• Title, Summary, Keyword: Zearalenone

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Analysis and Uncertainty Estimation of Zearalenone in Cereal-Based Products by LC-MS/MS (LC-MS/MS를 이용한 곡류가공품의 제랄레논 분석과 측정불확도 추정)

  • Choi, Eun Jung;Kang, Sung Tae;Jung, So Young;Shin, Jae Min;Jang, Min Su;Lee, Sang Me;Kim, Jung Hun;Chae, Young Zoo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.658-665
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    • 2012
  • A survey of zearalenone contamination was conducted on cereal-based products by using an immunoaffinity column with LC-MS/MS. The calibration curve showed good lineality, with correlation coefficients ($R^2$) of 0.999 in the concentration range from 1 to 250 ng/mL. The limits of detection and quantification were approximately $0.3{\mu}g/kg$ and $1.0{\mu}g/kg$, respectively. The recoveries in the barley tea, Misutgaru and snack ranged from 73.6-107.8%. Zearalenone was detected in 10 samples (11.2% incidence). The highest zearalenone contamination level was $29.7{\mu}g/kg$ in the Misutgaru. This survey was conducted with uncertainty of measurement. The expanded uncertainty for zearalenone was estimated to be $44.9{\pm}5.0{\mu}g/kg$ (k=2, 95% confidence level) and $128.7{\pm}7.9{\mu}g/kg$ (k=2, 95% confidence level) for barley tea, $30.7{\pm}5.8{\mu}g/kg$ (k=2, 95% confidence level) and $173.7{\pm}14.9{\mu}g/kg$ (k=2.26, 95% confidence level) for Misutgaru, and $37.2{\pm}7.4{\mu}g/kg$ (k=2.31, 95% confidence level) and $151.0{\pm}10.4{\mu}g/kg$ (k=2, 95% confidence level) snack at the level of $41.7{\mu}g/kg$ and $166.7{\mu}g/kg$, respectively.

Estrogenic Compounds Compatible with a Conditional Gene Expression System for the Phytopathogenic Fungus Fusarium graminearum

  • Lee, Jung-Kwan;Son, Ho-Kyoung;Lee, Yin-Won
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.349-353
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    • 2011
  • The ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum is an important plant pathogen responsible for Fusarium head blight in small grains and ear rot on maize. This fungus also produces the estrogenic metabolite, zearalenone (ZEA) that causes estrogenic disorders in humans and animals. Previously, we developed a conditional gene expression system for this fungus using a ZEA-inducible promoter (Pzear). In the present study, four other estrogenic compounds, including ${\beta}$-estradiol, estriol, estrone, and secoisolariciresinol, were screened as possible substitutes for ZEA in this system. Among them, ${\beta}$-estradiol was able to successfully induce the expression of a gene controlled by Pzear, while estrone was only able to partially induce its expression but the other two compounds were not effective. In combination, these results demonstrate that ${\beta}$-estradiol can replace ZEA in this conditional gene expression system, thereby eliminating the need to use the more expensive reagent, ZEA, and facilitating high-throughput functional analyses of F. graminearum in future studies.

Screening of the liver, serum, and urine of piglets fed zearalenone using a NMR-based metabolomic approach

  • Jeong, Jin Young;Kim, Min Seok;Jung, Hyun Jung;Kim, Min Ji;Lee, Hyun Jeong;Lee, Sung Dae
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.447-454
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    • 2018
  • Zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium in food and feed, causes serious damage to the health of humans and livestock. Therefore, we compared the metabolomic profiles in the liver, serum, and urine of piglets fed a ZEN-contaminated diet using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ($^1H-NMR$) spectroscopy. The spectra from the three different samples, treated with ZEN concentrations of 0.8 mg/kg for 4 weeks, were aligned and identified using MATLAB. The aligned data were subjected to discriminating analysis using multivariate statistical analysis and a web server for metabolite set enrichment analysis. The ZEN-exposed groups were almost separated in the three different samples. Metabolic analysis showed that 28, 29, and 20 metabolites were profiled in the liver, serum, and urine, respectively. The discriminating analysis showed that the alanine, arginine, choline, and glucose concentrations were increased in the liver. Phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolites showed high concentrations in serum, whereas valine showed a low concentration. In addition, the formate levels were increased in the ZEN-treated urine. For the integrated analysis, glucose, lactate, taurine, glycine, alanine, glutamate, glutamine, and creatine from orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were potential compounds for the discriminating analysis. In conclusion, our findings suggest that potential biomarker compounds can provide a better understanding on how ZEN contaminated feed in swine affects the liver, serum, and urine.

Protective effects of saffron against zearalenone-induced alterations in reproductive hormones in female mice (Mus musculus)

  • Ahmad, Bashir;Shrivastava, Vinoy K.;Saleh, Ramadan;Henkel, Ralf;Agarwal, Ashok
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.163-169
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    • 2018
  • Objective: Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin with potent estrogenic effects. Saffron is an herbal product that has antioxidant activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective role of saffron against reproductive toxicity induced by ZEA in female mice. Methods: Ninety 8-week-old female mice were randomly allocated into three treatment groups. The first group received an intraperitoneal injection of ZEA (2.5 mg/kg) on alternate days. The second group received ZEA (2.5 mg/kg) on alternate days plus oral saffron daily (50 mg/kg). The third group was treated with a vehicle of 1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on alternate days, as a control. Ten mice were euthanized from each group at 30, 60, and 90 days of treatment. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol ($E_2$), and progesterone (P) were assessed. The uterus and ovaries were examined for changes in size or morphology. Results: Serum levels of LH, FSH, $E_2$, and P in the female mice treated with ZEA plus saffron were significantly higher than in those treated with ZEA alone, and were not significantly different from those treated with 1% DMSO. The female mice treated with ZEA alone showed a reduction in size of the uterus and abnormal architecture of the ovaries. Conclusion: The administration of saffron to female mice resulted in a significant reduction in ZEA-induced alterations in reproductive hormone levels, the size of the uterus, and the morphology of the ovaries.

Contamination of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Corn Samples Imported from China (중국으로부터 수입한 옥수수에서의 Fusarium 진균독소오염)

  • Kang, Hyo-Jung;Kim, Jin-Cheol;Seo, Jeong-Ah;Lee, Yin-Won;Son, Dong-Hwa
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.385-391
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    • 1994
  • The occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins was surveyed in 68 corn samples imported from China. Four 8-ketotrichothecenes including deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), and nivalenol (NIV) were detected in corn. In addition, the corn samples were contaminated with zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisin $B_1$, $(FB_1)$, fumonisin $B_2$, and fumonisin $B_3$. DON, 15-ADON, 3-ADON, ZEA, and $FB_1$ were major contaminants in corn, with mean levels of 277, 34, 37, 39, and 123 ng/g, respectively.

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Possible Negative Effect of Pigmentation on Biosynthesis of Polyketide Mycotoxin Zearalenone in Gibberella zeae

  • Jung Sun-Yo;Kim Jung-Eun;Yun Sung-Hwan;Lee Yin-Won
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.1392-1398
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    • 2006
  • We investigated a possible coordination between the biosyntheses of two polyketides in the cereal head blight fungus Gibberella zeae, zearalenone (ZEA) and aurofusarin (AUR), which are catalyzed by the polyketide synthases (PKS) PKS4/PKS13 and PKS12, respectively. To determine if the production of one polyketide influences that of the other, we used four different transgenic strains of G zeae; three were deficient for either ZEA or AUR or both, and one was an AUR-overproducing strain. The mycelia of both the wild-type and ${\Delta}PKS4$ strain deficient for ZEA produced AUR normally, whereas the mycelia of both the ${\Delta}PKS12$ and ${\Delta}PKS4::{\Delta}PKS12$ strain showed no AUR accumulation. All the examined deletion strains caused necrotic spots on the surface of com kernels and were found to produce the nonpolyketide mycotoxins trichothecenes to the same amount as the wild-type strain. In contrast, the AUR-deficient ${\Delta}PKS12$ strains produced greater quantities of ZEA and its derivatives than the wild-type progenitor on both a rice substrate and a liquid medium; the AUR-overproducing strain did not produce ZEA on either medium. Furthermore, the expression of both PKS4 and PKS13 was induced earlier in the ${\Delta}PKS12$ strains than in the wild-type strain, and there was no difference in the transcription of PKS12 between the two strains. Therefore, these results indicate that the ZEA biosynthetic pathway is negatively regulated by the accumulation of another polyketide (AUR) in G zeae.

Effect of Atrazine, Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Zearalenone on IFNγ, TNFα, and IL-5 mRNA Expression in Jurkat Cells

  • Lee, Sung-Woo;Son, Hwa-Young;Yoon, Won-Kee;Jung, Ju-Young;Park, Bae-Keun;Cho, Eun-Sang;Park, Sang-Joon;Kim, Tae-Hwan;Ryu, Si-Yun
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.286-293
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    • 2010
  • Cytokine production is a sensitive indicator for monitoring perturbations of the immune system by xenobiotics in animals and humans. In the present study, we evaluated the changes in $IFN{\gamma}$, IL-5 and $TNF{\alpha}$ mRNA expression after atrazine (ATZ), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) or zearalenone (ZEA) exposure in Jurkat cells. The IC50 (concentration for a 50% inhibition of cell proliferation) of PFOA and ZEA after 3 days culture were $226.6\;{\mu}M$ and $52.6\;{\mu}M$, respectively. The effects of ATZ on cytokine expression followed in increasing order of $IFN{\gamma}$>IL-5>$TNF{\alpha}$ at $3\;{\mu}M$ and at the lower concentrations the degree of effects on three cytokines were less clear between the cytokines when compared to control level. PFOA had marked increasing effect in order of $IFN{\gamma}$>$TNF{\alpha}$>IL-5 mRNA expression at IC50, and these patterns were continued at the lower concentrations, IC50/2 and IC50/4. ZEA caused the overexpression of cytokine mRNAs in order of IL-5>$IFN{\gamma}$>$TNF{\alpha}$ at both IC50 and IC50/2, and at IC50/4 the overexpression order was IL-5>$TNF{\alpha}$. On other hand, $IFN{\gamma}$ was less distinct compared to the control. These data indicate that ATZ, PFOA and ZEA caused the overtranscription of $IFN{\gamma}$, IL-5 and $TNF{\alpha}$ mRNA, and the overproduction of these cytokines may eventually lead to immune disorders.

One-Step Simultaneous Immunochromatographic Strip Test for Multianalysis of Ochratoxin A and Zearalenone

  • Shim, Won-Bo;Dzantiev, Boris B.;Eremin, Sergei A.;Chung, Duck-Hwa
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.83-92
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    • 2009
  • Individual immunochromatographic assays (ICG) for ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEA) were optimized and used in the development of a one-step simultaneous immunochromatographic assay (OS-ICG) for the rapid multianalysis of two mycotoxins in corn samples. The nitrocellulose membrane of the OS-ICG was treated with OTA-bovine serum albumin (BSA), ZEA-ovalbumin (OVA), and anti-mouse IgG in the OTA test, ZEA test, and control zones, respectively. Monoclonal antibody-gold conjugates (OTA3 MAb-gold and ZEA2C5 MAb-gold) were sprayed onto the conjugate pad. The visual detection limits were 2.5 and 5 ng/ml for OTA and ZEA, respectively, and the results were obtained within 15 min after starting the analysis. An efficient, simple, and rapid extraction method using 30% MeOH/PBS was established and validated by analyzing the corn samples spiked with OTA/ZEA mixtures (0/0, 5/10, 10/20, and $20/30\;{\mu}g/kg$). The cut-off values of the OS-ICG for the spiked corn were 5 and $10\;{\mu}g/kg$ for OTA and ZEA, respectively. Natural corn samples were analyzed by OS-ICG, direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DC-ELISA), and HPLC. Results of the OS-ICG were in good agreement with those obtained by DC-ELISA and HPLC. The developed OS-ICG offers a rapid, easy-to-use, and portable analytical system and can be used as a convenient qualitative tool for the on-site simultaneous determination of OTA and ZEA in cereals, food, and agricultural products in one analytical cycle.

Zearalenone Affects Immune-Related Parameters in Lymphoid Organs and Serum of Rats Vaccinated with Porcine Parvovirus Vaccine

  • Choi, Byung-Kook;Cho, Joon-Hyung;Jeong, Sang-Hee;Shin, Hyo-Sook;Son, Seong-Wan;Yeo, Young-Keun;Kang, Hwan-Goo
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.279-288
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    • 2012
  • Rats were administered zearalenone (ZEA) via gavage at dosages of 0, 1, 5, and 30 mg/kg for 36 days. On treatment day 8, inactivated porcine parvovirus vaccine (Vac) was injected intraperitoneally. Antibody production against porcine parvovirus was then measured as a function of ZEA treatment. Compared to the vaccine alone, ZEA treatment, with or without Vac, decreased the serum level of IgG. The level of IgM decreased in all ZEA groups at day 22, but the decrease was sustained only in the medium-dose ZEA group at day 36. The level of IgA was unchanged in the Vac only and ZEA groups at day 22, but was decreased in the 5 mg/kg ZEA plus Vac group compared to the Vac only group at day 36. The level of IgE was decreased by all doses of ZEA at day 22, but was unaffected in ZEA plus Vac groups compared to the Vac only group. The levels of IL-1 in the thymus and spleen; INF-${\gamma}$ in serum; IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10 in the thymus; and IL-10 and IFN-${\gamma}$ in the spleen decreased after ZEA administration. Furthermore, the levels of IL-$1{\beta}$ in the spleen and mesenteric lymph node, IL-$1{\beta}$ in the thymus, IL-2 in the thymus and spleen, IL-6 in the thymus, IL-10 and IFN-${\gamma}$ in the spleen, and GM-CSF and TNF-${\alpha}$ in the thymus decreased after vaccination in rats exposed to ZEA. In conclusion, these results suggest that ZEA exposure via drinking water can cause an immunosuppressive effect by decreasing immunoglobulins in serum and cytokines in lymphoid organs.

Zearalenone Altered the Serum Hormones, Morphologic and Apoptotic Measurements of Genital Organs in Post-weaning Gilts

  • Chen, X.X.;Yang, C.W.;Huang, L.B.;Niu, Q.S.;Jiang, Shuzhen;Chi, F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.171-179
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    • 2015
  • The present study was aimed at investigating the adverse effects of dietary zearalenone (ZEA) (1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg diet) on serum hormones, morphologic and apoptotic measurements of genital organs in post-weaning gilts. A total of twenty gilts ($Landrace{\times}Yorkshire{\times}Duroc$) weaned at 21 d with an average body weight of $10.36{\pm}1.21kg$ were used in the study. Gilts were fed a basal diet with an addition of 0, 1.1, 2.0, or 3.2 mg/kg purified ZEA for 18 d ad libitum. Results showed that 3.2 mg/kg ZEA challenged gilts decreased (p<0.05) the serum levels of luteinizing hormone, however, serum levels of prolactin in gilts fed the diet containing 2.0 mg/kg ZEA or more were increased (p<0.05) compared to those in the control. Linear effects on all tested serum hormones except progesterone were observed as dietary ZEA levels increased (p<0.05). Gilts fed ZEA-contaminated diet showed increase (p<0.05) in genital organs size, hyperplasia of submucosal smooth muscles in the corpus uteri in a dose-dependent manner. However, the decreased numbers of follicles in the cortex and apoptotic cells in the ovarian were observed in gilts treated with ZEA in a dose-dependent manner. Degeneration and structural abnormalities of genital organs tissues were also observed in the gilts fed diet containing 1.1 mg/kg ZEA or more. Results suggested that dietary ZEA at 1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg can induce endocrine disturbance and damage genital organs in post-weaning gilts.