• Title, Summary, Keyword: Zearalenone

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Mycotoxin contaminations in swine diets and potential nutritional solutions (돼지사료내 곰팡이독소의 오염 및 영양학적 해결방안)

  • Son, Ah Reum
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.1230-1242
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    • 2018
  • In the present work, we reviewed feed mycotoxin-related research and provide potential strategies to overcome feed mycotoxin issues. Cereal grains and cereal byproducts are most easily contaminated by fungus. Fungi in feed ingredients produce secondary metabolites such as aflatoxin, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone, which are commonly found in feed ingredients. These mycotoxins in animal feeds and ingredients are regulated in many countries. Dietary mycotoxins have detrimental effects on immune systems and growth performance in pigs. A major harmful effect of dietary mycotoxin is reduced feed intake, resulting in deficient energy and nutrient intake and eventually depressed growth of pigs. The reduced energy and nutrient intake may be overcome possibly by increased energy and nutrient concentrations. Dietary supplementation of some mycotoxin binders may reduce the detrimental effects of mycotoxins. However, the effects of mycotoxin binders especially on deoxynivalenol and zearalenone have been reported to be variable depending on classes and concentration of mycotoxin, environmental condition, and type of mycotoxin binders.

Effect of inoculants and storage temperature on the microbial, chemical and mycotoxin composition of corn silage

  • Wang, Musen;Xu, Shengyang;Wang, Tianzheng;Jia, Tingting;Xu, Zhenzhen;Wang, Xue;Yu, Zhu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.12
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    • pp.1903-1912
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    • 2018
  • Objective: To evaluate the effect of lactic acid bacteria and storage temperature on the microbial, chemical and mycotoxin composition of corn silage. Methods: Corn was harvested at 32.8% dry matter, and chopped to 1 to 2 cm. The chopped material was subjected to three treatments: i) control (distilled water); ii) $1{\times}10^6$ colony forming units (cfu)/g of Lactobacillus plantarum; iii) $1{\times}10^6cfu/g$ of Pediococcus pentosaceus. Treatments in triplicate were ensiled for 55 d at $20^{\circ}C$, $28^{\circ}C$, and $37^{\circ}C$ in 1-L polythene jars following packing to a density of approximately $800kg/m^3$ of fresh matter, respectively. At silo opening, microbial populations, fermentation characteristics, nutritive value and mycotoxins of corn silage were determined. Results: L. plantarum significantly increased yeast number, water soluble carbohydrates, nitrate and deoxynivalenol content, and significantly decreased the ammonia N value in corn silage compared with the control (p<0.05). P. pentosaceus significantly increased lactic acid bacteria and yeast number and content of deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, T-2 toxin and zearalenone, while decreasing mold population and content of nitrate and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalneol in corn silage when stored at $20^{\circ}C$ compared to the control (p<0.05). Storage temperature had a significant effect on deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, ochratoxin A, and zearalenone level in corn silage (p<0.05). Conclusion: Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus did not decrease the contents of mycotoxins or nitrate in corn silage stored at three temperatures.

Exposure to low concentrations of mycotoxins triggers unique responses from the pig gut microbiome

  • Moon, Sung-Hyun;Koh, Sang-Eog;Oh, Yeonsu;Cho, Ho-Seong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.39-44
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    • 2020
  • The aim of this study is to investigate how the gut microbiome shifts when pigs were exposed with low concentrations of mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) in feed. Fifteen of pigs, 15 kg in weight which were negative for PRRSV and PCV2 were purchased, acclimatized until 20 kg in weight, and randomly divided into 3 groups; the DON group (DON treated), the ZEN group (ZEN treated) and the CTL (untreated negative control). DON and ZEN administered to each group for 30 days at 0.8 mg/kg (800 ppb) and 0.20 mg/kg (200 ppb) in feed, respectively. After extraction of microbial DNA from intestine and fecal samples, sequencing procedures were performed in the Ion PGM using an Ion 316 V2 chip and Ion PGM sequencing 400 kit. The results suggested that the bacterial communities in duodenum, jejunum and ileum of the DON and ZEN groups presented low-abundant OTUs compared with the CTL group. OTUs in cecum, colon and feces were determined more than in small intestine of all three groups. However, the CTL group yielded more OTUs than other two groups in inter-group comparison. It is not fully clarified how the richness and abundance in microbiome functions in the health condition of animals, however, the exposure to DON and ZEN has caused microbial population shifts representing microbial succession and changes following the diversity and abundance of porcine gut microbiome. The metabolomic analysis correlate with microbiome analysis is needed for further study.

Characterization of Nivalenol-Producing Fusarium asiaticum That Causes Cereal Head Blight in Korea

  • Jang, Ja Yeong;Baek, Seul Gi;Choi, Jung-Hye;Kim, Sosoo;Kim, Jeomsoon;Kim, Da-Woon;Yun, Sung-Hwan;Lee, Theresa
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.543-552
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    • 2019
  • Fusarium asiaticum of the F. graminearum species complex causes head blight in small-grain cereals. The nivalenol (NIV) chemotypes of F. asiaticum is more common than the deoxynivalenol (DON) chemotypes of F. asiaticum or F. graminearum in Korea. To understand the prevalence of F. asiaticum-NIV in Korean cereals, we characterized the biological traits of 80 cereal isolates of F. asiaticum producing NIV or 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON), and 54 F. graminearum with 3-ADON or 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-ADON). There was no significant difference in mycelial growth between the chemotypes, but F. asiaticum isolates grew approximately 30% faster than F. graminearum isolates on potato dextrose agar. Sexual and asexual reproduction capacities differed markedly between the two species. Both chemotypes of F. graminearum (3-ADON and 15-ADON) produced significantly higher numbers of perithecia and conidia than F. asiaticum-NIV. The highest level of mycotoxins (sum of trichothecenes and zearalenone) was produced by F. graminearum-3-ADON on rice medium, followed by F. graminearum-15-ADON, F. asiaticum-3-ADON, and F. asiaticum-NIV. Zearalenone levels were correlated with DON levels in some chemotypes, but not with NIV levels. Disease assessment on barley, maize, rice, and wheat revealed that both F. asiaticum and F. graminearum isolates were virulent toward all crops tested. However, there is a tendency that virulence levels of F. asiaticum-NIV isolates on rice were higher than those of F. graminearum isolates. Taken together, the phenotypic traits found among the Korean F. asiaticum-NIV isolates suggest an association with their host adaptation to certain environments in Korea.

The Effect of Ammonia and Sodium Hydroxide Treatment on the Storage and Rumen Microbial Fiber Degradation in Silage of Rice Straw Contaminated Mycotoxin (암모니아 및 가성소다 처리가 Mycotoxin 오염 사료용 볏짚의 사일레지 저장 및 반추위 미생물의 섬유소 분해에 미치는 영향)

  • Sung, Ha Guyn
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.80-86
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    • 2020
  • This study was conducted to research on the efficacy of chemical treatment as an effective method for reducing mycotoxin in rice straw silage. As a chemical treatment method, ammonia and sodium hydroxid were treated at 4% level of rice straws contaminated with mycotoxin, and the effects of silage storage on fungal toxin reduction, fermentation quality, and fiber digestion were evaluated. Aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 and fumonisin B1, B2 as well as deoxynivalenol were not detected in all experimental groups, and ochratoxin A and zearalenone were detected. Ochratoxin A was detected lower in the chemical treatment than control (41.23 g / kg) (p<0.05). Zearalenone showed lower results in sodium hydroxide treatment (297.44 ㎍ / kg) than control (600.33 ㎍ / kg) and ammonia treatment (376.00 ㎍ / kg) (p<0.05). The pH of rice straw silage was the lowest in ammonia treatment and the highest in sodium hydroxide treatment (p<0.05). The lactic acid contents of control and ammonia treatments were similar, but sodium hydroxide treatment was the lowest (p<0.05). Propionic acid was higher in the control than in the chemical treatments (p<0.05), and showed similar contents in the ammonia and sodium hydroxide treatment. Both the rumen microbial degradation rate of NDF and ADF showed the highest in sodium hydroxide treatment, followed by ammonia treatment, and the control showed the lowest level (p<0.05). Therefore, the results of this study are demonstrated to have a good effect on the treatment of ammonia and sodium hydroxide to reduce the mycotoxins and increase the rumen microbial degradation rate in the rice straw silage. Sodium hydroxide treatment was more effective in reducing mycotoxins and improving fiber degradation rate than ammonia treatment, but it is thought to have an inefficient effect on silage fermentation in rice straw silage.

Insertional mutagenesis of fusarium graminearum for characterization of genes involved in disease development and mycotoxin production

  • Han, Yon-Kyoung;Lee, Hyo-Jin;Yun, Sung-Hwan;Lee, Yin-Won
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Plant Pathology Conference
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    • pp.85.2-86
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    • 2003
  • Fusarium graminearum is an important pathogen of cereal crops in many areas of the world causing head blight and ear rot of small grains. In addition to serious economic losses, this fungus produces mycotoxins, such as trichothecenes and zearalenone on diseased crops and has been a potential threat to human and animal health. To massively identify pathogenesis-related genes from F. graminearum, two representative strains (SCKO4 from rice and Z03643 from wheat) were mutagenized using restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI). In total, 20,DOD REMI transformants have been collected from the two strains. So far, 63 mutants for several traits involved in disease development such as virulence, mycotoxin production, and sporulation have been selected from 3,000 REMI transformants. Now, selected mutants of interest have being genetically analyzed using a newly developed outcross method (See Jungkwan Lee et al poster). In addition, cloning and characterization of genomic DNA regions flanking the insertional site in the genome of the mutants are in progress.

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식품내 진균독소분석을 위한 면역화학적 방법의 평가와 응용

  • Lee, Hyang-Beom;Son, Dong-Hwa
    • Bulletin of Food Technology
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.115-120
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    • 1997
  • 면역분석법(immunoassay)은 aflatoxin류, deoxynivalenol(DON), zearalenone(ZEA), fumonisin류 등을 포함하는 다양한 진균독소분석에 적용되고 있다. 이들 분석법을 이용하여 여러 종류의 matrix내에 존재하는 물질들을 분석할 수 있다. 그리고 많은 시료를 빨리 분석해야 하는 경우에 이 방법이 적용되고 있다. 상업적인 면역화학적 분석키트들은 흔히 검출감도(sensitivity), 특이성(specificity), 재현성(reproducibility), 비용(cost), 안정성(stability), 편리성(ease of use)등의 관점에서 평가된다. 실험실적으로 품질보증을 위하여 표준곡선과 양성대조구 등에 대한 사전 검토가 필수적이다. 또한 높은 농도의 분석물의 경우에는 matrix에서 기인한 간섭때문이 아닌지를 구분하는 것도 중요하다. 본문에서 곡류와 곡류가공품 및 특정의 감시대상물 질내 aflatoxin류, DON, ZEA 그리고 fumonisin류와 같은 진균독소의 분석에 면역화학적 방법을 사용하여 얻어진 공동연구의 결과에 대한 해석기준이 제시된다. 또한 yes/no로 구분해야 하는 정성시험의 결과해석에 필요한 기준이 제시된다. 진균독소의 면역분석법을 평가하기 위한 몇몇기준들과 그 방법들을 감시도구로 사용하는 예는, 식품중의 잔류농약을 검출하기 위한 접근방법과 유사한 모델로서 활용될 수 있을 것이다.

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Incidence of Fusarium and other Molds in Korean Field Crops

  • Ryu, Dojin;Bullerman, Lloyd B.
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.43-47
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    • 1998
  • The incidence of total molds, Fusarium species, and the estrogenic mycotoxin,zearalenone, in Korean grain samples were investigated . The majority of molds infecting grain were identified as belonging to the genus Alternaria , with an average infection rate of kernels of 43% and 32% in rice and baley, respectively. Fusarium speciens were less common, with average infection rates of 13% and 19% in reice and barley, respectively. A number of field fungi including Curvularia and Dactylaria were also observed. Among the Fusarium speices, 71 of 94 Fusarium isolates were identified as F.semitectum. A few F. moniliforme and F. equiseti were observed linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). In addition, deoxynivalenol was not deteted by ELISA . However, thepresence of molds, including Fusarium species, may pose possbile health hazards to persons consuming those grains.

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Effects of zearalenone on the localization and expression of the growth hormone receptor gene in the uteri of post-weaning piglets

  • Zhou, Min;Yang, Li Jie;Yang, Wei Ren;Huang, Li Bo;Zhou, Xue Mei;Jiang, Shu Zhen;Yang, Zai Bin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.32-39
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    • 2018
  • Objective: In this study, we investigated the adverse effects of dietary zearalenone (ZEA) (0.5 to 1.5 mg/kg diet) on the localization and expression of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in the uteri of post-weaning gilts and explored alternative mechanism of the reproductive toxicity of ZEA on piglets. Methods: A total of forty healthy piglets (Duroc${\times}$Landrace${\times}$Large White) aged 28 d were selected for study. Piglets were transferred to single cages after 10 days' adaptation on an obstetric table. The animals were allocated to one of four treatments: a normal basal diet supplemented with 0 (Control), 0.5 (ZEA0.5), 1.0 (ZEA1.0), or 1.5 (ZEA1.5) mg/kg purified ZEA, and fed for 35 d after the 10-d adaptation. Analyzed ZEA concentrations in the diets were 0, $0.52{\pm}0.07$, $1.04{\pm}0.03$, and $1.51{\pm}0.13mg/kg$, respectively. At the end of the feeding trial, piglets were euthanized after being fasted for 12 h. Two samples of uterine tissue from each pig were rapidly collected, one of which was stored at $-80^{\circ}C$ for analysis of the relative mRNA and protein expression of GHR, and the second was promptly fixed in Bouin's solution for immunohistochemical analysis. Results: The relative weight of the uteri and thickness of the myometrium and endometrium increased linearly (p<0.001) and quadratically (p<0.001) with an increasing level of ZEA. The results of immunohistochemical analysis indicated that GHR immunoreactive substance was mainly localizated in the cytoplasm of uterine smooth muscle, glandular epithelial, luminal epithelial, stromal, and vascular endothelial cells. In contrast, nuclear staining was rarely observed. The immunoreactive integrated optic density of GHR in the myometrium, luminal epithelium, glandular epithelium, and whole uteri of weaning gilts increased linearly (p<0.001) and quadratically (p<0.05) with an increasing level of ZEA. The mRNA and protein expression of GHR in the uteri of weaning gilts increased linearly (p<0.001) and quadratically (p<0.05) with an increasing level of ZEA. Conclusion: In conclusion, ZEA at a concentration of 0.5 mg/kg was sufficient to significantly thicken the myometrium and endometrium, and at a concentration of 1.0 mg/kg induced a high level of GHR expression to promote growth and development of the uteri. This revealed an alternative molecular mechanism whereby ZEA induces growth and development of the uteri and provides a theoretical basis for the revision of Chinese feed hygiene standards.

Analysis of Zearalenone Contamination in Cereal-Based Products Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Fluorescence Detector and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (곡류가공품 중 제랄레논 오염도 조사)

  • Jang, Mi-Ran;Lee, Chang-Hee;Choi, In-Sun;Shin, Choon-Shik;Kim, Jin-Hee;Jang, Young-Mi;Kim, Dong-Sul;Ahn, Dong-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.224-229
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    • 2011
  • Zearalenone (ZEA) is an estrogenic mycotoxin mainly produced by Fusarium graminerum, a species which colonizes a wide variety of cereals, including wheat, barley and processed products. A survey of ZEA contamination was conducted on 141 dried confectioneries, 59 breads and rice cakes, 135 noodles and 101 other products, for a total of 432 commercial samples. Samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) after immunoaffinity clean-up and was confirmed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS). The limits of detection and quantification were 2.0 and $6.0{\mu}g/kg$, respectively. The recovery ranged from 80.2% to 98.4% in the cereal based product. ZEA was detected in 38 samples (8.8% incidence), including 3 snack, 2 biscuit and 33 other cereal products. The ZEA contamination levels were in the range of $5.38-53.76{\mu}g/kg$. Finally, LC-MS/MS analysis of the contaminated samples was conducted to confirm the detected ZEA, and all 38 samples showing ZEA by HPLC-FLD were confirmed by LC-MS/MS.