+}$ were $16.84cmol_c{\cdot}kg^{-1}$, $6.41cmol_c{\cdot}kg^{-1}$, and $4.26cmol_c{\cdot}kg^{-1}$, respectively. Overall, Viburnum erosum Thunb. populations tend to grow in the strongly acid soil, which has great abundance of soil organic matters, a lot of exchangeable cations, and has higher amount available phosphorous than that of nitrogen.

Comparative Study on the Composition of Floral Volatile Components in the Flowering Stages of Robinia pseudoacacia L. (아까시나무(Robinia pseudoacacia L.) 꽃의 개화 단계별 향기성분 조성 비교)

  • Jung, Je Won;Lee, Hyun Sook;Noh, Gwang Rae;Lee, Andosung;Kim, Moon Sup;Kim, Sea Hyun;Kwon, Hyung Wook
    • Journal of Apiculture
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.139-146
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    • 2017
  • Floral scent emitted from many plants is the critical factors for pollinator attraction and defense for adaptation in environments. The fragrance components of flowers are different in composition by geographical origins, climate factors and the development stages of flowers. In the present study, we investigated the volatile-floral compounds in flowers of Robinia pseudoacacia L. and defined the chemical contribution for flowering periods. The volatile compounds analysis was performed by gas chromatography with mass selective detector after solid phase microextraction (SPME). We reported different compositional features of fragrance compounds according to flowering periods. The abundant compounds identified in stage 1 were ${\alpha}$-pinene (66.80%) and ${\beta}$-pinene (26.53%). Those of the stage 2 were (Z)-${\beta}$-ocimene (37.57%), ${\alpha}$-pinene (15.16%), benzaldehyde (16.63%), linalool (12.13%). The volatiles of stage 3 comprised an abundance of (Z)-${\beta}$-ocimene (64.94%), ${\alpha}$-pinene (9.84%), linalool (8.92%), benzaldehyde (1.71%). Leaf volatiles were distinct from those in the reproductive plant parts by their high relative amount of (E)-${\beta}$-ocimene (23.50%) and (Z)-3-Hexenyl acetate (27.87%). Differences in flower scents of the different stages and leaves are discussed in light of biochemical constraints on volatile chemical synthesis and of the role of flower scent in evolutionary ecology of R. pseudoacacia.

Characterizing Responses of Biological Trait and Functional Diversity of Benthic Macroinvertebrates to Environmental Variables to Develop Aquatic Ecosystem Health Assessment Index (환경변이에 대한 저서성 대형무척추동물의 생물학적 형질과 기능적 다양성 분석: 수생태계 건강성 평가 관점에서)

  • Moon, Mi Young;Ji, Chang Woo;Lee, Dae-Seong;Lee, Da-Yeong;Hwang, Soon-Jin;Noh, Seong-Yu;Kwak, Ihn-Sil;Park, Young-Seuk
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.31-45
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    • 2020
  • The biological indices based on the community structure with species richness and/or abundance are commonly used to assess aquatic ecosystem health. Meanwhile, recently functional traits-based approach is considered in ecosystem health assessment to reflect ecosystem functioning. In this study, we developed a database of biological traits for 136 taxa consisting of major stream insects (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Coleoptera, and Odonata) collected at Korean streams on the nationwide scale. In addition, we obtained environmental variables in five categories (geography, climate, land use, hydrology and physicochemistry) measured at each sampling site. We evaluated the relationships between community indices based on taxonomic diversity and functional diversity estimated from biological traits. We classified sampling sites based on similarities of their environmental variables and evaluated relations between clusters of sampling sites and diversity indices and biological traits. Our results showed that functional diversity was highly correlated with Shannon diversity index and species richness. The six clusters of sampling sites defined by a hierarchical cluster analysis reflected differences of their environmental variables. Samples in cluster 1 were mostly from high altitude areas, whereas samples in cluster 6 were from lowland areas. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) displayed similar patterns with cluster analysis and presented variation of taxonomic diversity and functional diversity. Based on NMDS and community-weighted mean trait value matrix, species in clusters 1-3 displayed the resistance strategy in the life history strategy to the environmental variables whereas species in clusters 4-6 presented the resilience strategy. These results suggest that functional diversity can complement the biological monitoring assessment based on taxonomic diversity and can be used as biological monitoring assessment tool reflecting changes of ecosystem functioning responding to environmental changes.

Microbiological and Enzymological Studies on the Flavor Components of Sea Food Pickles (젓갈등속(等屬)의 정미성분(呈味成分)에 관(關)한 미생물학적(微生物學的) 및 효소학적(酵素學的) 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Ke-Ho
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.11
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    • pp.1-27
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    • 1969
  • More than thirty kinds of sea food pickles have been eaten in Korea. Out of these salted yellow tail pickle, salted clam pickle, salted oyster pickle, and salted cuttlefish pickle were employed for the analysis of their components, identification of main fermenting microbes, and determination of enzyme characteristics concerned. Also studied was the effect of enzymic action of microbes, which are concerned with the fermenting of pickles, on the production of flavorous 5'-mononucleotides and amino acids. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Microflora observed in the pickles are: (a) Total count of viable cells after 1-2 months of pickling was found to be $10^7$ and that after 6 months decreased to $10^4$. (b) Microbial occurence in the early stage of pickling was observed to be 10-20% Micrococcus spp., 10-20% Brevibacterium spp., 0-30% Sarcina spp., 20-30% Leuconostoc spp., ca 30% Bacillus spp., 0-10% Pseudomonas spp., 0-10% Flavobacterium spp., and 0-20% yeast. (c) Following the early stage of pickling, mainly halophilic bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Pediococcus halophilus and Sarcina litoralis, were found to exhibit an effect on the fermentation of pickle and their enzyme activities were in direct concern in fermentation of pickles. (d) Among the bacteria participating in the fermentation, Sarcina litoralis 8-14 and 8-16 strains were in need of high nutritional requirement and the former was grown only in the presence of purine, pyrimidine and cystine and the latter purine, pyrimidine and glutamic acid. 2. Enzyme characteristics studied in relation to the raw materials and the concerned microbes isolated are as follows: (a) A small amount of protease was found in the raw materials and 30-60% decrease in protease activity was demonstrated at 7% salt concentration. (b) Protease activity of halophilic bacteria, Bacillus subtilis 7-6, 11-1, 3-6 and 9-4 strains, in the complete media decreased by 10-30% at the 7% salt concentration and that of Sarcina litoralis 8-14 and 8-16 strains decreased by 10-20%. (c) Proteins in the raw materials were found to be hydrolyzed to yield free amino acids by protease in the fermenting microbes. (d) No accumulation of flavorous 5'-mononucleotides was demonstrated because RNA-depolymerase in the raw materials and the pickles tended to decompose RNA into nucleoside and phosphoric acid. (e) The enzyme produced in Bacillus subtilis 3-6 strain isolated from the salted clam pickles, was ascertained to be 5'-phosphodiesterase because of its ability to decompose RNA and thus accumulating 5'-mononucleotide. (f) It was demonstrated that the activity of phosphodiesterase in Bacillus subtilis 3-6 strain was enhanced by some components in the corn steep liquor and salted clam pickle. The enzyme activity was found to decrease by 10-30% and 40-60% at the salt concentration of 10% and 20%, respectively. 3. Quantitative data for free amino acids in the pickles are as follows: (a) Amounts of acidic amino acids such as glutamic and aspartic acids in salted clam pickle, were observed to be 2-10 times other pickles and it is considered that the abundance in these amino acids may contribute significantly to the specific flavor of this food. (b) Large amounts of basic amino acids such as arginine and histidine were found to occur in salted yellow tail pickle. (c) It is much interesting that in the salted cuttlefish pickle the contents of sulfur-containing amino acids were exceedingly high compared with those of others: cystine was found to be 17-130 times and methionine, 7-19 times. (d) In the salted oyster pickle a high content of some essential amino acids such as lysine, threonine, isoleucine and leucine, was demonstrated and a specific flavor of the pickle was ascribed to the sweet amino acids. Contents of alanine and glycine in the salted oyster pickle were 4 and 3-14 times as much as those of the others respectively. 4. Analytical data for 5'-mononucleotides in the pickles are as follows: (a) 5'-Adenylic acid and 3'-adenylic acid were found in large amounts in the salted yellow tail pickle and 5'-inosinic acid in lesser amount. (b) 5'-Adenylic acid, especially 3'-adenylic acid predominated in amount in the salted oyster pickle over that in the other pickles. (c) The salted cuttlefish pickle was found to contain only 5'-adenylic acid and 3'-adenylic acid. It has become evident from the above fact that clam and the invertebrate lack of adenylic deaminase and contain high content of adenylic acid. Thus, they were demonstrated to be the AMP-type. (d) 5'-Inosinic acid was contained in the salted yellow tail pickle in a significant concentration, and it might be considered to be IMP-type. 5. Comparative data for flavor with regard to the flavorous amino acids and the contents of 5'-mononucleotides are: (a) A specific flavor of salted yellow tail pickle was ascribed to the abundance in glutamic acid and aspartic acid, and to the existence of a small amount of flavorous 5'-inosinic acid. The combined effect of these components was belived to exhibit a synergistic action in producing a specific fiavor to the pickle. (b) A specific flavor of salted clam pickle has been demonstrated to be attributable to the richness in glutamic acid and aspartic acid rather than to that of 5'-mononucleotides.

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A Survey of the Status of Nutrition in Rural Korea (농촌(農村) 영양실태(營養實態)에 관(關)한 조사(調査))

  • Lee, Geum-Yeong;Suh, Myung-Sook
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.71-76
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    • 1973
  • 1. This survey is somewhat different from that conducted by Yonsei University, although being in many respects, very similar. We found the average per capita caloric intake to be 7 or 8% of what it should be. Of that caloric intake, 84.5% in the model village here and 82.2% in the compared village Bupyong, by and large depends on cereal grains. Since such grains tend to distend the stomach, the farmers, it seems,should substitute fat for a part of their diet so as to dimish digestive pain and still receive the necessary calories. 2. Protein is the most important nutrient for the development of physical strength and improvement of health, but the average daily intake is only 68.3% of the necessary amount. It is desirable that the ratio of vegetable protein to that of animal be one to three for maintaining one's health. Most of the villager's protein, however, comes from plants: the intake of animal protein, at a level of only 13.6 g, is far below such a one to three ratio. 3. In the model village, 497.6 mg, of inorganic calcium is the daily intake level. In the compared village it is 505.5 mg, making a difference of only 8mg. This, however, is 35% less than the recommended intake. More than 50% of this calcium comes from cereals and other plants. Moreover, plant calcium which has much oxakuc acud us not as nutritional as animal calcium, so their calcium diet is less than it would appear. We must, therefore, make efforts to receive as good nutritional calcium as possible. 4. Among the vitamin group, the daily average intake of vitamin A and vitamin $B_{2}$ are respectively 40% and 32% less than the desired intake, while vitamin $B_{1}$ happens to be taken in sufficient quantities and more niacin is taken than which is even necessary. The intake of vitamin C is much more than the necessary quantity. However, this figure was calculated from uncooked food; if the loss from cooking were to be considered, the real intake might well be a little less. Also, as this survey was carried out in May, some of these results were influenced by the fact that lettuce and spinach are seasonally popular. In conclusion, except for a few nutrients which are in abundance, the normal food intake in a day is, on the whole, less than the average recommended. Furthermore despite the fact that both of these places are model villages in the development of nutrition, it seems that they have not gotten out of such conventional eating habiys as the almost dependancy on cereal grains. Cow's milk, sheep's milk, eggs and so on produced by each farmhouse are not used for their own families but are taken to the market for the purpose of making money. Accordingly, I think from now we must seek to improve, guide and enlighten the farmers as to how to correct their eating habits and implement changes in their lives so that our firm purpose may be achieved.

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Ecological Studies on the Burned Forest - On the Germination of Remained Seed on Burned Area - (산화적지(山火跡地)의 생태학적(生態學的) 연구(硏究) - 산화후(山火後)의 잔여종자(殘餘種子) 발아율(發芽率)에 대(對)하여 -)

  • Kim, Ok Kyung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.29-39
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    • 1970
  • Forest fires often destory forests that have taken years to grow in a few minutes. Forest fire therefore, is an important problem in forest management and have caused heavy losses to the nations economy. In order to resolve this problem many investigations have been made in many countries. However, ecological studies on the forest after accidental fire have not yet been made in Korea. In order to conduct such a study, a burned area on Mt. Samak which is located at Dukduwon-ri, Seo-myon, Chunsung-gun, Kangwon-do, was chosen as experimental plot in 1967. The remaining seeds were collected from the burned area, and investigations on their germination rate and their productivity were made comparing to those of the seeds of undemaged area, and following results were obtained. 1. The number of seed collected from the control plots were 740 while it was 537 from the test plots (Table 3, 4). It was considered that this difference between burned and unburned area was mainly due to the fact that some of the seeds had been burnt by the fire, and the unfavorable environmental conditions in the burned area was also considered to be a reason. In the germination rate in the control plots showed 28.1% while it was 3.2% in the test plots. This difference was considered to be due to complete loss of viability of the seed by burning and high heat. 2. In the test plots, sixteen seeds of the Alnus japonica were collected and six of these seeds germinated (index number 100) which was the highest germination rate among the species of collected seeds. From these results, it was considered that a high temperature (above $150^{\circ}C$) caused reduction of the germination rate (Quadrat. 1.2). Seeds of Carex lanceolata var. Nana, were appeared much more in the higher plots than in the lower plots and it seemed to be due to the fact that the forest floor plants were much more abundant in the lower plots than in the higher plots which is covered with shrubbery. And some small seeds midght be able to avoid the effect of fire being burried in the soil or under the gravel. 3. With Pinus densiflora, 43 seeds were collected, and 11 of these germinated in the control plots. However in the test plots, 11 seeds were collected and no seed germinated. This shows that the Pinus densiflora was the weakest in resisting to heat among the observed species in this study. 4. Without exception the germination rate showed a higher index in the herbs than in the woody plants and it is believed that the herbs produced more seed than the wood plants because of the abundance of herbs colony.

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