• Title, Summary, Keyword: Zearalenone

Search Result 96, Processing Time 0.037 seconds

Detection of Foodborne Pathogens and Mycotoxins in Eggs and Chicken Feeds from Farms to Retail Markets

  • Lee, Minhwa;Seo, Dong Joo;Jeon, Su Been;Ok, Hyun Ee;Jung, Hyelee;Choi, Changsun;Chun, Hyang Sook
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
    • /
    • v.36 no.4
    • /
    • pp.463-468
    • /
    • 2016
  • Contamination by foodborne pathogens and mycotoxins was examined in 475 eggs and 20 feed samples collected from three egg layer farms, three egg-processing units, and five retail markets in Korea. Microbial contamination with Salmonella species, Escherichia coli, and Arcobacter species was examined by bacterial culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The contamination levels of aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone in eggs and chicken feeds were simultaneously analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection after the post-derivatization. While E. coli was isolated from 9.1% of eggs, Salmonella species were not isolated. Arcobacter species were detected in 0.8% of eggs collected from egg layers by PCR only. While aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone were found in 100%, 100%, and 85% of chicken feeds, their contamination levels were below the maximum acceptable levels (1.86, 2.24, and 147.53 μg/kg, respectively). However, no eggs were contaminated with aflatoxins, ochratoxins, or zearalenone. Therefore, the risk of contamination by mycotoxins and microbes in eggs and chicken feeds is considered negligible and unlikely to pose a threat to human health.

Analysis of Total Aflatoxin, Ochratoxin A, Zearalenone, Deoxynivalenol and T-2 Toxin Contamination in Nuts (시중유통 견과류의 총아플라톡신, 오크라톡신 A, 제랄레논, 데옥시니발레놀, T-2 독소의 오염도 조사)

  • Hong, JoonBae;Park, Kun Taek
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
    • /
    • v.34 no.1
    • /
    • pp.58-64
    • /
    • 2019
  • In the current study, 109 commercial nut samples were collected from different Korean markets and analyzed for the contamination of 5 different mycotoxins (aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and T-2 toxin) using ELISA kits. The results revealed that the most frequently detected mycotoxin was zearalenone (n=36, 33%), followed by aflatoxin (n=31, 28.4%) and ochratoxin A (n=30, 27.5%). Deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin were also detected in 22 (20.3%) samples, respectively. Among 109 nut samples, 33 samples (30.3%) were contaminated only with one kind of mycotoxin, whereas 43 samples had at least 2 kinds of mycotoxins. Two samples were contaminated with as many as 4 different mycotoxins, and they were both walnuts. Although the monitoring results revealed the amount of aflatoxin contamination was under the safety criteria, there is no current safety guideline for other kinds of mycotoxins or multiple contaminations in Korea. Therefore, further studies should be performed to reveal the distribution of mycotoxin in different foods and propose appropriate safety guidelines for Korean markets.

Analysis and Survey for Contamination of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone in Feed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC를 이용한 사료 중 Deoxynivalenol, Zearalenone의 분석과 오염도 조사)

  • Kim, Dong-Ho;Choi, Kyu-Il;Hong, Kyung-Suk;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Song, Yeong-Jin;Gang, Seung-Hun;Jang, Han-Sub;Cho, Hyun-Jung;Han, Gye-Su
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
    • /
    • v.26 no.3
    • /
    • pp.214-221
    • /
    • 2011
  • Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) are mainly contaminated mycotoxins in feeds. The study was carried out to analyze and survey the contamination of DON and ZEN in one hundred thirteen samples of feeds. After cleaning all samples with immunoaffinity column, the mycotoxins were analysed by using high performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence with diode array detector (HPLC/FLD with DAD). The average recoveries of DON were 88.76 and 95.40% at the levels of 200 and 1,000 ${\mu}g/kg$ and 87.09 and 98.40% of ZEN were recovered at the levels of 100 and 500 ${\mu}g/kg$, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) were 6.0 and 3.0 ${\mu}g/kg$ for DON and ZEN, respectively. The average concentrations of DON were 372.1, 324.0 and 990.9 ${\mu}g/kg$ in chicken, pig and cattle feed, respectively. Those of ZEN were 76.1, 43.7 and 196.2 ${\mu}g/kg$ for them, individually.

Simultaneous Analysis and Survey for Contamination of Nivalenol, Deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin and Zearalenone in Feed (사료 중 Nivalenol, Deoxynivalenol, T-2 foxin과 Zearalenone의 동시분석과 오염도조사)

  • Kim, Dong-Ho;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Jang, Han-Sub;Kim, Yeong-Min;Choi, Heng-Bo;Ahn, Jong-Sung
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
    • /
    • v.26 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-11
    • /
    • 2011
  • Nivalenol (NIV), deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 toxin (T-2) and zearalenone (ZEN) are mycotoxins produced by some Fusarium species known to be very frequently contaminated in feed. The study for simultaneous analysis and contamination survey in animal feed carried out. All mycotoxins were analysed by using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass with internal standard. The limits of detection (LOD) were $2.0\;{\mu}g/kg$, $1.0\;{\mu}g/kg$, $1.0\;{\mu}g/kg$ and $0.1\;{\mu}g/kg$ for NIV, DON, T-2 and ZEN, respectively. Two hundred and thirty nine samples of feed were collected. The average concentration of DON was $212.3\;{\mu}g/kg$, $207.8\;{\mu}g/kg$ and $812.1\;{\mu}g/kg$ in chicken, pig and cattle feed, respectively. The average concentration of ZEN was $31.2\;{\mu}g/kg$, $35.6\;{\mu}g/kg$ and $147.2\;{\mu}g/kg$ for them, respectively. Especially, the levels of contamination for DON and ZEN were higher than those of NIV or T-2. And, the levels of contamination for four Fusarium mycotoxins in cattle feed appeared higher than those of pig and chicken feed. It was investigated that the high level of mycotoxin contamination in cattle feed was caused by com gluten feed of ingredients for feed, mainly.

Co-occurrence of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone in Cereals and their Products (곡류와 그 가공품에서 Deoxynivalenol과 Zearalenone의 분석)

  • Ok, Hyun-Ee;Chang, Hyun-Joo;Choi, Sung-Wook;Lee, Na-Ri;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Koo, Min-Sun;Chun, Hyang-Sook
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
    • /
    • v.22 no.4
    • /
    • pp.375-381
    • /
    • 2007
  • Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) are naturally occurring toxins produced by Fusarium species, which may grow on cereals. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and contamination levels of DON and ZEN in cereal products. Seventy samples of cereal products were randomly selected from retail outlets during 2005 and 2006. DON and ZEN were analyzed by using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence and UV-detector, respectively. Detection limits were $4.4{\mu}g\;kg^{-1}$ for DON and $3.4{\mu}g\;kg^{-1}$ for ZEN. DON and ZEN were detected in 37 and 17, respectively, of the 70 samples, but the levels found were very low. In particular, out of 70 samples, 12 samples of corn and barley were co-contaminated with DON and ZEN, with levels ranging from 5.6 to $1842.3{\mu}g\;kg^{-1}$ for DON and 12.1 to $174.9{\mu}g\;kg^{-1}$ for ZEN, respectively. However, DON and ZEN were not detected in breakfast cereals and wheat flour. The highest level was found in dried corn kernel samples that confirmed by LC-MS. This study show that DON and ZEN co-contaminate with low levels in cereal products.

식품 및 사료에서 발생하는 곰팡이독소의 독성 및 대사

  • Lee, Hui-Gwon;Hwang, Yeong-Hui;Kim, Min-Jeong;Kim, Mu-Gi;Lee, Seong-Eun;Lee, Hoe-Seon
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
    • /
    • v.45 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-10
    • /
    • 2002
  • 식품과 사료에서 곰팡이독소 오염은 세계적으로 중요한 문제이다. 곰팡이독소는 곰팡이의 이차대사산물로서 인축중독증을 야기하며 경제적인 손실을 초래한다. Aflatoxin, ergot alkaloid, fumonisin, ochratoxin, tremorgenic toxin, trichothecene 및 zearalenone 등이 식품과 사료에서 흘러 발생하는 곰팡이독소이다. 어떤 곰팡이는 하나 이상의 곰팡이독소를 생산하고, 또 어떤 곰팡이독소는 여러 종의 곰팡이에서 생성되기 때문에 여러 곰팡이독소가 함께 발견된다. 곰팡이독소의 발생에 영향을 끼치는 요인으로는 인위적으로 조절할 수 있는 보관과 환경적 조건도 포함된다. 기후와 같은 비본질적인 요인, 진균류의 계통 특이성 및 계통 변이와 같은 본질적인 요인 및 독소발생의 불안정성은 조절하기 어렵다. 곰팡이독소는 한 종의 동물에 있어서의 감수성과 종에 의존하며 인간에게 갖가지의 만성적 또는 급성적인 영향을 미친다. 그러나 반추동물은 곰팡이독소에 저항력을 가지고 있으며, 이는 반추동물의 위에 존재하는 미생물들이 곰팡이독소의 활성을 억제할 수 있기 때문이다. 곰팡이독소 피해의 경제적인 파급효과는 인축의 수명 단축, 축산물 생산감소, 오염된 식량과 사료의 처리 및 곰팡이독소의 문제점 해결을 위한 연구비용 등을 포함한다. 곰팡이독소 피해감소를 위한 국제적인 노력이 계속 진행되고 있지만 최근에 World Trade Organization이 발효되면서 동 식물이 지역간 자유로운 이동으로 곰팡이독소 피해 경감대책뿐만 아니라 피해측정이 어려워지고 있다.

Co-contamination of Aflatoxins with Ochratoxin A and Zearalenone in Thuja orientalis Semen

  • Cho, So-Yean;Kang, Shin-Jung;Jung, Joo-Hee;Jeong, Byeong-Ok;Jeong, Choon-Sik
    • Toxicological Research
    • /
    • v.25 no.3
    • /
    • pp.125-131
    • /
    • 2009
  • Korea is representative of a country that consumes herbal medicines; most of the herbal medicines circulating in South Korea have been imported from developing countries in Southeast Asia, such as China and Indonesia. Recently, domestic hygiene and safety are issues that have come to the forefront, because herbal medicines currently in circulation could possibly contain contaminants or residues. Furthermore, the appearance or discovery of harmful new species due to environmental and industrial developments is becoming a social problem. Therefore, it may be necessary to consider and investigate these matters on a continual basis. Recently, mycotoxin contaminations in such foods as cereals, nuts, and powdered red pepper have been reported. They have become a problematic issue; the possibility of contamination in herbal medicines has also been considered. Nevertheless, recognition of and research into mycotoxin contamination in herbal medicines has been scarce because herbal medicine is used in only a few nations. In this research, we identified contamination by aflatoxin which is known to be the most potent mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic mycotoxin in Thujae Semen, a herbal medicine. We also found co-contaminations involving other mycotoxins, including ochratoxin A and zeraleanone.

Combined Genotoxic Effects of Aflatoxin B1, Ochratoxin A and Zearalenone in Rat Bone Marrow and Blood Leukocytes

  • Tigran, Harutyunyan;Anna, Karapetyan;Galina, Hovhannisyan;Rouben, Aroutiounian
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
    • /
    • v.31 no.3
    • /
    • pp.189-191
    • /
    • 2013
  • Mycotoxins such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEA) are widespread contaminants of food and feedstuffs. It is very likely, that humans and animals are always exposed to mixtures of mycotoxins rather than to individual compounds. Therefore, risk assessments should consider mixture toxicity data. In the present study the combination of AFB1, OTA and ZEA was tested for genotoxicity in rat bone marrow and blood leukocytes after 15, 30 and 60 days treatment. The level of DNA damage was determined by the comet assay. The tail intensity and Olive tail moment in leukocytes and bone marrow cells were significantly higher than in controls. At the same time, the level of DNA damage in bone marrow cells was higher than in leukocytes. The data suggests that prolonged exposure to mycotoxins combination through food consumption can induce DNA damage contributing to the harmful effects in vivo.

Occurrence of Toxigenic Fusarium vorosii among Small Grain Cereals in Korea

  • Lee, Theresa;Paek, Ji-Seon;Lee, Kyung Ah;Lee, Soohyung;Choi, Jung-Hye;Ham, Hyeonheui;Hong, Sung Kee;Ryu, Jae-Gee
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
    • /
    • v.32 no.5
    • /
    • pp.407-413
    • /
    • 2016
  • Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) causes Fusarium head blight in small grain cereals. To date, four species (F. graminearum, F. asiaticum, F. boothii, and F. meridionale ) belonging to FGSC frequently occur in Korean cereals. In addition, we first reported the occurrence of additional species (F. vorosii ) within FGSC, which was isolated from barley, corn, and rice in Korea. Phylogenetic analysis of the Fusarium isolates of this group using combined multigene sequences confirmed species identification. Moreover, the macroconidia produced by these isolates were morphologically similar to those of the F. vorosii holotype. Chemical analysis indicated that the F. vorosii isolates produced various trichothecenes such as nivalenol and deoxynivalenol with their acetyl derivatives along with zearalenone. Pathogenicity tests demonstrated that all of the F. vorosii isolates examined were pathogenic on barley, corn, and rice with variation in aggressiveness. This study is the first report of F. vorosii in Korean cereals, their pathogenicity towards barley and corn, and their ability to produce trichothecenes and zearalenone.