• Title, Summary, Keyword: Zearalenone

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Effects of Feeding Purified Zearalenone Contaminated Diets with or without Clay Enterosorbent on Growth, Nutrient Availability, and Genital Organs in Post-weaning Female Pigs

  • Jiang, S.Z.;Yang, Z.B.;Yang, W.R.;Yao, B.Q.;Zhao, H.;Liu, F.X.;Chen, C.C.;Chi, F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.74-81
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    • 2010
  • The effects of different levels of natural clay enterosorbent on the growth, nutrient availability, and genital organs of post-weaning female pigs fed with an addition of zearalenone (ZEA) were investigated in the study. A total of thirty-five post-weaning gilts ($L{\times}Y{\times}D$) with an average body weight of 12.36${\pm}$1.46 kg were used in the test. The gilts were raised individually in metabolism cages and fed a corn-soybean meal-whey basal diet with an addition of 0 or 1 mg/kg of ZEA for 24 d with four levels of natural clay enterosorbent added in the feed. The treatments were: i) control; ii) control+2.5 g/kg clay; iii) control+1 mg/kg ZEA; iv) control+1 mg/kg ZEA+1.25 g/kg clay; v) control+1 mg/kg ZEA+2.5 g/kg clay; vi) control+1 mg/kg ZEA+5.0 g/kg clay; vii) control+1 mg/kg ZEA +10 g/kg clay. Pigs fed diets contaminated with additional purified ZEA had significantly reduced apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP), gross energy (GE) and apparent metabolic rate of GE (ME/GE, p<0.05) without changes of net protein utilization (NPU, p>0.05). Final body weight, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), vulva length, vulva width, vulva area, relative weights of genital organ and proliferative changes of the ovary tissues in gilts fed ZEA-contaminated diet were increased (p<0.05) compared to the gilts fed the control diet. Addition of natural clay enterosorbent in the ZEA-contaminated diet showed a positive protection effect on ZEA feeding, and the protection was increased linearly or quadratically as clay content increased. However, in pigs fed a diet with clay alone at 2.5 g/kg level there was no significant impact (p>0.05) on all the parameters as compared to the control. It is suggested that feeding ZEA at about 1.0 mg/kg for 24 days might result in a deleterious effect in pigs, and addition of 5 or 10 g clay enterosorbent per kg diet can effectively neutralize the detrimental effects of the ZEA feeding.

Effects of deoxynivalenol- and zearalenone-contaminated feed on the gene expression profiles in the kidneys of piglets

  • Reddy, Kondreddy Eswar;Lee, Woong;Jeong, Jin young;Lee, Yookyung;Lee, Hyun-Jeong;Kim, Min Seok;Kim, Dong-Woon;Yu, Dongjo;Cho, Ara;Oh, Young Kyoon;Lee, Sung Dae
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.138-148
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    • 2018
  • Objective: Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN), common contaminants in the feed of farm animals, cause immune function impairment and organ inflammation. Consequently, the main objective of this study was to elucidate DON and ZEN effects on the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other immune related genes in the kidneys of piglets. Methods: Fifteen 6-week-old piglets were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments for 4 weeks: control diet, and diets contaminated with either 8 mg DON/kg feed or 0.8 mg ZEN/kg feed. Kidney samples were collected after treatment, and RNA-seq was used to investigate the effects on immune-related genes and gene networks. Results: A total of 186 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened (120 upregulated and 66 downregulated). Gene ontology analysis revealed that the immune response, and cellular and metabolic processes were significantly controlled by these DEGs. The inflammatory stimulation might be an effect of the following enriched Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes pathway analysis found related to immune and disease responses: cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, chemokine signaling pathway, toll-like receptor signaling pathway, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), tuberculosis, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and chemical carcinogenesis. The effects of DON and ZEN on genome-wide expression were assessed, and it was found that the DEGs associated with inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 10 receptor, beta, chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 9, CXCL10, chemokine [C-C motif] ligand 4), proliferation (insulin like growth factor binding protein 4, IgG heavy chain, receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase C, cytochrome P450 1A1, ATP-binding cassette sub-family 8), and other immune response networks (lysozyme, complement component 4 binding protein alpha, oligoadenylate synthetase 2, signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-9, ${\alpha}$-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, Ig lambda chain c region, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4, carboxylesterase 1), were suppressed by DON and ZEN. Conclusion: In summary, our results indicate that high concentrations of DON and ZEN suppress the inflammatory response in kidneys, leading to potential effects on immune homeostasis.

Effects of aflatoxin B1 combined with ochratoxin A and/or zearalenone on metabolism, immune function, and antioxidant status in lactating dairy goats

  • Huang, Shuai;Zheng, Nan;Fan, Caiyun;Cheng, Ming;Wang, Shang;Jabar, Adil;Wang, Jiaqi;Cheng, Jianbo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.505-513
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    • 2018
  • Objective: This experiment investigated the effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) alone or mixed with ochratoxin A (OTA) and/or zearalenone (ZEA) on the metabolism, immune function, and antioxidant status of dairy goats. Methods: Fifty lactating Laoshan dairy goats were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups (n = 10) for 14 days. Goats were fed no additive (control) or administered with $50{\mu}g\;AFB1/kg$ dry matter (DM) (AFB1), $50{\mu}g\;AFB1/kg$ $DM+100{\mu}g\;OTA/kg$ DM (AFB1+OTA), $50{\mu}g\;AFB1/kg$ $DM+500{\mu}g\;ZEA/kg$ DM (AFB1+ZEA), or $50{\mu}g\;AFB1/kg$ $DM+100{\mu}g\;OTA/kg$ $DM+500{\mu}g\;ZEA/kg$ DM (AFB1+OTA+ZEA). Results: Dry matter intake and milk production were lower in goats fed AFB1+OTA+ZEA than in controls. Supplementation with AFB1, OTA, and ZEA significantly decreased red blood cell count, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean platelet volume, and significantly increased white blood cell count, when compared with the control group. Compared with control, the combination of AFB1, OTA, and ZEA significantly increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, total bilirubin (TBIL), interleukin-6, and malondialdehyde (MDA), but significantly reduced immunoglobulin A concentration, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxides (GSH-Px), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in serum. Administration of AFB1 combined with OTA led to higher ALP, ALT, TBIL, and MDA, as well as lower milk production, SOD and GSH-Px activities, and T-AOC, than administration of AFB1 combined with ZEA. Conclusion: The mixture of AFB1, OTA, and ZEA exerted the greatest adverse effects on dairy goats, meanwhile the deleterious damage of the other mycotoxin combinations were in varying degrees. The findings of this study could provide guidance for the prevention and treatment of the consequences of contamination of animal feeds with combinations of mycotoxin.

Survey of Fungal Infection and Fusarium Mycotoxins Contamination of Maize during Storage in Korea in 2015 (2015년 국내산 저장 옥수수에서의 후자리움 독소 오염 및 감염 곰팡이 조사)

  • Kim, Yangseon;Kang, In Jeong;Shin, Dong Bum;Roh, Jae Hwan;Heu, Sunggi;Shim, Hyeong Kwon
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.278-282
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    • 2017
  • Maize is one of the most cultivated cereals as a staple food in the world. The harvested maize is mainly stored after drying, but its quality and nutrition could be debased by fungal spoilage and mycotoxin contamination. In this study, we surveyed mycotoxin contamination fungal infection of maize kernels that were stored for almost one year after harvest in 2015. The amount of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone detected were higher than the other mycotoxin, such as aflatoxin, ochratoxin, fumonisin and T-2 toxin. In particular, level of deoxynivalenol was detected as $1200{\pm}610{\mu}g/kg$ in small size kernels, which was four to six times higher than the large and the medium size kernels. Moreover, the amount of deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and fumonisin were increased with discolored kernels. 10 species including Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. were isolated from the maize kernels. F. graminearum was predominant in the discolored kernels with detection rates of 60% (red) and 40% (brown). Our study shows that the mycotoxin contents of stored maize can be increased by discolored maize kernels mixed. Therefore elimination of the contaminated maize kernels will help prevent fungal infection and mycotoxin contamination in stored maize.

Natural Occurrence of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Field-collected Maize and Rice in Korea in 2009 (2009년산 옥수수와 벼에서의 Fusarium 곰팡이독소 자연발생량 조사)

  • Lee, Seung-Ho;Son, Seung-Wan;Nam, Young-Ju;Shin, Jean-Young;Lee, Soo-Hyung;Kim, Mi-Ja;Yun, Jong-Chul;Ryu, Jae-Gee;Lee, Theresa
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.306-311
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    • 2010
  • To detect Fusarium mycotoxins, grain samples were collected from 32 rice fields all over the country and from 19 maize fields in eastern and midland provinces in Korea in 2009. Maize contamination with Fusarium species (54.9%) was higher than in rice (8.2%). Using Fusarium species specific PCR primer sets (Fg16 and VERT), 58 and 354 of total 506 isolates from maize samples were putatively identified as F. graminearum (11.5%) and F. verticillioides (70.0%), respectively. From rice samples, 276 of 315 isolates (87.8%) were putatively identified as F. graminearum but F. verticillioides was not identified. LC or LC-MS analysis of the samples revealed that fumonisin was the most commonly detected mycotoxin in maize samples but its level was below the regulation limit. Only two maize samples were contaminated with deoxynivalenol and zearalenone at the levels above the regulation limit. In rice samples, contamination with zearalenone was common but the levels were below the regulation limit. This study showed that most of the Korean maize and rice samples collected in 2009 were contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins but the levels were below the Korean regulations for deoxynivalenol, fumonisin and zearalenone.

Evaluation of Oxidative DNA Damage Using an Alkaline Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) Comet Assay, and the Protective Effects of N-Acetylcysteine Amide on Zearalenone-induced Cytotoxicity in Chang Liver Cells

  • Kang, Changgeun;Lee, Hyungkyoung;Yoo, Yong-San;Hah, Do-Yun;Kim, Chung Hui;Kim, Euikyung;Kim, Jong Shu
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.43-52
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    • 2013
  • Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several species of Fusarium that are found in cereals and agricultural products. ZEN has been implicated in mycotoxicosis in farm animals and in humans. The toxic effects of ZEN are well known, but the ability of an alkaline Comet assay to assess ZEN-induced oxidative DNA damage in Chang liver cells has not been established. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the Comet assay for the determination of cytotoxicity and extent of DNA damage induced by ZEN toxin, and the second aim was to investigate the ability of N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) to protect cells from ZEN-induced toxicity. In the Comet assay, DNA damage was assessed by quantifying the tail extent moment (TEM; arbitrary unit) and tail length (TL; arbitrary unit), which are used as indicators of DNA strand breaks in SCGE. The cytotoxic effects of ZEN in Chang liver cells were mediated by inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of oxidative DNA damage. Increasing the concentration of ZEN increased the extent of DNA damage. The extent of DNA migration, and percentage of cells with tails were significantly increased in a concentration-dependent manner following treatment with ZEN toxin (p < 0.05). Treatment with a low concentration of ZEN toxin (25 ${\mu}M$) induced a relatively low level of DNA damage, compared to treatment of cells with a high concentration of ZEN toxin (250 ${\mu}M$). Oxidative DNA damage appeared to be a key determinant of ZEN-induced toxicity in Chang liver cells. Significant reductions in cytolethality and oxidative DNA damage were observed when cells were pretreated with NACA prior to exposure to any concentration of ZEN. Our data suggest that ZEN induces DNA damage in Chang liver cells, and that the antioxidant activity of NACA may contribute to the reduction of ZEN-induced DNA damage and cytotoxicity via elimination of oxidative stress.

Investigation of the Transfer Rate of Zearalenone in Herbal Medicines to Their Decoction (한약재 중 제랄레논의 탕액으로 이행률 조사)

  • Shim, Won-Bo;Song, Jeong-Eon;Kim, Jeong-Sook;Chung, Young-Chul;Chung, Duck-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.312-316
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    • 2013
  • The objective of this study was to establish an analytical method to detect zearalenone (ZEA) in herbal medicines and their decoctions and investigate the ZEA transfer rate from raw materials of herbal medicines to their decoctions. Herbal medicines (Trichosanthis Semenm, Eucommiae Cortex, Rubi Fructus) spiked with a known concentration of ZEA were presoaked or unsoaked (as a pretreatment) and boiled for 3 h at $100^{\circ}C$ or autoclaved for 1 h at $121^{\circ}C$. The decoction and the remnants were separated, cleaned up with an immunoaffinity column, and analyzed using HPLC. Recoveries for decoctions and remnants were 68.39-83.68% and 72.91-80.25%, respectively. ZEA was not detected in the decoction, whereas it was found in the remnants. Although ZEA in the raw material of herbal medicines was not transferred into the decoction during heating and autoclaving, the continuous monitoring for ZEA in raw herbal medicines should be carried out for the safe ingestion and utilization of herbal medicines.

A Survey of Mycotoxins In Commerical Foods and Fate of Mycotoxins During Food Processing

  • Kamimura, Hisashi
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.165-169
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    • 1990
  • The natural occurrence of mycotoxins in food and foodstuffs and the fate of mycotoxins during food processing were investigated. Aflatoxins and /or Fusarium mycotoxins(nivalenol, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone) were detected in commercial samples of various foods and foodstuffs collected at Tokyo markets. It was found that the mycotoxins were decomposed at high temperature, but some remained after heating at usual temperatures for an ordinary period for domestic cooking(boiling, deep-frying of grilling). Industrial food manufacturing processes were relatively effective for removing mycotoxins.

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Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Fermented Chitin-chitosan (FERMKIT) on Toxicity of Mycotoxin in Ducks

  • Khajarern, J.M.;Khajarern, S.;Moon, T.H.;Lee, J.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.706-713
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    • 2003
  • Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of dietary FERMKIT, a commercial toxin binder consisting of probiotic-fermented natural product containing chitin, chitosan and chitosan oligosaccharides ($FERMKITO^{(R)}$, EASY-BIO SYSTEM, Inc., Korea), in binding aflatoxin (AF) and zearalenone (ZEN) and ameliorating their mycotoxicity in meat type ducks. FERMKIT was supplemented to AF contaminated diets (at 120 ppb) at either 0.3 or 0.6% in experiment 1 and to ZEN contaminated diets (at 150 ppb) at 0.6% in experiment 2. In experiment 1 body weight gains were reduced by 37% and mortality was increased by 18% in ducks fed diet contaminated with AF at 120 ppb compared to ducks fed control diet (<10 ppb AF) for the 4-wk experimental period. However, dietary FERMKIT supplementation effectively alleviated overall toxicity induced by AF. The significant treatment-related changes in feather growth, web-toe hemorrhage, leg deformity, liver paleness, organ weights, hematological values and serum biochemical values, as compared to the control, were observed. The FERMKIT supplementation significantly diminished the adverse effects of AF and restored all the parameters measured back (<0.05) toward the control values. These findings indicated that FERMKIT, when added at the levels of 0.3 or 0.6% in the 120 ppb AF diets, could modulate the toxicity of AF with percentage sorption capacity of 52.70% at the level 0.3% and 79.85% at the level 0.6% of the diets (experiment 1). In experiment 2, FERMKIT, when added at 0.6% to the 150 ppb ZEN diets for the 4-wk experimental period, diminished the toxicity as shown by body weight gain, weights of testicles, oviducts, Bursa of Fabricius and cloaca eversion score as compared with the controls (<10 ppb ZEN) and 150 ppb ZEN diet with no added FERMKIT. The findings indicated that FERMKIT could be protective against the effects of ZEN in young growing ducks with percentage sorption capacity of 67.11% as evaluated from toxicity index parameter measured when added at 0.6% of the diets containing 150 ppb ZEN.