• Title, Summary, Keyword: abundance

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Abundance of Heterotrophic-and Photosynthetic Dinoflagellates and Factors Controlling Their Abundance and Distribution in Korean Coastal Waters During Summer, 1994

  • Lee, Won-Je;Park, Nam-Joo;Choi, Joong-Ki
    • Journal of the korean society of oceanography
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.201-211
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    • 2002
  • We investigated the abundance and biomass of dinoflagellates and factors controlling their abundance in marine planktonic ecosystems in Korean coastal waters. The abundance of photosynthetic (PDNF) and heterotrophic dinoflagellates (HDNF) was in the range of 0.7${\times}$10$^2$ cells/1-14.0${\times}$10$^6$ cells/1 and in the range of 3.0${\times}$10$^2$ cells/1-6.47${\times}$10$^5$ cells/I, respectively. Their biomass was 0.5${\times}$10$^{-1}$-2.56${\times}$10$^4$ ${\mu}gC/I$ and 2.0${\times}$10$^{-1}$-1.5${\times}$10$^{2}$ ${\mu}gC/I$, respectively. In order to find factors controlling their abundance, stepwise regression and best subsets regression analyses were used. We found that during the summer the most important factors controlling PDNF abundance are DO, P, N and S (abiotic factors), and for HDNF, the abundance of zooplankton, ciliates and HF (biotic factors), and that high turbidity may effect the distribution of dinoflagellate species.

A Note on the Solar Iron Abundance

  • Yun, Hong-Sik
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.11-15
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    • 1974
  • An attempt has been made to re-evaluate the photospheric iron abundance by comparing computed, theoretical line profiles with observations. Our resulting abundance is found to be in good agreement with that of Garz and Kock (1969), when the logarithmic abundance of iron is taken to be 7.5.

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Analysis of Manganese Nodule Abundance in KODOS Area (KODOS 지역의 망간단괴 부존률 분포해석)

  • Jung, Moon Young;Kim, In Kee;Sung, Won Mo;Kang, Jung Keuk
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.199-211
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    • 1995
  • The deep sea camera system could render it possible to obtain the detailed information of the nodule distribution, but difficult to estimate nodule abundance quantitatively. In order to estimate nodule abundance quantitatively from deep seabed photographs, the nodule abundance equation was derived from the box core data obtained in KODOS area(long.: $154^{\circ}{\sim}151^{\circ}W$, lat.: $9^{\circ}{\sim}12^{\circ}N$) during two survey cruises carried out in 1989 and 1990. The regression equation derived by considering extent of burial of nodule to Handa's equation compensates for the abundance error attributable to partial burial of some nodules by sediments. An average long axis and average extent of burial of nodules in photographed area are determined according to the surface textures of nodules, and nodule coverage is calculated by the image analysis method. Average nodule abundance estimated from seabed photographs by using the equation is approximately 92% of the actual average abundance in KODOS area. The measured sampling points by box core or free fall grab are in general very sparse and hence nodule abundance distribution should be interpolated and extrapolated from measured data to uncharacterized areas. The another goal of this study is to depict continuous distribution of nodule abundance in KODOS area by using PC-version of geostatistical model in which several stages are systematically proceeded. Geostatistics was used to analyse spatial structure and distribution of regionalized variable(nodule abundance) within sets of real data. In order to investigate the spatial structure of nodule abundance in KODOS area, experimental variograms were calculated and fitted to a spherical models in isotropy and anisotropy, respectively. The spherical structure models were used to map out distribution of the nodule abundance for isotropic and anisotropic models by using the kriging method. The result from anisotropic model is much more reliable than one of isotropic model. Distribution map of nodule abundance produced by PC-version of geostatistical model indicates that approximately 40% of KODOS area is considered to be promising area(nodule abundance > $5kg/m^2$) for mining in case of anisotropy.

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The Application of SIS (Sequential Indicator Simulation) for the Manganese Nodule Fields (망간단괴광상의 매장량평가를 위한 SIS (Sequential Indicator Simulation)의 응용)

  • Park, Chan Young;Kang, Jung Keuk;Chon, Hyo Taek
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.493-498
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of this study is to develop geostatistical model for evaluating the abundance of deep-sea manganese nodule. The abundance data used in this study were obtained from the KODOS (Korea Deep Ocean Study) area. The variation of nodule abundance was very high within short distance, while sampling methods was very limited. As the distribution of nodule abundance showed non-gaussian, indicator simulation method was used instead of conditional simulation method and/or ordinary kriging. The abundance data were encoded into a series of indicators with 6 cutoff values. They were used to estimate the conditional probability distribution function (cpdf) of the nodule abundance at any unsampled location. The standardized indicator variogram models were obtained according to variogram analysis. This SIS method had the advantage over other traditional techniques such as the turning bands method and ordinary kriging. The estimating values by indicator conditional simulation near high abundance area were more detailed than by ordinary kriging and indicator kriging. They also showed better spatial characteristics of distribution of nodule abundance.

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Seasonal changes in zooplankton community in the coastal waters off Incheon

  • Youn, Seok-Hyun;Choi, Joong-Ki
    • Journal of the korean society of oceanography
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.111-121
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    • 2003
  • The seasonal succession of zooplankton communities in the coastal area off Incheon, Kyeonggi Bay, was investigated with the samples collected at intervals of 10 to 15 days from January 1999 to December 2000. Total abundance of zooplankton communities showed remarkable seasonal variations, ranged from 1,100 to $120,400{\;}indiv./\textrm{m}^3$, and annual mean abundance was $22,000{\;}indiv./\textrm{m}^3$. There were several times of the total abundance during a year, and the timing ofhigh abundances were about the same in 1999 and 2000. During the study period except summer, the abundance of dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans and copepod Acartia hongi contributed to the most part of total zooplankton. Whereas, during summer, smaller copepod Oithona davisae and Paracalanus crassirostris were dominant species. Zooplankton communities in the coastal waters off Incheon showed typical characteristics of coastal-estuarine communities, which were dominated by a few species, and abrupt seasonal variations in abundance. We suggest that the seasonal succession and abundance variations of zooplankton communities were caused by the seasonal variations in water temperature and by the seasonally varying phytoplankton biomass in the study area.

Abundance Estimation of the Chesapeake Bay Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus

  • ZHANG Chang Ik;AULT Jerald S.
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.708-719
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    • 1995
  • This study is to estimate abundance of the Chesapeake Bay blue crab stock. Using 823 dredge tows which were conducted during the 1991 winter survey, blue crab abundance was estimated on the basis of newly developed methods which account for unequal dredge tow distances, size- and sex-specific heterogeneous overwintering spatial distributions, wintertime exploitation, the time period of quasi-hibernation, and dredge capture efficiency. The estimate of total abundance before correction by gear efficiency was 131.8 million crabs $(95\%\;C.I.\;=\;118.2\;million\;crabs\;to\;145.4\;million\;crabs),$ Dredge capture efficiency was estimated to be 0.474. Thus, the estimate of total abundance was calculated as 278.1 million crabs after correction by the efficiency factor.

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Distribution Pattern of Zooplankton in the Han River Estuary with respect to Tidal Cycle

  • Youn, Seok-Hyun;Choi, Joong-Ki
    • Ocean Science Journal
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.135-146
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    • 2008
  • The monthly distribution of zooplankton communities in Han River estuary was investigated at two stations from July 1998 to June 1999. Monthly mean abundance of total zooplankton varied remarkably, with the range from 20 $indiv.{\cdot}m^{-3}$ to 19,600 $indiv.{\cdot}m^{-3}$. During the study period, dominant species of zooplankton community were dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans, copepods Paracalanus indicus, Paracaanus crassirostris, Acartia hongi, Acartia ohtsukai, and meroplanton cirriped larvae. According to tidal states, relative high abundance occurred at high tide without regard to season. The temporal distribution of abundance implied that the reduced salinity probably limited the zooplankton populations and the fluctuations of salinity were an important factor in the variation of abundance. However, the results of salinity tolerance test shows that the variations in salinity do not directly influence the decrease of abundance. This study shows that the relatively high abundance of zooplankton near high tide seems to be related with the expansion of abundant zooplankton inhabiting Incheon coastal waters through tidal currents.

Habitat selectivity of fresh water fishes of two second-order tropical streams in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

  • Tesfay, Solomon;Teferi, Mekonen;Tsegazeabe, Haileselasie Hadush
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.73-83
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    • 2019
  • Background: Habitat selectivity and ecology of freshwater fishes were studied in two selected streams and their junction point which consist a total of 39 microhabitats. The aims of this study were to describe the habitat preference and its availability to fish assemblage, as well as ecology, habitat use, and habitat characteristics. Methods: We collected fish with backpack electrofishing three times during August 2013, December 2013, and March 2014. Using a variation partitioning approach of R software, we studied the relationship of fish abundances with stream type, habitat type, and abundance of key macroinvertebrate taxa. Results: A total of 6554 fishes representing four species belonging to the family Cyprinidae were caught. A higher total fish abundance was recorded from Gereb Tsedo (4870; 74.3%) than from Elala stream (1684; 25.7%). Taking both streams together, the overall total relative fish abundance was significantly higher in pools (53%) than in runs (35%) and in riffles (12%) at P < 0.05. Species-wise comparisons showed that 71%, 15%, 13%, and 1% of the pool fish community were occupied by Garra blanfordii, Garra ignestii, Garra dembecha, and Garra aethiopica, respectively. Stream type, habitat type, and key macroinvertebrate taxa each explained a significant proportion of the variation in fish abundance. Based on the variation partitioning approach, fish abundance was higher in Gereb Tsedo stream (P < 0.01). Moreover, fish abundance increased with pool habitat type (P < 0.01) and with availability of key macroinvertebrate taxa (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Fish abundance differed between stream types, among habitats and among key macroinvertebrate taxa availability. Among the factors, habitat type was the most important driving factor behind variation among fish abundances, and pool supports the highest fish abundance.

Relationship between Stream Geomophological Factors and the Vegetation Abundance - With a Special Reference to the Han River System - (하천의 지형학적 인자와 식생종수의 관계 -한강수계를 중심으로-)

  • 이광우;김태균;심우경
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.73-85
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to develop prediction models for plant species abundance by stream restoration. Generally the stream plant is affected by stream gemophology. So in this study, the relationship between the vegetation abundance and stream gemophology was developed by multiple regression analysis. The stream characteristics utilized in this study were longitudinal slope, transectional slope, micro-landforms through the longitudinal direction, riparian width and geometric mean diameter and biggest diameter of bed material, and cumulated coarse and fine sand weight portion. The Pyungchang River with mountainous watershed and the Kyungan stream and the Bokha stream in the agricultural region were selected and vegetation species abundance and stream characteristics were documented from the site at 2~3km intervals from the upper stream to the lower. The Models for predicting the vegetation abundance were developed by multiple regression analysis using SPSS statistics package. The linear relationship between the dependant(species abundance) and independant(stream characteristics) variables was tested by a graphical method. Longitudinal and transectional slope had a nonlinear relationship with species abundance. In the next step, the independance between the independant variables was tested and the correlation between independant and dependant variables was tested by the Pearson bivariate correlation test. The selected independant variables were transectional slope, riparian width, and cumulated fine sand weight portion. From the multiple regression analysis, the $R^2$for the Pyungchang river, Kyungan stream, Bokga stream were 0.651, 0.512 and 0.240 respectively. The natural stream configuration in the Pyungchang river had the best result and the lower $R^2$for Kyunan and Bokha stream were due to human impact which disturbed the natural ecosystem. The lowest $R^2$for the Bokha stream was due to the shifting sandy bed. If the stream bed is fugitive, the prediction model may not be valid. Using the multiple regression models, the vegetation abundance could be predicted with stream characteristics such as, transection slope, riaparian width, cumulated fine sand weigth portion, after stream restoration.

Relationships between Invertebrate Availability and the Abundance of Three Species of Shrews and the Shrew-mole in Managed Forests (산림 내에서 곤충의 현존도와 식충목 4 종의 풍부도간의 상관 관계)

  • Lee, Sang Don
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.441-449
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    • 1995
  • The abundance of coarse woody debris (CWD) has been hypothesized to increase niche for forest dwelling insectivores, concentration of nutrients, and the diversity of invertebrates. However, no abjective assessment based on replication in the field has yet been done. this study was carried out to test the relationships between invertebrate availability and the abundance of four insectivores (Sorex trowbridgii, S. vagrans, S. monticolus and Neurotrichus gibbsii) in western Washington, USA. Pitfall traps were used to determine abundance and diversity of invertebrates. Abundance of insectivores was not different between habitats except for S. vagrans which was more abundant in habitats with low amounts of CWD than in habitats with high amounts of CWD. Simpson’s diversity index computed for invertebrates did not differ between habitats. There were no significant relationships between the diversity indices of invertebrates and the abundance of shrews. Shrew abundance and the Coleoperan beetles also did not show any significant relationship. The results suggested insectivores might select a wide range of prey items in addition to surface-active invertebrates.

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