• Title, Summary, Keyword: Zostera marina L.

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Water Flow Estimation using Roughness Coefficient in a Seagrass (Zostera marina L.) Bed (조도계수를 이용한 거머리말 해초지의 조석류에 대한 수치실험)

  • Oh, Tae-Gun;Kim, Chang-Gil;Kim, Jeong-Bae;Lee, Sang-Yong
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.239-247
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    • 2008
  • Spatial distribution of water flow generated by tidal current was investigated within a Zostera marina(seagrass) bed in Wonpo Bay. Water flow and elevation were observed during the seagrass growing season. The spatial distribution of water flow was numerically estimated using roughness coefficient. Water flow inside the seagrass meadow was compared with the observed values. Velocity in Zostera marina vegetated areas was approximately $25{\sim}84%$ lower than that of unvegetated areas. However, flow direction was the same. Intensity of the flood tide diminished appreciably within the seagrass bed, while its pattern was also affected. It is therefore concluded that water flow is influenced by Zostera marina meadows.

Seasonal Variation Characteristics of Zostera marina L. in HAENAM SAGUMI on the Southern Coast of Korea (해남 사구미 연안 거머리말(Zostera marina L.)의 계절특성)

  • Ok, Jae Seung;Lee, Sang Yong;Shin, Kyung Hoon;Kim, Hi Joong
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.513-523
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    • 2013
  • This ecological study was conducted to analyze seasonal variation characteristics of Zostera marina at HAENAM SAGUMI on the Southern Coast of Korea. Environmental characteristics, plant morphological characteristics, shoot density, biomass, and leaf production were monitored from August 2008 to March 2011. Zostera marina occurred in the subtidal zone from 0 to 2.5 m below the mean low water level. Water temperature showed a clear annual pattern, with increase in spring and summer, and decreases in fall and winter. Irradiance showed seasonal variation, even though daily weather condition has short-term variation in the incident irradiation. Plant morphological characteristics, shoot density, biomass, and leaf production showed clear seasonal variation. Seasonal variation in the above biomass of Zostera marina was mainly caused by changes in shoot length. We found that there are correlations between environmental characteristics (water temperature, irradiation) and the growth of Zostera marina. There is stronger correlation between water temperature and the growth of Zostera marina, compared to the correlation between irradiation and the growth of Zostera marina. In particular, the growth of Zostera marina is inhibited by both higher and lower water temperature.

Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Zostera marina L. Extract

  • Choi, Han-Gil;Lee, Ji-Hee;Park, Hyang-Ha;Sayegh, Fotoon A.Q.
    • ALGAE
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.179-184
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    • 2009
  • Methanol crude extract of the sea grass Zostera marina L. and organic solvent fractions (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water) were screened for antioxidant activity (total phenolic contents, DPPH scavenging activity, and reducing power) and antimicrobial activity against three human skin pathogens, two bacteria and a yeast; Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Candida albicans. Total phenolic contents and 2, 2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity were highest in the ethyl acetate fraction with 968.50 $\mu$g gallic acid equivalent per milligram of extract, and ca. 95% scavenging activity on the DPPH radicals at 10 mg $ml^{-1}$. In antimicrobial activity tests, MICs (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) of each Zostera marina extract partitioned ranged from 1mg to 8 mg $ml^{-1}$ (extract/ 10% DMSO) against all three human skin pathogens. The MICs of the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were the same with 1 mg $ml^{-1}$ against S. aureus and C. albicans. The ethyl acetate fraction of Z. marina does protect against free radicals and may be used to inhibit the growth of human skin pathogens.

Extraction of Caffeic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid from Zostera marina Based on Ionic Liquids and Deep Eutectic Solvent (이온성액체와 Deep Eutectic Solvent를 사용한 잘피에서 카페인산과 로즈마리산의 추출)

  • Lee, Yu Ri;Lee, Yu Jin;Row, Kyung Ho
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.481-485
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    • 2014
  • The applicability of the dipping, ultrasonic-assisted, heating methods to the extraction of useful components from Zostera marina was investigated. For the increase of the extraction yield of caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid from Zostera marina, ionic liquids and DES were used as additives in the extraction solvent. The optimum extraction conditions were found: dipping extraction, methanol as extraction solvent, 0.005 g of freeze-dried material powder, 5 mL methanol, 30 min and 0.5 g of DES-3 ($Et_4NCl$ and phenol) as additive. As a result, 0.19 mg/g of caffeic acid and 8.48 mg/g of rosmarinic acid were obtained. This method is simple and sensitive, and has been applied successfully to determine the component of caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid in Zostera marina and these results indicate that DES were used as additives is more suitable than traditional extraction for the extraction of useful components from Zostera marina.

Morphometric Analysis of Zostera marina L. Found in Various Habitats Along the Eastern Coast of Korea (동해안에 자생하는 거머리말(Zostera marina L.)의 생육지 분포에 따른 형태 분석)

  • 권천중;이상용;최청일
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.66-72
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    • 2002
  • The intraspecific variability, habitats, and morphological characteristics of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the eastern coast of Korea were examined during June to August 1998. Morphological characteristics including shoot height, leaf length, leaf width, number of leaf veins, and shape of leaf apex were measured, and eelgrass habitats were analyzed using character correlation, principal components and cluster analyses. The morphological characteristics varied with the habitat types and water depth. Eelgrass beds distributed mostly in lagoons, ports and bays along the east coast of the Korean peninsula. The quantitative morphological features that enabled recognition of the two phonetic groups were short- narrow and long-broad leaf types. Leaf apex in particular varied with the habitat characteristics.

Coexistence between Zostera marina and Zostera japonica in seagrass beds of the Seto Inland Sea, Japan

  • Sugimoto, Kenji;Nakano, Yoichi;Okuda, Tetsuji;Nakai, Satoshi;Nishijima, Wataru;Okada, Mitsumasa
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.45-53
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    • 2017
  • Background: There have been many studies on the growth conditions of Zostera marina and Zostera japonica, but few studies have examined how spatial and temporal factors affect growth in established seagrass beds or the distribution range and shoot density. This study aims to clarify the factors that determine the temporal and spatial distribution of Zostera marina and Zostera japonica in the Seto Inland Sea east of Yamaguchi Prefecture. Methods: The study site is in Hiroshima Bay of the Seto Inland Sea, along the east coast of Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. We monitored by diving observation to confirm shoot density, presence or absence of both species and observed water temperature, salinity by sensor in study sites. Results: The frequency of occurrence of Zostera marina was high in all seasons, even in water depths of D.L. + 1 to -5 m ($80{\pm}34%$ to $89{\pm}19%$; mean ${\pm}$ standard deviation), but lower (as low as $43{\pm}34%$) near the breakwall, where datum level was 1 to 2 m, and it was further reduced in datum level -5 m and deeper. The frequency of occurrence of Zostera japonica was highest in water with a datum level of +1 to 0 m. However, in datum level of 0 m or deeper, it became lower as the water depth became deeper. Datum level +1 m to 0 m was an optimal water depth for both species. The frequency of occurrence and the shoot density of both species showed no negative correlation. In 2011, the daily mean water temperature was $10^{\circ}C$ or less on more days than in other years and the feeding damage by S. fuscescens in the study sites caused damage at the tips. Conclusions: We considered that the relationship between these species at the optimal water depth was not competitive, but due to differences in spatial distribution, Zostera marina and Zostera japonica do not influence each other due to temperature conditions and feeding damage and other environmental conditions. Zostera japonica required light intensity than Zostera marina, and the water depth played an important role in the distribution of both species.

Distribution of Eelgrass, Zostera marina L. on Coasts of the Korean Peninsula: Preliminary Study for Eelgrass Restoration

  • Lee, Sang-Yong;Kwon, Chun-Jong;Lee, Kun-Seop;Choi, Chung-Il
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.55-61
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    • 2002
  • Eelgrass, Zostera marina L. widely spreads throughout all the coastal areas of the Korean Peninsula. However, some previously reported eelgrass populations disappeared. The disappearance was probably caused by anthropogenic disturbance such as reclamation and pollutant or exceeded nutrient release. Eelgrass beds occurred from the intertidal to the subtidal zone, mainly in lagoon, estuaries, ports, barrier reef and bays. Eelgrass beds were also found at the intertidal mud and sand flats, subtidal mud and sandbank in more exposed areas. Habitat characteristics of eelgrass beds distributed on the coasts of the Korean Peninsula varied among coast areas. Eelgrass distributed constantly throughout the southern coast of Korea, while the distribution was limited at lagoon, bay, port, or barrier reef on the eastern coast, because of steep water depth and high wave energy in that coast. On the western coast, eelgrass mainly appeared at the intertidal and subtidal zones in islands. Sediment characteristics of the Z. marina beds varied with locality, tidal current and water motion. Sediments of Z. marina beds were composed of sand, muddy sand, sandy mud and mud. Mean grain size ranged from 1.5 to 4.1 phi.

New Cosmetic Agents for Anti-aging from Zostera marina L. (잘피(Zostera marina L.)의 신규 항노화 화장품 소재 응용)

  • Jin-Hui, Kim;Kyung-Eun, Lee;Jin-Hwa, Kim;Young-Ho, Cho;Sung-Min, Park;Jeong-Jae, Lee;Bum-Chun, Lee;Hyeong-Bae, Pyo
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.235-240
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    • 2004
  • In order to develop new anti-photoaging agents from marine natural products, Zostera marina L. was selected for its antioxidative activity and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression. Three compounds (compounds 1, 2, and 3) were isolated from the extract, and they were identified as apigenin-7-O-${\beta}$-D-glucoside (1), chrysoeriol (2), and luteolin (3). These compounds have SC$\_$50/ values of 0.18 mM, 0.68 mM, and 0.01 mM against l,l-dipheny1-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and 0.04mM, 0.03mM, and 0.01mM against the superoxide radical in the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system, respectively. Compound 3 suppressed the expression of MMP-1 by up to 44% at 35.0${\mu}$M and inhibited the production of interleukin 6, which is known as a cytokine that induces MMP-1 expression. In addition, the wrinkle improvement effect of the formulation with Z. marina extract was measured. As a result, remarkable reduction was found in the fine wrinkle and skin roughness after application of the cream with 3.0% this extract for 8 weeks. In conclusion, the isolated compounds from Z. marina extract were good antioxidant and suppressor of MMP-1 expression and the formulation with the extract diminished the skin wrinkle. Therefore, the extract can be used as a new anti-aging agent for application in cosmetic.

Phonology and Morphometrics Change of Zostera marina L. Population at Duksan Port in the Eastern Coast of Korea (동해 덕산항에 생육하는 거머리말(Zostera marina L.) 개체군의 생물계절학과 형태 변이)

  • 이상룡;이성미;김정하;최청일
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.70-77
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    • 2003
  • From March 1998 to August 2000, the phenological and morphometric changes of Zostera marina L. were examined at the Duksan Port in the eastern coast of Korea. Morphometric characteristics, phenological stage, shoot density, biomass of Z. marina population and environmental parameters were also measured. Nutrient levels in water column varied over the season. Morphometric characteristics of vegetative shoot changed with season; shoot heights ranged from 54.2 cm (March) to 100.0 cm (October). Reproductive shoots appeared from mid-March to early September of which the height was ranged from 97.8 cm (March) to 213.0 cm (July). The flowering phase started at 12$^{\circ}C$ and the fruit development was resulted up to 21$^{\circ}C$. The seed maturing was developed at 22$^{\circ}C$-$25^{\circ}C$. Shoot density and biomass in permanent quadrate (0.25 m$^2$) were significantly different among seasons ranging from 38 to 136 shoots (mean 80.3$\pm$6.5) for shoot density, and 190 g dry wt m$^{-2}$ in October 1998 to 922 g dry wt m$^{-2}$ in June 1998 for biomass respectively. Relationships between shoot morphometrics and physico-chemical parameters were not significantly correlated. Seasonal changes in water temperature seemed responsible for the replacement of reproductive phases and the annual changes of shoot morphometrics in Z. marina populations.

The Distribution and Habitation Characteristics of Zostera marina L. along the Southern Coast of Korea (남해안에서 자생하는 거머리말(Zostera marina L.)식물의 분포와 생육지 환경)

  • Lee, Sang-Yong;Lee, Sung-Mi;Jee, Hae-Geun;Choi, Chung-Il
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.313-320
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    • 2001
  • An ecological study was conducted to determine the geographic distribution, community structure, and habitat characteristics of eelgrass, Zostera marina L. beds along the southern coast of Korea. Plants and sediment samples were collected during June 2000 and December 2000 on twenty-eight locations, including two Cheju Island stations, which were used to compare morphological characteristics with habitat types. Z. marina populations existed from the intertidal to subtidal zone, mainly in the bays along the coast and the island, the barrier reef, and the estuary where the water depth was 0.5${\sim}$8.0m. Salinity range in Z. marina beds ranged 18.2 to 34.5%$_o$. Sediments of Z. marina beds contained 49.7${\sim}$99.1% of sand and were classified into sand, muddy sand, and sandy mud. Mean grain size varied from 1.5 to 4.4 phi. Height of vegetation shoots varied from 54.7 to 171.4 cm, depending on water depth, location, substrata and habitat types. quantitative morphological features that enabled recognition of the two phonetic groups were short-narrow leaf type and long-broad leaf type. Statistical analysis indicated that biomass of individual plants and their quantitative morphological characteristics were significantly correlated.

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