• Title, Summary, Keyword: abundance

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Monitoring of Algicidal Bacterium, Alteromonas sp. Strain A14 in its Application to Natural Cochlodinium polykrikoides Blooming Seawater Using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

  • Lee, Bo-Kyung;Katano, Toshiya;Kitamura, Shin-Ichi;Oh, Myung-Joo;Han, Myung-Soo
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.274-282
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    • 2008
  • The red tide of dinoflagellate, Cochlodinium polykrikoides has frequently occurred in coastal waters, causing severe damage to fisheries. In the present study, the algicidal bacterium Alteromonas sp. A14 isolated from the southern coast of Korea was applied to a red tide of C. polykrikoides in a laboratory experiment. In the experiment, the abundance of the strain A14 was monitored using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Inoculation of the A14 at a final cell density of $9.0{\times}10^5cells/ml$ caused a significant decrease in C. polykrikoides abundance from 1,830 to 700 cells/ml during 2 days, while abundances of harmless diatoms rapidly increased from 3 days. Abundances of both A14 and other bacteria increased to 1 day. After 1 day, with flagellate abundance increased, bacterial abundance decreased. Finally, algicidal bacterial abundance decreased to $3.5{\times}10^4cells/ml$. In the biological control of harmful algal blooms, in addition to decrease in target algal abundance and not occurrence of other harmful blooms, decrease in abundance of utilized organism is also important. This study emphasizes the importance of monitoring the inoculated bacterium when applying bacterium to natural seawater.

Effect of environmental conditions on the stock structure and abundance of the pacific saury, Cololabis saira in the Tsushima Warm Current region

  • Gong, Yeong;Suh, Young-Sang;Hur, Young-Hee
    • Proceedings of the Korean Aquaculture Society Conference
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    • pp.169-171
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    • 2004
  • Interannual and decadal scale body size of Pacific saury, catch and catch per unit effort were examined to investigate the environmental effects on the stock structure and abundance in the Tsushima Warm Current region. Interannual changes in thermal conditions are responsible for the different occurrence (catch) rates of sized group of the fish. Changes in body size due to environmental variables lead the stock to be homogeneous during the period of high abundance, while one of the reminder cohorts supports the stock during the period of low level of abundance. Migration circuits of two cohorts of saury stock are hypothesized on the basis of short life span and spatio-temporal changes in stock structure in normal environmental conditions. Changes in upper ocean structure and production cycles by the decadal scale climate changes lead changes in stock structure and recruitment, resulting in the fluctuation of saury abundance. Hypothesized mechanism of the effects of climate changes on the stock structure and abundance is illustrated on the basis of changes in thermal regime and production cycle.

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Effect of environmental conditions on the stock structure and abundance of the Pacific saury, Cololabis saira in the Tsushima Warm Current region (대마난류계 꽁치의 자원구조와 풍도에 미치는 해양환경의 영향)

  • Gong, Yeong;Seo, Yeong-Sang
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.449-467
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    • 2004
  • Interannual and decadal scale changes in body size of Pacific saury, catch and catch per unit effort were examined to investigate the environmental effects on the stock structure and abundance in the Tsushima Warm Current region. Interannual changes in thermal conditions are responsible for the different occurrence (catch) rates of sized group of the fish. Changes in body size due to environmental variables lead the stock to be homogeneous during the period of high abundance, while one of the reminder cohorts supports the stock during the period of low level of abundance. Migration circuits of two cohorts of saury stock are hypothesized on the basis of short life span and spatio-temporal changes of the stock structure in normal environmental conditions. Changes in upper ocean structure and production cycles by the decadal scale climate changes lead changes in stock structure and recruitment, resulting in the fluctuation of saury abundance. Hypothesized mechanism of the effects of climate changes on stock structure and abundance is illustrated on the basis of changes in thermal regime and production cycle.

Year-to-Year and Inter-Decadal Fluctuations in Abundance of Pelagic Fish Populations in Relation to Climate-Induced Oceanic Conditions

  • Gong, Yeong;Suh, Young-Sang;Han, In-Seong;Seong, Ki-Tack
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.45-67
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    • 2008
  • Ocean climate variables ($1900{\sim}2005$), time series of catches ($1910{\sim}2005$) and body size data were used to assess the year-to-year and decadal scale fluctuations in abundance of the fish populations (Japanese sardine, anchovy, jack mackerel, chub mackerel, Pacific saury and common squid) that have spawning grounds in the East China Sea and its adjacent regions. A negative correlation between the abundance of pelagic fishes (e.g. jack mackerel) in the Tsushima Warm Current (TWC) region and the Kuroshio-Oyashio Current (KOC) region was attributed to the climatic modulation of larval transport and recruitment, which depends on the winter monsoon-induced drift, current systems, and spawning season and site. The changes in abundance and alternation of dominant fish populations in the two regions in the 1930s, 1970s, and late 1980s mirrored changes in the climate indices (ALPI, AOI and MOI). Oscillations in the decadal climate shifts between the two regions led to zonal differences in larval transport and recruitment, and hence differences in the abundance of the pelagic fish populations. During deep Aleutian Lows, as in the 1980s, larval transport from the East China Sea to the KOC region increases in association with the strong winter Asian monsoon, cool regime and increased volume transport of the Kuroshio Current systems, whereas during a weak Aleutian Low (as in the 1990s), larval transport to the TWC region increased in association with a weak winter Asian monsoon, a warm regime, and increased volume transport of the Tsushima current system. We postulate that the increased chub mackerel abundance in the TWC region and the decreased abundance in the KOC region in the 1990s are partly attributed to changes in recruitment and availability to the fishing fleets under the warm regime in the spawning and nursery grounds in the East China Sea in association with the quasi-steady state of mild winter monsoon in the 1990s. The fluctuations in chub mackerel and jack mackerel abundance are under the environment-dependant growth form, although the tropicalization was identified in the TWC region. The density-dependant growth form was found in Japanese sardine populations, but no tropicalization by fishing was identified in the long ($10{\sim}15$ year) periods of abundance despite their short ($3{\sim}4$ year) generation time, suggesting that the environment-dependant growth form drove the changes in abundance. Year-to-year and decadal scale variations in abundance and population structure of the Pacific saury responded to climate regime shifts (1976/1977, 1988/1989), suggesting that the fish is a key bio-indicators for changes in the ecosystem.

A Flow Cytometric Study of Autotrophic Picoplankton in the Tropical Eastern Pacific (Flow cytometer를 이용한 열대 동태평양의 독립영양 극미소 플랑크톤 연구)

  • Noh, Jae-Hoon;Yoo, Sin-Jae;Lee, Mi-Jin;Son, Seung-Kyu;Kim, Woong-Seo
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.273-286
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    • 2004
  • The effects of environmental forcing on autotrophic picoplankton distributional patterns were investigated for convergence ($5^{\circ}N$), divergence ($9^{\circ}N-10^{\circ}30'N$) and oligotrophic ($17^{\circ}N$) sites in the tropical eastern Pacific during 2001 and 2003 KODOS (Korea Deep Ocean Study) cruises. The distributions of picoplankton populations - Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes algae - were determined by flow cytometric analyses. Latitudinal variations in abundance maxima, vertical profiles, integrated abundance (0-150 m), and estimated carbon biomass were contrasted for each site according to three hydrological conditions. Prochlorococcus showed consistently high abundance in the surface mixed layers of all sites at $1\;{\times}\;10^5{\sim}3\;{\times}\;10^5\;cells\;ml^{-1}$ and showed declining abundance below these layers. However, these decreasing rates were not particularly sharp showing considerably high abundance at $1\;{\times}\;10^4\;cells\;ml^{-1}$ or higher even at 100 m depth. Vertical profiles of Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes were generally parallel to each other in all sites. A clear abundance maximum was observed at divergence site at or slightly above the pycnocline depth. Higher abundance was observed at the surface mixed layer for convergence site but a sharp decrease was observed below the pycnocline. However, there was no significant abundance fluctuation with depth at more oligotrophic site ($17^{\circ}N$). Integrated cell abundance of Prochlorococcus was high in the oligotrophic site at $2.17\;{\times}\;10^{13}\;m^{-2}$, and low in the convergence site at $0.88\;{\times}\;10^{13}\;m^{-2}$. However, opposite pattern was observed for Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes where relatively high integrated cell abundance was shown in the convergence site. Estimated carbon biomass of Prochlorococcus contributed 30.4-80.3% of total autotrophic picoplankton carbon showing the highest contribution in the oligotrophic site and the lowest contribution in the convergence site. Synechococcus contribution of total autotrophic picoplantkon carbon biomass was lower than 5.8% for most of sites except the convergence site where Synechococcus contributed 23.2% of picoplankton carbon biomass. Carbon biomass of picoeukaryotes was 18.8-46.4% showing the highest carbon biomass at the convergence site. Overall, Prochlorococcus showed higher cell abundance and carbon biomass and exhibited different reaction to hydrological conditions when compare with the other two major autotrophic picoplankton groups.

THE HELIUM ABUNDANCES OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

  • Yun, Hae-Young;Lee, See-Woo
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.17-25
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    • 1979
  • The two methods for the derivation of helium abundance are presented. The magnitude of the largest bump along the red giant branch is fainter as helium abundance decreases and metal abundance increases. Using this relation and observed bump magnitude, the He-abundances of globular clusters are estimated. The another method is to use the relation that the ratio of asymptotic giant branch and horizontal branch stars increases with decreasing He-abundance. The comparison of the He-abundances derived from the two methods with those derived from the other two methods shows that they are consistent within the dispersion less than ${\Delta}Y=0.1$.

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Overview of the Applications of Hydroacoustic Methods in South Korea and Fish Abundance Estimation Methods

  • Kang, Myounghee
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.369-376
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    • 2014
  • I provide an overview of the application of hydroacoustic methods in South Korea to understand the current research status in relation to fisheries acoustics and to determine which areas require further study. One main purpose for using a scientific echosounder, a representative tool using the hydroacoustic method, is to evaluate the abundance of fisheries resources. Thus, two representative methods for abundance estimation are described. The history of fisheries acoustics worldwide is also summarized.

Temporal Dynamics and Patterning of Meiofauna Community by Self-Organizing Artificial Neural Networks

  • Lee, Won-Cheol;Kang, Sung-Ho;Montagna Paul A.;Kwak Inn-Sil
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.237-247
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    • 2003
  • The temporal dynamics of the meiofauna community in Marian Cove, King George Island were observed from January 22 to October 29 1996. Generally, 14 taxa of metazoan meiofauna were found. Nematodes were dominant comprising 90.12% of the community, harpacticoid 6.55%, and Kinorhynchs 1.54%. Meiofauna abundance increased monthly from January to May 1996, while varying in abundance after August 1996. Overall mean abundance of metazoan meiofauna was $2634ind./10cm^2$ during the study periods, which is about as high as that found in temperate regions. Nematodes were most abundant representing $2399ind./10cm^2$. Mean abundance of harpacticoids, including copepodite and nauplius was $131ind./10cm^2$ by kinorhynchs $(26ind./10cm^2)$. The overall abundance of other identified organisms was $31ind./10cm^2$ Other organisms consisted of a total of 11 taxa including Ostracoda $(6ind./10cm^2)$, Polycheata $(7ind./10cm^2)$, Oligochaeta $(8ind./10cm^2)$, and Bivalvia $(6ind./10cm^2)$. Additionally, protozoan Foraminifera occurred at the study area with a mean abundance of $263ind./10cm^2$. Foraminiferans were second in dominance to nematodes. The dominant taxa such as nematodes, harpacticoids, kinorhynchs and the other tua were trained and extensively scattered in the map through the Kohonen network. The temporal pattern of the community composition was most affected by the abundance dynamics of kinorhynchs and harpacticoids. The neural network model also allowed for simulation of data that was missing during two months of inclement weather. The lowest meiofauna abundance was found in August 1996 during winter. The seasonal changes were likely caused by temperature and salinity changes as a result of meltwater runoff, and the physical impact by passing icebergs.

Seasonal variation in Species Composition of Demersal Fish off Yongkwang in 1986~87 (1986~87년 영광 연안 저어류의 계절 변동)

  • Lee, Tae-Won;Gil, Joon-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Ichthyology
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.241-249
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    • 1998
  • Seasonal samples of demersal fish off Yongkwang were collected by an otter trawl from June 1986 to March 1987, and analyzed in terms of species composition and abundance. Of 33 species indentified, Johnius grypotus, Chaeturichthys stigmatias, Argyrosomus argentatus and Cynoglossus joyneri predominated in abundance, consisting 81.9% in the total number of species and 71.4% in biomass. The number of species and abundance were comparatively high in warmer months, and a resident species Cynoglossus joyneri and migrants such as Johnius grypotus and Argyrosomus argentatus were predominated. In cold months, the number of species and abundance were low, and Chaeturichthys stigmatias and Zoarces gillii were dominated. The relative abundance in major species of the present study shows a similar seasonal trend to that obtained in 1995. The relative abundance of major species occurred in the shallow coastal waters of southwestern Korea was highly correlated to the tidal velocity. J. grypotus and C. stigmatias declined in abundance while C. joyneri increased as the tidal velocity increased. This trend in abundance of the major fishes seems to be related to the form of body. The characteristics being flat of C. joyneri could be the major cause of sustaining in the water of high tidal mixing.

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Temporal Distribution of Pico- and Nanoplankton at a Station in Okkye Bay (옥계만 단일정점에서 극미소 및 미소플랑크톤의 시간적 분포)

  • Lee, Won-Je
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.855-863
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    • 2007
  • In order to understand the temporal distribution of pico- and nanoplankton and factors controlling its distribution at a station in Okkye Bay of Masan Bay located in the southern part of Korea, this study was conducted on two weeks interval from April 2005 to April 2006, and several abiotic and biotic factors were measured. During the study, picoplankton consisted of picoflagellates, cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria, and nanoplankton consisted of nanoflagellates excluding dinoflagellates. The concentration of chlorophyll-a (chl-a) was a mean of $4.33\;{\mu}g/L$, and the nanoplanktonic ($<20\;{\mu}m$) chl-a size fraction was a mean of 39.5 % and significantly correlated with water temperature. The abundances of cyanobacteria and photosynthetic flagellates (PF) were means of $24.4{\times}10^{3}\;cells/mL\;and\;2.87{\times}10^{3}\;cells/mL$, respectively. The contribution of picoflagellates to the PF abundance varied among the sampling occasions and was a mean of 29 %, but to the PF carbon biomass was 2.6 % only. The PF abundance had significant relationships with water temperature, and silicate and TIN concentrations, suggesting that the PF abundance seemed to be primarily bottom-up regulated. The abundance of heterotrophic bacteria was a mean of $3.18{\times}10^{6}\;cells/mL$ and unlike other ecosystems it did not have relationships with chl-a and heterotrophic flagellates (HF), suggesting that bacterial abundance did not seem to be bottom-up or top-down regulated. HF mostly consisted of cells less than $5{\mu}m$ and its abundance was a mean of $2.71{\times}10^{3}\;cells/mL$. Of the HF abundance, picoflagellates occupied about 31 %, and occupied about 9 % of the HF carbon biomass. HF grazing activity on heterotrophic bacteria was relatively low and removed about 10 % of bacterial abundance, suggesting that HF might not be major consumers of bacteria and there seems to be other consumers in Okkye Bay. These results suggest that Okkye Bay may have a unique microbial ecosystem.