• Title, Summary, Keyword: Zearalenone

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A Survey of Zearalenone in Beans Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Fluorescence Detector (HPLC-FLD) and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (HPLC-FLD 및 LC-MS/MS에 의한 두류 중 제랄레논 오염실태 조사)

  • Jang, Mi-Ran;Lee, Chang-Hui;Lee, Hyo-Jeong;Kim, Ji-Yeon;Son, Sang-Hyeok;Sin, Chun-Sik;Kim, So-Hui;Kim, Dae-Byeong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.354-359
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    • 2008
  • A survey for zearalenone contamination was conducted on 27 soy bean samples, 27 red bean samples, 16 black bean samples, 19 seoritae samples, 14 seomoktae samples, for a total of 127 commercial Korean samples. Zearalenone was quantified by the immunoaffinity column clean-up method with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD), and was confirmed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS). The limits of detection and quantification were $2.0{\mu}g/kg$ and $6.0{\mu}g/kg$, respectively. The recovery in the beans ranged from 82.2 to 98.4%. According to HPLC-FLD, zearalenone was detected in 13 samples (10.2% incidence), including 1 soybean and 12 red bean samples. The zearalenone contamination levels were in the range of 8.01${\sim}38.98{\mu}g/kg$. Finally, LC-MS/MS analysis was conducted in the contaminated samples to verify the results of HPLC-FLD. The LC-MS/MS results confirmed the presence of zearalenone in all 13 samples. The contamination level was lower than that of EU, which is below $100{\mu}g/kg$ for raw grains.

The Studies on Real Condition of Mycotoxin Contamination in the Fields before Harvest and by the Storage of Rice Straw using as Roughage in Korea (국내 조사료용 볏짚의 수확 전 작물포 및 수확 후 저장에 따른 곰팡이독소 오염 실태 연구)

  • Sung, Ha Guyn
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.21-29
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    • 2013
  • The studies were conducted to investigate real condition of mycotoxin contamination in the fields before harvest and by the storages of rice straw used as roughage in Korea. It was found mycotoxin contamination before harvest of rice straw that the rice plants were detected deoxynivalenol at the initial growth, ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol at the middle growth, and deoxynivalenol and zearalenone at the harvest periods in the fields. Also, the rice plants were contaminated by various fungi such as Fusarium sp., Fusarium proliferatum, Penicillium sp., Gibberella sp., Gibberella zeae, Mucor circinelloides and Aspergillus oryzae. The levels of fungal contamination were $10^{3-4}$ cfu/g at the initial growth, and $10^{4-5}$ cfu/g at the middle growth and harvest periods. All storage types of rice straw were contaminated with zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and ochratoxins A. The samples of rice straw contaminating mycotoxins were account for 3% in bundle rice straw, and 38% in both types of square rice straw and rice round bale silage, respectively. When 105 samples of rice bale silage were analyzed for mycotoxins depending on the regional area, mycotoxin contamination was found in 46% of total samples in Korea. Regional contaminations of mycotoxins were respectively 48, 33, 40, 50 and 57% of samples in Gyeonggi, Gangwon, Chungcheng, Yeongnam and Honam area. Rice round bale silage was contaminated by three kinds of mycotoxins (zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and ochratoxinsA) in the all of area without Chungcheong area where was contaminated zearalenone and deoxynivalenol. Ochratoxins A, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone were respectively determinated with the average levels of 2.6, 413 and $338{\mu}g/kg$ in rice round bale silage for the overall area, even if it was some difference depending on each regional area. Therefore, the above results clearly show that the rice straws were exposed to the contamination by mycotoxin and mycotoxigenic fungi before harvest in the fields, and mycotoxin contamination was not dependent on the regional area or the storage types such as bundle rice straw, square rice straw and rice round bale silage.

A Study on the Safety of Mycotoxins in Grains and Commonly Consumed Foods (곡류 등 다소비 식품 중 곰팡이독소 안전성 조사 연구)

  • Kim, Jae-Kwan;Kim, Young-Sug;Lee, Chang-Hee;Seo, Mi Young;Jang, Mi Kyung;Ku, Eun-Jung;Park, Kwang-Hee;Yoon, Mi-Hye
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.470-476
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate and evaluate the safety of the grains, nut products, beans and oilseeds being sold in Gyeonggi province by analyzing mycotoxins. A multi-mycotoxins analysis method based on LC-MS/MS was validated and applied for the determination of eight mycotoxins, including aflatoxins ($B_1$, $B_2$, $G_1$ and $G_2$), fumonisins ($B_1$, $B_2$), zearalenone and ochratoxcin A in 134 samples. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) for the eight mycotoxins ranged from 0.14 to $8.25{\mu}g/kg$ and from 1.08 to $7.21{\mu}g/kg$, respectively. Recovery rates of mycotoxins were determined in the range of 61.1 to 97.5% with RSD of 1.0~14.5% (n=3). Fumonisin $B_1$, $B_2$, zearalenone, and ochratoxin A were detected in 22 samples, indicating that 27% of grains, 12.5% of beans and 11.8% of oilseeds were contaminated. Fumonisin and zearalenone were detected simultaneously in 2 adlays and 3 sorghums. Fumonisin $B_1$ and $B_2$ were detected simultaneously in most samples whereas fumonisin $B_1$ was detected in 1 adlay, 1 millet and 1 sesame sample. The average detected amount of fumonisin was $49.3{\mu}g/kg$ and $10.1{\mu}g/kg$ for grains and oilseeds, respectively. The average detected amount of zearalenone was $1.9{\mu}g/kg$ and $1.5{\mu}g/kg$ for grains and beans, respectively. In addition, the average amount of ochratoxin A was $0.08{\mu}g/kg$ for grains. The calculated exposure amounts of fumonisin, zeralenone and ochratoxin A for grains, beans and oilseeds were below the PMTDI/PTWI.

Occurrence of Toxigenic Fusarium spp. and Zearalenone in Scabby Rice Grains and Healthy Ones (붉은곰팡이 감염 벼와 건전 벼의 독성 곰팡이와 제랄레논 발생)

  • Jang, Ja Yeong;Kim, Sosoo;Jin, Hyun Suk;Baek, Seul Gi;O, Sujin;Kim, Kyutae;Kim, Jeomsoon;Lee, Theresa
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.308-312
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    • 2018
  • We analyzed rice sample with scab (collected in 2017) for fungal occurrence and found that frequency of Fusarium spp. was the highest among fungal genera. Within Fusarium, Fusarium asiaticum-nivalenol type dominated as 79%. Among mycotoxins, zearalenone was the highest toxin detected (1117 ng/g), followed by deoxynivalenol (163 ng/g), 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol (155 ng/g), nivalenol (110 ng/g). Analysis of mycotoxin levels in scabby and healthy grains (collected in 2015) revealed that both grain samples were contaminated with zearalenone. However, level difference of zearalenone between the samples was over 5 times as the scabby samples were 1400-2370 ng/g, while healthy ones were 240-430 ng/g. This result indicates that scabby grains should be removed when harvest to reduce zearalenone contamination in rice.

Occurrence of Mycotoxins and Toxigenic Fungi in Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Seeds in Andhra Pradesh, India

  • Kishore, G.Krishna;Pande, S.;Manjula, K.;Rao, J.Narayana;Thomas, D.
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.204-209
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    • 2002
  • Andhra Pradesh is one of the major groundnut growing states in India. A total of 182 groundnut samples collected at harvesting from farmers fields in five districts, namely; Anantapur, Chittoor, Cuddapah, Kurnool, and Mahaboobnagar, during 1999 and 2000 rainy seasons were evaluated for the presence of mycotoxins (both aflatoxins and zearalenone) and toxigenic fungi. In samples collected from each district, average seed infection by Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium spp. was 11.9-18.3% and 5.6-12.8% in 1999, and 9.5-14.1% and 9.4-11.9% in 2000, respectively. Among the samples collected, 20.3% and 16.5% were contaminated with aflatoxin in 1999 and 2000, respectively, and in 11.4% and 8.7% of the seed samples collected in two seasons, the aflatoxin content was >30 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg. An alarming aflatoxin content of 851.9$\mu\textrm{g}$/kg was found in samples collected from Anantapur district during the rainy season in 1999. Zearalenone was not detected in any of the samples collected in 1999, while 2 out of 103 samples collected in 2000 were contaminated with 35.1 and 129.4$\mu\textrm{g}$/kg. Under in vitro cultural conditions, 35.8% of the 173 A. flavus isolates collected from the groundnut samples produced aflatoxins at concentrations of 94.3-1598.6 ng/$\textrm{m}{\ell}$ and 3% of the 266 Fusarium spp. isolates produced 98.1-847.3 $\mu\textrm{g}$/g of zearalenone. The results emphasize the need for a more systematic and regular monitoring of pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination.

Effects of Red Ginseng Extract on Zearalenone Induced Spermatogenesis Impairment in Rat

  • Cho, Eun-Sang;Ryu, Si-Yun;Jung, Ju-Young;Park, Bae-Keun;Son, Hwa-Young
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.294-300
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    • 2011
  • Zearalenone (ZEA) is a phenolic resorcylic acid lactone compound produced by several species of Fusarium. ZEA has toxic effects in the testes of domestic and laboratory animals. Korean red ginseng (KRG), the steamed root of Panax ginseng Meyer, has multiple pharmacological effects such as vasorelaxation, anti-thrombosis, anti-hypertension, etc. In this study, we investigated the effects of KRG extract on testicular toxicity induced by ZEA. Rats were treated with 300 mg/kg oral doses of KRG for 4 weeks every other day. The rats were then treated with a single dose of 5 mg/kg ZEA delivered intraperitoneally, whereas control rats received only doses of the vehicle. As a result, germ cell apoptosis induced by ZEA was decreased by KRG pre-treatment. In addition, Fas and Fas-L expression was reduced in rats that received KRG pre-treatment compared to ones treated with ZEA alone. In conclusion, impaired spermatogenesis resulting from ZEA treatment was prevented by KRG through Fas-Fas L modulating.

The Protein Kinase A Pathway Regulates Zearalenone Production by Modulating Alternative ZEB2 Transcription

  • Park, Ae Ran;Fu, Minmin;Shin, Ji Young;Son, Hokyoung;Lee, Yin-Won
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.967-974
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    • 2016
  • Zearalenone (ZEA) is an estrogenic mycotoxin that is produced by several Fusarium species, including Fusarium graminearum. One of the ZEA biosynthetic genes, ZEB2, encodes two isoforms of Zeb2 by alternative transcription, forming an activator (Zeb2L-Zeb2L homooligomer) and an inhibitor (Zeb2L-Zeb2S heterodimer) that directly regulate the ZEA biosynthetic genes in F. graminearum. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) signaling regulates secondary metabolic processes in several filamentous fungi. In this study, we investigated the effects of the PKA signaling pathway on ZEA biosynthesis. Through functional analyses of PKA catalytic and regulatory subunits (CPKs and PKR), we found that the PKA pathway negatively regulates ZEA production. Genetic and biochemical evidence further demonstrated that the PKA pathway specifically represses ZEB2L transcription and also takes part in posttranscriptional regulation of ZEB2L during ZEA production. Our findings reveal the intriguing mechanism that the PKA pathway regulates secondary metabolite production by reprograming alternative transcription.

Variation in Trichothecene and Zearalenone Production by Fusarium graminearum Isolates form Corn and Barley in Korea (한국산 옥수수 및 보리로 부터 분리한 Fusarium graminearum 균주의 Trichothecene과 Zearalenone 생성변이)

  • Kim, Jin-Cheol;Park, Ae-Ran;Lee, Yin-Won;Youn, Hee-Ju;Cha, Seung-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.312-317
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    • 1993
  • A total of 110 Fusarium graminearum isolates were obtained from corn and barley samples which were collected from Kangwon province and the southern part of Korea, respectively. The isolates were tested for trichothecene and zearalenone (ZEA) production in rice culture. The incidences of trichothecene production by 51 isolates of F. graminearum from corn were 64.7% for deoxynivalenol (DON), 7.8% for 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON),33.3% for 15-acetylde-oxynivalenol (15-ADON), 21.6% for invalenol (NIV), and 13.7% for 4-acetylnivalenol (4-ANIV). DON producers frequently co-produced 15-ADON rather than 3-ADON. On the other hand, the incidences of trichothecene production by 59 isolates of F. graminearum from barley were 71.2% for NIV, 61.0% for 4-ANIV, and only one isolate produced DON and 3-ADON. The incidences and mean levels of ZEA producers were 32.0% and 71.$\mu$g/g for the isolates from corn, and 29.0% and 74 .$\mu$g/g for the isolates from barley. There was a great regional difference in trichothecene production of F. graminearum isolates between Kangwon province and the southern part of Korea.

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